Donald Argee Barksdale was an American professional basketball player. He was a pioneer as an African-American basketball player, becoming the first to be named NCAA All-American, the first to play on a United States men's Olympic basketball team, the first to play in a National Basketball Association All-Star Game, he was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. Born in Oakland, California to Argee Barksdale, a Pullman porter, Desoree Barksdale, Don attended nearby Berkeley High School, where the basketball coach cut him from the team for three straight years because he wanted no more than one black player. Barksdale honed his basketball playing skills in parks, played for two years at Marin Junior College, across San Francisco Bay, before earning a scholarship to UCLA. A 6'6" center for the Bruins, in 1947 he became the first African American to be named consensus All-American. Barksdale was a member of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity. In 1948, he was the first African-American on the U.
S. Olympic basketball team, he joined the team in Basketball at the 1948 Summer Olympics, became the first African-American to win an Olympic gold medal in basketball. Barksdale, playing with the Amateur Athletic Union's Oakland Bittners, was given an at-large berth from the independent bracket, but not without heavy lobbying by Fred Maggiora, a member of the Olympic Basketball Committee and a politician in Oakland, adjacent to Barksdale's hometown. About eight years Maggiora told Barksdale that some committee members' responses to the idea of having a black Olympian was "Hell no, that will never happen." But Maggiora wouldn't let the committee bypass Barksdale. "This guy fought and fought", Barksdale said, "and I think the coach of the Phillips 66ers Omar Browning said,'That son of a bitch is the best basketball player in the country outside of Bob Kurland, so I don't know how we can turn him down.' So they picked me, but Maggiora said he went through holy hell for it – closed-door meetings and begging."
The 1948 Olympic team had five Kentucky Wildcats basketball players who had just won that school's first national championship in the 1948 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament. The rest of the Olympic team, consisting of AAU Champion Phillips 66ers and Kentucky team members scrimmaged on Stoll Field the home of the Kentucky football team, in front of 14,000 spectators, the largest crowd to watch basketball in Kentucky at that time. Barksdale became the first African-American to play against Kentucky in Lexington, he could not stay at the hotel with the rest of the team, but instead stayed with a black host family. Adolph Rupp, the legendary Kentucky coach, was assistant coach on the 1948 team under Omar Browning. " turned out to be my closest friend," Barksdale said. "We went to London and won all 12 games and got the gold medal." But he had to brush off indignities just about every step of the way... Coach Rupp told Barksdale, "Son, I wish things weren't like that, but there's nothing you or I can do about it."
Barksdale agreed. He lived by a simple philosophy, he wasn't interested in protest. He had faced prejudice before, he knew that he would face it again. After college, he played for the Oakland AAU team. While playing professional basketball, he started a career in radio broadcasting. In 1948, he became the first black radio disc jockey in the San Francisco Bay area, he worked in television and owned a beer distributorship. He became the first African-American beer distributor and the first African-American television host in the Bay area with a show called Sepia Review on KRON-TV. In 1951, he signed a lucrative contract with the Baltimore Bullets and entered the NBA as a 28-year-old rookie, he would be one of the first African-Americans to play in the NBA after Nathaniel Clifton, Chuck Cooper, Earl Lloyd and Hank DeZonie had joined the league in 1950. While with the Bullets, he became the first African-American to appear in an NBA All-Star Game, in 1953. Shortly afterward, he was traded to the Boston Celtics.
Two years his playing career was cut short by ankle injuries. After his basketball career ended he returned to radio, started his own recording label and opened two nightclubs in Oakland. In 1983 he launched the Save High School Sports Foundation, credited with helping to save Oakland school athletic programs from collapse, he succumbed to throat cancer at the age of 69 on March 1993 in Oakland, California. He was survived by his sons Derek. A documentary on Barksdale's life, Bounce: The Don Barksdale Story, was released in 2007; the documentary was produced by Doug Harris for Athletes United for Peace, a Berkeley-based youth sports and media organization. For his significant contributions to broadcasting in the San Francisco Bay Area, Don Barksdale was inducted into the Bay Area Radio Hall of Fame in 2007, his sister, Pam Barksdale-Gore, accepted the posthumous honor on his behalf. On February 24, 2012, Barksdale was announced as a member of the 2012 induction class of the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame.
He was directly elected by the Hall's Early African-American Pioneers committee, formally entered the Hall as a contributor on September 7. List of African American firsts Bay Area Sports Hall of Fame NBA Profile
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves; the offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, otherwise they turn over the football to the defense. Points are scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal; the team with the most points at the end of a game wins. American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football; the first match of American football was played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams and Princeton, under rules based on the association football rules of the time.
During the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. A set of rule changes drawn up from 1880 onward by Walter Camp, the "Father of American Football", established the snap, the line of scrimmage, eleven-player teams, the concept of downs; the sport is related to Canadian football, which evolved parallel and contemporary to the American game, most of the features that distinguish American football from rugby and soccer are present in Canadian football. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States; the most popular forms of the game are professional and college football, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually all of them men, with a few exceptions. The National Football League, the most popular American football league, has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world.
In the United States, American Football is called "football". The terms "gridiron" or "American football" are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia. American football evolved from the sports of rugby football. Rugby football, like American football, is a sport where two competing teams vie for control of a ball, which can be kicked through a set of goalposts or run into the opponent's goal area to score points. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6, 1869, between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams; the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, with the ultimate goal being to advance it into the opponent's goal. Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for several years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school.
Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19, 1873 to create a standard set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified. Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. After playing McGill University using both Canadian and American rules, the Harvard players preferred the Canadian style having only 11 men on the field, running the ball without having to be chased by an opponent, the forward pass and using an oblong instead of a round ball. An 1875 Harvard–Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes; these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to "selling refrigerators to Eskimos." Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to intercollegiate play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879.
Yale player Walter Camp, now regarded as the "Father of American Football", secured rule changes in 1880 that reduced the size of each team from 15 to 11 players and instituted the snap to replace the chaotic and inconsistent scrum. The introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt. However, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records; each team held the ball. This "block game" proved unpopular with the spectators and fans of both teams. A rule change was necessary to prevent this strategy from taking hold, a reversion to the scrum was considered. However, Camp proposed a rule in 1882 that limited each team to three downs, or tackles, to adva
Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame
The Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame is an American history museum and hall of fame, located at 1000 Hall of Fame Avenue in Springfield, Massachusetts. It serves as the sport's most complete library, in addition to promoting and preserving the history of basketball. Dedicated to Canadian-American physician and inventor of the sport James Naismith, it was opened and inducted its first class in 1959; as of the induction of the Class of 2018, the Hall has formally inducted 389 individuals. The Naismith Hall of Fame was established in 1959 by Lee Williams, a former athletic director at Colby College. In the 1960s, the Basketball Hall of Fame struggled to raise enough money for the construction of its first facility. However, during the following half-decade the necessary amount was raised, the building opened on Feb. 17, 1968, less than one month after the National Basketball Association played its 18th All-Star Game. The Basketball Hall of Fame's Board named four inductees in its first year.
In addition to honoring those who contributed to basketball, the Hall of Fame sought to make contributions of its own. In 1979, the Hall of Fame sponsored a pre-season college basketball exhibition; this Tip-Off Classic has been the start to the college basketball season since, although it does not always take place in Springfield, Massachusetts it returns every few years. In the 17 years that the original Basketball Hall of Fame operated at Springfield College, it drew more than 630,000 visitors; the popularity of the Basketball Hall of Fame necessitated that a new facility be constructed, in 1985, an $11 million facility was built beside the scenic Connecticut River in Springfield. As the new hall opened, it recognized women for the first time, with inductees such as Senda Berenson Abbott, who first introduced basketball to women at Smith College. During the years following its construction, the Basketball Hall of Fame's second facility drew far more visitors than anticipated, due in large part to the increasing popularity of the game but to the scenic location beside the river and the second Hall's interesting modern architecture.
In 2002, the Basketball Hall of Fame moved again—albeit 100 yards south along Springfield's riverfront—into a $47 million facility designed by renowned architects Gwathmey Siegel & Associates. The building's architecture features a metallic silver, basketball-shaped sphere flanked by two symmetrical rhombuses; the dome is illuminated at night and features 80,000 square foot, including numerous restaurants and an extensive gift shop. The second Basketball Hall of Fame was not torn down but rather converted into an LA Fitness health clubs; the current Basketball Hall of Fame features Center Court, a full-sized basketball court on which visitors can play. Inside the building there are a game gallery, many interactive exhibits, several theaters, an honor ring of inductees. A large theater for ceremonies seats up to 300; the honorees inducted in 2002 included the Harlem Globetrotters and Magic Johnson, a five-time NBA champion, three-time NBA finals MVP and Olympic gold medalist. As of 2011, the current Basketball Hall of Fame has exceeded attendance expectations, with basketball fans traveling to the Hall of Fame from all over the world.
Despite the new facility's success, a logistical problem remains for the Basketball Hall of Fame and the City of Springfield. The two entities are separated by the Interstate 91 elevated highway—one of the eastern United States' busiest highways—which inhibits foot-traffic and other interaction between the Basketball Hall of Fame and Springfield's lively Metro Center. Both the Hall and Springfield have made public statements about cooperating further so as to facilitate more business and recreational growth for both. Urban planners at universities such as UMass Amherst have called for the I-91 to be moved, or to be re-configured so as to be pedestrian-friendly to Hall of Fame visitors. In 2010, the Urban Land Institute announced a plan to make the walk between Springfield's Metro Center and the Hall of Fame easier. In contrast to the Pro Football and the National Baseball Halls of Fame, Springfield honors international and American professionals, as well as American and international amateurs, making it arguably the most comprehensive Hall of Fame among major sports.
From 2011 to 2015 seven committees were, as of 2016 six committees are employed to both screen and elect candidates. Four of the committees screen prospective candidates: North American Screening Committee Women's Screening Committee International Screening Committee Veterans Screening Committee, with "Veterans" defined as individuals whose careers ended at least 35 years before they are considered for election. Since 2011, the Veterans and International Committees vote to directly induct one candidate for each induction class. Three committees were formed in 2011 to directly elect one candidate for each induction class: American Basketball Association Committee - This committee was permanently disbanded in 2015 because it had fulfilled its purpose over the previous five years. Contributor Direct Election Committee Other committees may choose to elect contributors. For example, the 2014 class included two contributors. Early African-American Pioneers of the Game CommitteeIndividuals who receive at least seven votes from the North American Screening Committee or five votes from one of the other screening committees in a given year are eligible to advance to an Honors Committee, composed of 12 members plus rotating groups of 12 specialists (one group for
1974 NBA draft
The 1974 NBA draft was the 28th annual draft of the National Basketball Association. The draft was held on May 1974, before the 1974 -- 75 season. In this draft, 18 NBA teams took turns selecting amateur U. S. college basketball players and other eligible players, including international players. The first two picks in the draft belonged to the teams that finished last in each conference, with the order determined by a coin flip; the Portland Trail Blazers won the coin flip and were awarded the first overall pick, while the Philadelphia 76ers were awarded the second pick. The remaining first-round picks and the subsequent rounds were assigned to teams in reverse order of their win–loss record in the previous season. Prior to the draft, the Capital Bullets were renamed the Washington Bullets. An expansion franchise, the New Orleans Jazz, took part in the NBA Draft for the first time and were assigned the tenth pick in each round. A player who had finished his four-year college eligibility was eligible for selection.
If a player left college early, he would not be eligible for selection until his college class graduated. Before the draft, 20 college underclassmen were declared eligible for selection under the "hardship" rule; these players had applied and gave evidence of financial hardship to the league, which granted them the right to start earning their living by starting their professional careers earlier. The draft consisted of 10 rounds comprising the selection of 178 players. Bill Walton from the University of California, Los Angeles was selected first overall by the Portland Trail Blazers. Jamaal Wilkes from the University of California, Los Angeles, who went on to win the Rookie of the Year Award in his first season, was selected 11th by the Golden State Warriors. Walton, 40th pick George Gervin have been inducted to the Basketball Hall of Fame. Both Walton and Gervin were named to the list of the 50 Greatest Players in NBA History announced at the league's 50th anniversary in 1996. Walton won the NBA championship, along with the Finals Most Valuable Player Award, with the Blazers in 1977.
In his career, he won another NBA title with the Boston Celtics in 1986. During that season, he won the Sixth Man of the Year Award. Walton's other achievements include one Most Valuable Player Award in 1978, two All-NBA Team selections and five All-Star Game selections. Gervin had left college in 1972 to play professionally in the American Basketball Association with the Virginia Squires, he joined the NBA in 1976 after both leagues merged. His achievements include two All-ABA Team selections, seven All-NBA Team selections, three ABA All-Star Game selections and nine NBA All-Star Game selections. Jamaal Wilkes won four NBA championships, one with the Golden State Warriors and three with the Los Angeles Lakers, was selected to three All-Star Games. Maurice Lucas, the 14th pick, was selected to four All-Star Games, he won the NBA championship in 1977 with the Trail Blazers. Truck Robinson, the 22nd pick, Phil Smith, the 29th pick, were selected to one All-NBA Team and two All-Star Games each. Bobby Jones, the 5th pick opted to play in the ABA.
He played two seasons in the ABA before joined the NBA with the Denver Nuggets when both leagues merged. His achievements include an NBA championship with the 76ers in 1983, one All-ABA Team selection, one ABA All-Star Game selection, four NBA All-Star Game selections, nine NBA All-Defensive Team selections and one Sixth Man of The Year Award. Five other players from this draft, 6th pick Scott Wedman, 8th pick Campy Russell, 12th pick Brian Winters, 21st pick Billy Knight and 25th pick John Drew, were selected to at least one All-Star Game. Two players drafted went on to have coaching careers in the NBA: Brian Winters and 45th pick Kim Hughes; the following list includes other draft picks. A 1 2 On the draft-day, the Seattle SuperSonics acquired a first-round pick from the Cleveland Cavaliers in exchange for Dick Snyder and a first-round pick; the Sonics used the pick to draft Tommy Burleson. The Cavaliers used the pick to draft Campy Russell. B On May 20, 1974, the Atlanta Hawks acquired Bob Kauffman, Dean Meminger, the tenth pick, a 1975 first-round pick, 1975 and 1976 second-round picks, a 1980 third-round pick from the New Orleans Jazz in exchange for Pete Maravich.
The Hawks used the pick to draft Mike Sojourner. C On the draft-day, the Chicago Bulls acquired a first-round pick from the New York Knicks in exchange for Howard Porter and a 1975 second-round pick; the Bulls used the pick to draft Maurice Lucas. D On August 31, 1972, the Los Angeles Lakers acquired a second-round pick from the Cleveland Cavaliers in exchange for Jim Cleamons; the Lakers used the pick to draft Billy Knight. E On August 23, 1973, the Washington Bullets acquired a second-round pick from the Los Angeles Lakers in exchange for Stan Love; the Lakers acquired the pick on September 19, 1972, from the Phoenix Suns in exchange for Paul Stovall. The Bullets used the pick to draft Truck Robinson. F On September 10, 1973, the Chicago Bulls acquired John Hummer and a second-round pick from the Buffalo Braves in exchange for Gar Heard, Kevin Kunnert and a 1975 second-round pick; the Bulls used the pick to draft Leon Benbow. G On October 30, 1973, the Phoenix Suns acquired Keith Erickson and a second-round pick from the Los Angeles Lakers in exchange for Connie Hawkins.
The Suns used the pick to draft Fred Saunders. H On October 14, 1973, the Portland Trail Blazers acquired a second-round pick from the Chicago Bulls in exchange for Rick Adelman; the Blazers used the pick to draft Phil Lumpkin. I On September 11, 1972, the Portland Trail Blazers acquired a second-round
A freshman, first year, or frosh, is a person in the first year at an educational institution a secondary or post-secondary school. In much of the Arab world, a first-year is called a "Mubtadi", Arabic for "begin". In Brazil, students that pass the vestibulares and begin studying in a college or university are called "calouros" or more informally "bixos", an alternate spelling of "bicho", which means "animal". Calouros are subject to hazing, known as "trote" there; the first known hazing episode in Brazil happened 1831 at the Law School of Olinda and resulted in the death of a student. In 1999, a Chinese Brazilian calouro of the University of São Paulo Medicine School named Edison Tsung Chi Hsueh was found dead at the institution's swimming pool. In Scotland, the first year of compulsory education is Primary 1; the first year of secondary school is known as S1 but one can use first year. At the four ancient Scottish universities the traditional names for the four years at university are Bejan, Semi and Magistrand, though all Scottish universities will have a "freshers' week" and the term is as used with more traditional terms.
Freshman is in use as a US English idiomatic term to describe a beginner or novice, someone, naive, a first effort, instance, or a student in the first year of study. New members of Congress in their first term are referred to as freshmen senators or freshmen congressmen or congresswomen, no matter how experienced they were in previous government positions. High school first year students are exclusively referred to as freshmen, or in some cases by their grade year, 9th graders. Second year students are sophomores, or 10th graders juniors or 11th graders, seniors or 12th graders. At college or university, freshman denotes students in their first year of study; the grade designations of high school are not used, but the terms sophomore and senior are kept at most schools. Some colleges, including women's colleges, do not use the term freshman but use first year, instead. Beyond the fourth year, students are classified as fifth year, sixth year, etc; some institutions use the term freshman for specific reporting purposes.
Freshman fifteen Sophomore Junior Senior
Texas Longhorns men's basketball
The Texas Longhorns men's basketball team represents The University of Texas at Austin in NCAA Division I intercollegiate men's basketball competition. The Longhorns compete in the Big 12 Conference; the University of Texas began varsity intercollegiate competition in men's basketball in 1906. The Longhorns rank 18th in total victories among all NCAA Division I college basketball programs and 25th in all-time win percentage among programs with at least 60 years in Division I, with an all-time win-loss record of 1791–1088. Among Big 12 Conference men's basketball programs, Texas is second only to Kansas in both all-time wins and all-time win percentage; the Longhorns have won 27 total conference championships in men's basketball and have made 34 total appearances in the NCAA Tournament, reaching the NCAA Final Four three times and the NCAA Regional Finals seven times. As of the end of the 2017–18 season, Texas ranks sixth among all Division I men's basketball programs for total NCAA Tournament games won without having won the national championship, trailing Kansas State, Notre Dame, Purdue and Oklahoma.
The Texas basketball program experienced substantial success during the early decades of its existence, but its success in the modern era is of recent vintage. After two losing seasons during the program's first five years, Texas suffered only one losing season from 1912 to 1950, achieving a winning percentage of.703 during that span, reaching two Final Fours and one Elite Eight during the first decade of the NCAA Tournament, receiving retroactive recognition as the 1933 national champion from the Premo-Porretta Power Poll. Texas achieved some measures of national recognition during the tenures of head coaches Abe Lemons and Tom Penders, but the program rose to its highest level of prominence under the direction of former head coach Rick Barnes. Barnes guided Texas to 16 NCAA Tournament appearances in his 17 seasons with the program, including a school-record fourteen consecutive appearances, as well as fifteen 20-win seasons overall and a school-best thirteen consecutive 20-win seasons. Since 1977, the team has played its home games in the Frank Erwin Special Events Center, where it has compiled a record of 507–126 as of January 7, 2019.
The team is led by fourth-year head coach Shaka Smart. The Texas men's basketball program began in 1906 under the direction of Scotland native Magnus Mainland, a graduate engineering student and lineman for the Texas football team who organiz