Hot Springs, Arkansas
Hot Springs is a city in the state of Arkansas and the county seat of Garland County. The city is located in the Ouachita Mountains among the U. S. Interior Highlands, is set among several natural hot springs for which the city is named; as of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 35,193. In 2017 the estimated population was 36,915; the center of Hot Springs is the oldest federal reserve in the United States, today preserved as Hot Springs National Park. The hot spring water has been popularly believed for centuries to possess medicinal properties, was a subject of legend among several Native American tribes. Following federal protection in 1832, the city developed into a successful spa town. Incorporated January 10, 1851, the city has been home to Major League Baseball spring training, illegal gambling and gangsters such as Al Capone, horse racing at Oaklawn Park, the Army and Navy Hospital, 42nd President Bill Clinton. One of the largest Pentecostal denominations in the United States, the Assemblies of God, traces its beginnings to Hot Springs.
Today, much of Hot Springs's history is preserved by various government entities. Hot Springs National Park is maintained by the National Park Service, including Bathhouse Row, which preserves the eight historic bathhouse buildings and gardens along Central Avenue. Downtown Hot Springs is preserved as the Central Avenue Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the city contains dozens of historic hotels and motor courts, built during the Great Depression in the Art Deco style. Due to the popularity of the thermal waters, Hot Springs benefited from rapid growth during a period when many cities saw a sharp decline in building; as a result, Hot Springs's architecture is a key part of the city's blend of cultures, including a reputation as a tourist town and a Southern city. A destination for the arts, Hot Springs features the Hot Springs Music Festival, Hot Springs Documentary Film Festival, the Valley of the Vapors Independent Music Festival annually. Members of many Native American tribes had been gathering in the valley for untold numbers of years to enjoy the healing properties of the thermal springs.
In 1673, Father Marquette and Jolliet claimed it for France. The 1763 Treaty of Paris ceded the land to Spain. In December 1804, Dr. George Hunter and William Dunbar made an expedition to the springs, finding a lone log cabin and a few rudimentary shelters used by people visiting the springs for their healing properties. In 1807, a man named Prudhomme became the first settler of modern Hot Springs, he was soon joined by John Perciful and Isaac Cates. On August 24, 1818, the Quapaw Indians ceded the land around the hot springs to the United States in a treaty. After Arkansas became its own territory in 1819, the Arkansas Territorial Legislature requested in 1820 that the springs and adjoining mountains be set aside as a federal reservation. Twelve years in 1832, the Hot Springs Reservation was created by the United States Congress, granting federal protection of the thermal waters; the reservation was renamed Hot Springs National Park in 1921. The outbreak of the American Civil War left Hot Springs with a declining bathing population.
After the Confederate forces suffered defeat in the Battle of Pea Ridge in March 1862, the Union troops advanced toward the Confederate city of Little Rock. Confederate Governor Henry M. Rector moved his state records to Hot Springs. Union forces did not attack Little Rock, the government returned to the capital city on July 14, 1862. Many residents of Hot Springs fled to Texas or Louisiana and remained there until the end of the war. In September 1863, Union forces occupied Little Rock. During this period, Hot Springs became the prey of guerrilla bands loosely associated with either Union or Confederate forces, they pillaged and burned the near-deserted town, leaving only a few buildings standing at the end of the Civil War. After the Civil War, an extensive rebuilding of bathhouses and hotels took place at Hot Springs; the year-round population soared to 1,200 inhabitants by 1870. By 1873 six bathhouses and 24 hotels and boardinghouses stood near the springs. In 1874, Joseph Reynolds announced his decision to construct a narrow-gauge railroad from Malvern to Hot Springs.
Samuel W. Fordyce and two other entrepreneurs financed the construction of the first luxury hotel in the area, the first Arlington Hotel, which opened in 1875. During the Reconstruction Era, several conflicting land claims reached the U. S. Congress and resulted in an April 24, 1876, Supreme Court ruling that the land title of Hot Springs belonged to the federal government. Protests ensued. To deal with the situation, Congress formed the Hot Springs Commission to lay out streets in the town of Hot Springs, deal with land claims, define property lines, condemn buildings illegally on the permanent reservation and define a process for claimants to purchase land; the commission surveyed and set aside 264.93 acres encompassing the hot springs and Hot Springs Mountain to be a permanent government reservation. Another 1,200 acres became the Hot Springs townsite, with 700 acres awarded to claimants; the townsite consisted of 50 miles of streets and alleys. The remaining portion of the original four sections of government land consisted of hills and mountains which were unoccupied, Congress acted on the commission's recommendation in June 1880 by adding those lands to the permanent reservation.
Hot Springs has a rich baseball history. During the
Louisiana Purchase Historic State Park
The Louisiana Purchase Historic State Park commemorates the initial point from which the lands acquired through the Louisiana Purchase were subsequently surveyed. The protected area encompasses 37.5 acres of forested wetlands, a landform, regionally in decline due to agricultural development practices that include draining such areas. In the center of the park is a 6-foot marker erected in 1926 on the survey point by the L'Anguille Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution; the site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places and designated as a National Historic Landmark. The historic state park is located at the eastern end of Arkansas Highway 362, southeast of Blackton, Arkansas, at the tripoint junction of Lee and Phillips counties, it is a 37.5-acre parcel of swamp, or forested wetlands, remarkably unchanged from the time when surveyors came here in 1815. This type of wetlands is becoming rare because of the practice of draining and clearing such land for agricultural use.
The boardwalk, 950 feet long, leads to the site of the marker, with occasional interpretive signs describing the ecology of the area and the significance of the national historic landmark. The Louisiana Purchase Survey Marker is about 4.5 feet wide at the base. It stands in about 1 foot of swamp water; the inscription reads: "This stone marks the base established November 10, 1815, from which the lands of the Louisiana Purchase were surveyed by United States engineers. The first survey from this point was made to satisfy the claims of the soldiers of the War of 1812 with land bounties". On April 30, 1803, negotiators for the United States and the First French Empire, signed the Louisiana Purchase agreement, by which the United States acquired 830,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi River, doubling its size. President Thomas Jefferson commissioned the Lewis and Clark Expedition, which traveled west along the Missouri and associated rivers reaching the Pacific Coast, from 1804 to 1806.
President James Monroe ordered a survey of the territory in 1815, in order to permit the orderly award of land in the territory to military veterans of the War of 1812. Prospect K. Robbins and Joseph C. Brown were commissioned to identify a starting point for the survey work in what is now eastern Arkansas; the team led by Robbins traveled north from the mouth of the Arkansas River, while that of Brown traveled west from the mouth of the St. Francis River. On October 27, 1815, Robbins' party crossed the east-west line laid down by Brown's party at this point, formally establishing the Fifth Principal Meridian; the 55 miles of land Robbins traversed is today some of the most difficult terrain in the state to negotiate. Brown's party traversed 26 miles of land alternately described as "good for farming" and containing "briers and thickets in abundance". Brown's party surveyed as far west as present-day Little Rock, while Robbins continued north to the Missouri River. Two trees near the site were blazed to mark the meeting point of the two survey lines.
Although survey work based on this point continued in subsequent years, covering most of Arkansas, Minnesota and North and South Dakota, the initial point was forgotten. It was rediscovered in 1921 by surveyors working the line between Phillips and Lee counties, who found the blazed trees; the Marianna, Arkansas chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution began a campaign to memorialize the spot, culminating in the placement of the stone marker and a dedication ceremony on October 27, 1926, the 111th anniversary of the point's establishment. One forgotten feature of the dedication ceremony was that four local landowners each gave deeds for 2 acres of land surrounding the point, which would have created an eight-acre park. Arkansas designated the area as a state park in 1961, but appropriated no funds for land purchases or development; the Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission, recognizing the swamp's natural significance, provided funds to purchase the 37.5 acres which now make up the park.
The Commission holds a conservation easement on the property to limit development. List of Arkansas state parks List of National Historic Landmarks in Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Lee County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Monroe County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Phillips County, Arkansas GovernmentOfficial websiteGeneral informationLouisiana Purchase State Park at Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture
Hempstead County, Arkansas
Hempstead County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 22,609; the county seat is Hope. Hempstead County is Arkansas's fourth county, formed on December 15, 1818, alongside Clark and Pulaski counties; the county is named for Edward Hempstead, a delegate to the U. S. Congress from the Missouri Territory, which included present-day Arkansas at the time, it is dry county. Historic Washington State Park is located in Hempstead County some nine miles northwest of Hope in the historic village of Washington, Arkansas; the state park opened in 1973 as "Old Washington Historic State Park", but the "Old" was dropped from the name in 2006. The park offers walking tours of the historic village, which contains more than a dozen historic structures from the 19th and early 20th centuries. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 741 square miles, of which 728 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Hempstead County is alternately considered as part of the greater regions of South Arkansas or Southwest Arkansas.
Pike County Nevada County Lafayette County Miller County Little River County Howard County As of the 2000 census, there were 23,587 people, 8,959 households, 6,378 families residing in the county. The population density was 32 people per square mile. There were 10,166 housing units at an average density of 14 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 63.28% White, 30.36% Black or African American, 0.42% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 4.17% from other races, 1.59% from two or more races. 8.25% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 8,959 households out of which 33.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.40% were married couples living together, 15.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.80% were non-families. 25.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.09. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.30% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 27.20% from 25 to 44, 21.70% from 45 to 64, 14.10% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,622, the median income for a family was $34,082. Males had a median income of $25,830 versus $17,383 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,103. About 16.00% of families and 20.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.20% of those under age 18 and 16.70% of those age 65 or over. Although Democratic, Hempstead County has trended Republican in the last three elections. Blevins Hope Washington Clow Spring Hill DeAnn Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications.
The townships of Hempstead County are listed below. List of lakes in Hempstead County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Hempstead County, Arkansas Hempstead County Sheriff's Office
Centennial Baptist Church
The Centennial Baptist Church is a historic church building at the corner of York and Columbia Streets in Helena, Arkansas. It is significant for its association with Elias Camp Morris, the pastor of the church from 1879 and, a driving force in the establishment of the National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. Morris served as the Convention's president from 1895 until his death, his church served functionally as the organization's headquarters; the church was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1987, was declared a National Historic Landmark in 2003. The present church building was designed by Henry James Price, a parishioner of the church, built in 1895, it is a Gothic Revival structure executed in brick, with its main facade consisting of a pair of towers flanking a large central gable. The main entrances, one in each tower, are in Gothic arched openings, the first level under the main gable consists of three bays of tripled Gothic lancet windows, separated by buttresses. A round-arch window in the gable is topped at the gable point by an oculus.
The roofline of the gable is decorated by corbelled brickwork resembling vergeboard. Elias Camp Morris assumed the pastorship of the Centennial Church in 1879 a new congregation, he rose in prominence in Baptist circles, leading the Arkansas Negro Baptist Convention and chairing the board of trustees of Arkansas Baptist College, founded in 1884. He established a publication, the Baptist Vanguard, in 1882, which became a model for other publications; the National Baptist Convention was formed in the 1886 by the merger of three African-American Baptist church organizations. This body only achieved a united focus in 1895, at a meeting in which Morris was elected its president; the Convention was the largest deliberative body of African-Americans in the nation at the time. Morris was politically active in Republican Party circles, attending national conventions as a delegate; the Centennial Baptist Church served as Morris' home base for all of his activities, grew under his leadership. It is the only building associated with his productive life, still standing.
List of National Historic Landmarks in Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Phillips County, Arkansas
Little Rock, Arkansas
Little Rock is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Arkansas. It is the county seat of Pulaski County, it was incorporated on November 7, 1831, on the south bank of the Arkansas River close to the state's geographic center. The city derives its name from a rock formation along the river, named the "Little Rock" by the French explorer Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe in the 1720s; the capital of the Arkansas Territory was moved to Little Rock from Arkansas Post in 1821. The city's population was 198,541 in 2016 according to the United States Census Bureau; the six-county Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area is ranked 78th in terms of population in the United States with 738,344 residents according to the 2017 estimate by the United States Census Bureau. Little Rock is a cultural, economic and transportation center within Arkansas and the South. Several cultural institutions are in Little Rock, such as the Arkansas Arts Center, the Arkansas Repertory Theatre, the Arkansas Symphony Orchestra, in addition to hiking and other outdoor recreational opportunities.
Little Rock's history is available through history museums, historic districts or neighborhoods like the Quapaw Quarter, historic sites such as Little Rock Central High School. The city is the headquarters of Dillard's, Windstream Communications, Stephens Inc. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Heifer International, the Clinton Foundation, the Rose Law Firm, Arkansas Blue Cross and Blue Shield. Other corporations, such as Dassault Falcon Jet, LM Wind Power, Simmons Bank, Euronet Worldwide, AT&T, Entergy have large operations in the city. State government is a large employer, with many offices downtown. Two major Interstate highways, Interstate 30 and Interstate 40, meet in Little Rock, with the Port of Little Rock serving as a shipping hub. Little Rock derives its name from a small rock formation on the south bank of the Arkansas River called the "Little Rock"; the Little Rock was used by early river traffic as a landmark and became a well-known river crossing. The Little Rock is across the river from The Big Rock, a large bluff at the edge of the river, once used as a rock quarry.
Archeological artifacts provide evidence of Native Americans inhabiting Central Arkansas for thousands of years before Europeans arrived. The early inhabitants may have been the Folsom people, Bluff Dwellers, Mississippian culture peoples who built earthwork mounds recorded in 1541 by Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto. Historical tribes of the area were the Caddo, Osage and Cherokee. Little Rock was named for a stone outcropping on the bank of the Arkansas River used by early travelers as a landmark, it was named in 1722 by French explorer and trader Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe, marked the transition from the flat Mississippi Delta region to the Ouachita Mountain foothills. Travelers referred to the area as the "Little Rock." Though there was an effort to name the city "Arkopolis" upon its founding in the 1820s, that name did appear on a few maps made by the US Geological Survey, the name Little Rock is what stuck. Little Rock is located at 34°44′10″N 92°19′52″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 116.8 square miles, of which 116.2 square miles is land and 0.6 square miles is water.
Little Rock is located on the south bank of the Arkansas River in Central Arkansas. Fourche Creek and Rock Creek run through the city, flow into the river; the western part of the city is located in the foothills of the Ouachita Mountains. Northwest of the city limits are Pinnacle Mountain and Lake Maumelle, which provides Little Rock's drinking water; the city of North Little Rock is located just across the river from Little Rock, but it is a separate city. North Little Rock was once the 8th ward of Little Rock. An Arkansas Supreme Court decision on February 6, 1904, allowed the ward to merge with the neighboring town of North Little Rock; the merged town renamed itself Argenta, but returned to its original name in October 1917. The 2017 U. S. Census population estimate for the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area was 738,344; the MSA covers the following counties: Pulaski, Grant, Lonoke and Saline. The largest cities are Little Rock, North Little Rock, Jacksonville, Sherwood, Cabot and Bryant.
Little Rock lies in the humid subtropical climate zone, with hot, humid summers and cool winters, with little snow. It has experienced temperatures as low as −12 °F, recorded on February 12, 1899, as high as 114 °F, recorded on August 3, 2011; as of the 2005–2007 American Community Survey conducted by the U. S. Census Bureau, White Americans made up 52.7% of Little Rock's population. Blacks or African Americans made up 42.1% of Little Rock's population, with 42.0% being non-Hispanic blacks. American Indians made up 0.4% of Little Rock's population while Asian Americans made up 2.1% of the city's population. Pacific Islander Americans made up less than 0.1% of the city's population. Individuals from some other race made up 1.2% of the city's population. Individuals from two or more races made up 1.4% of the city's population. In addition and Latinos made up 4.7% of Little Rock's population. As of the 2010 census, there were 193,524 people, 82,018 households, 47,799 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,576.0 people p
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
Parkin Archeological State Park
Parkin Archeological State Park known as Parkin Indian Mound, is an archeological site and state park in Parkin, Cross County, Arkansas. Around 1350–1650 CE an aboriginal palisaded village existed at the site, at the confluence of the St. Francis and Tyronza rivers. Artifacts from this site are on display at the site museum; the Parkin Site is the type site for the Parkin phase, an expression of the Mississippian culture from the Late Mississippian period. Many archeologists believe it to be part of the province of Casqui, documented as visited by Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto in 1542. Archeological artifacts from the village of the Parkin people are dated to 1400–1650 CE; the Parkin site was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1964 for its significance as a type site of the Parkin Phase. In 1966, the Parkin Indian Mound was listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Parkin Archeological State Park is located at 60 Arkansas Highway 184 North, Arkansas; the Parkin Site is the type site for an important Late Mississippian cultural component, the Parkin phase, which dates from about 1400–1700 CE.
The Parkin phase was a collection of villages along the St. Tyronza rivers; this culture is contemporary with the Caborn-Welborn culture and Menard, Tipton and the Nodena phases. It has been determined. In the early 1540s, the Spanish Hernando de Soto expedition is believed to have visited several sites in the Parkin Phase, identified as the Province of Casqui, with the Nodena Phase being identified as the province of Pacaha; the province was named by the De Soto Expedition for the chieftain Casqui, who ruled the tribe from its primary village. The De Soto chroniclers indicate that political provinces were the major political institutions of this area; the Parkin phase is a series of twenty-one villages of varying sizes along the St. Francis and Tyronza rivers, most of them 2.5 miles apart from each other. These sites include the Rose Mound, Neeleys Ferry, Barton Ranch. During the preceding periods and small villages had developed throughout the area, but by this time endemic warfare had forced the populations to consolidate into the palisaded villages.
They would leave their villages during the day to farm their fields, collect wood, hunt, but at night return to the safety of their well-defended villages. The people of the Parkin phase were isolated and protected from people of other phases to their east and southeast by swamps, which the Spanish chroniclers described as some of the worst they had crossed; the swamps acted as buffer zones between the hostile phases. As time went on, the people of the Parkin phase developed a material culture that diverged from that of the surrounding phases. Among other indicators, this distinction was characterized by changes in pottery designs and mortuary practices; the cultural changes show that the peoples of the Parkin phase were becoming isolated from their neighbors not only culturally but physically. Motifs on artifacts found at the Parkin phase sites show that the people were part of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex, an extensive religious and trade network that brought Mill Creek chert, whelk shells, other exotic goods to the Parkin phase sites.
The people of Parkin were intensely involved in maize agriculture, as well as cultivating other food crops originating in the Americas, such as beans, gourds and sunflowers. Women managed most of the cultivation and processing, including developing varieties of maize and other vegetables. After the harvest, maize was stored in large above ground cribs for consumption during the remainder of the year; the women gathered wild foodstuffs such as pecans and persimmons. The De Soto chroniclers described the area as being intensely cultivate, as the most populous they had seen in La Florida, they said there were groves of wild fruit and nut-bearing trees, implying that the Parkin phase peoples must have chosen to retain them while clearing other trees for the cultivation of maize and their other crops. The men hunted such game as whitetail deer, rabbit and mallard, as well as fishing for alligator gar, drum and mussels; the two rivers and the moat must have been a productive source of fish, as the De Soto chroniclers mentioned receiving "gifts of fish" from the residents of Casqui.
The people of Parkin were Tunican or Siouan speaking. It is known; the related group of phases present in the region may have all been Tunica peoples, with Caddoan speakers to their west and south. By the time of European contact in the 1670s and the beginning of the historic period, the area was occupied by the Quapaw, who spoke a Dhegiha Siouan language. Unsuccessful attempts have been made to connect pottery styles and words from the de Soto narratives with the Quapaw; this town was a good one well stockaded. The chief of Casqui came to the Christians when they were entering the village and they entertained him bravely. In Aquixo, Casqui, Pacaha, they saw the best villages seen up to that time, better stockaded and fortified, the people were of finer quality, excepting those of Cofitachequi; the site was a 17 acres palisaded village at the confluence of the St. Tyronza rivers. All other sites of the Parkin Phase ar