National Capital Region (Canada)
The term National Capital Region is often used to describe the Ottawa–Gatineau metropolitan area. Its component parts are within the provinces of Ontario and Quebec and this area is smaller than that of the Ottawa–Gatineau census metropolitan area, which is 6,287 km2 in size. Ottawa–Gatineau is the only CMA in the nation to fall within two provinces, Ottawa is located in the sub-region of Southern Ontario called Eastern Ontario. Gatineau is located in southwestern Quebec, although overall Ontario is west of Quebec, the boundary in this region is situated in such a way that Gatineau is north of Ottawa, and northwest of the city centre. The National Capital region is situated close to where the Canadian shield, the area has several major fault lines and small earthquakes do occur somewhat regularly, including the 2010 Central Canada earthquake that occurred in Quebec. The Gatineau Hills are the foothills of the Laurentian Mountains and located in the region and they supply great skiing and snowboarding opportunities within minutes of the city.
The National Capital Commission is a corporation that was established by the government in 1959 to oversee federal buildings. In the Supreme Court of Canada case of Munro v. National Capital Commission, in 2006, the NCC completed work on the long-discussed Confederation Boulevard, a ceremonial route linking key attractions in the NCR on both sides of the Ottawa River. The NCC reports to Parliament through Mélanie Joly, MP for Ahuntsic-Cartierville, as the NCC is normally under the purview of the Minister of Heritage and its headquarters are in the Chambers Building on Elgin Street, between Queen and Sparks Streets. The NCR has numerous attractions, including world famous festivals, national museums, famous buildings and architecture, Ottawa has some of the best examples of Gothic Revival architecture in North America. Ottawa and Gatineau have a number of national museums, the most prominent museums are the Canadian Museum of History, Canadian War Museum, Canadian Museum of Nature, Canada Science and Technology Museum, National Art Gallery, Canada Aviation Museum.
The Canada Science and Technology Museum is closed until 2017, the National Capital Region has many sports teams. The Ottawa Senators of the National Hockey League play in the City of Ottawas western suburban community of Kanata, the Ottawa Redblacks are members of the Canadian Football League. Ottawa is home to a successful Ontario Hockey League club, Gatineau is home to the 2007-2008 QMJHL champions, the Gatineau Olympiques. The Ottawa area has three universities, two of which, Carleton University and the University of Ottawa, compete in Canadian Interuniversity Sport, the Carleton Ravens are nationally ranked #1 in basketball, and the Ottawa Gee-Gees are nationally ranked in football and basketball. Algonquin College has won national championships. During the decade of the 1990-2000, Ottawa was home to very successful tech companies, including Nortel Networks, JDS Uniphase. High-tech employment had doubled in five years to reach 80,000 by 2001, with Nortel failing to meet high earnings expectations and layoffs starting in 2002, the company started to decline, a devastating shock to the tech industry in Ottawa
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, the two form the core of the Ottawa–Gatineau census metropolitan area and the National Capital Region. The 2016 census reported a population of 934,243, making it the fourth-largest city in Canada, the City of Ottawa reported that the city had an estimated population of 960,754 as of December 2015. Founded in 1826 as Bytown, and incorporated as Ottawa in 1855, the city name Ottawa was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River nearby, the name of which is derived from the Algonquin Odawa, meaning to trade. The city is the most educated in Canada, and is home to a number of post-secondary and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre, Ottawa has the highest standard of living in the nation and low unemployment. It ranked second out of 150 worldwide in the Numbeo quality of life index 2014–2015, with the draining of the Champlain Sea around ten thousand years ago the Ottawa Valley became habitable.
The area was used for wild harvesting, fishing, travel. The Ottawa river valley has archaeological sites with arrow heads, the area has three major rivers that meet, making it an important trade and travel area for thousands of years. The Algonquins called the Ottawa River Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning Great River or Grand River, Étienne Brûlé, the first European to travel up the Ottawa River, passed by Ottawa in 1610 on his way to the Great Lakes. Three years later, Samuel de Champlain wrote about the waterfalls of the area and about his encounters with the Algonquins, the early explorers and traders were followed by many missionaries. The first maps of the area used the word Ottawa to name the river, philemon Wright, a New Englander, created the first settlement in the area on 7 March 1800 on the north side of the river, across from Ottawa in Hull. He, with five other families and twenty-five labourers, set about to create a community called Wrightsville. Wright pioneered the Ottawa Valley timber trade by transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley to Quebec City, the following year, the town would soon be named after British military engineer Colonel John By who was responsible for the entire Rideau Waterway construction project.
Colonel By set up military barracks on the site of todays Parliament Hill and he laid out the streets of the town and created two distinct neighbourhoods named Upper Town west of the canal and Lower Town east of the canal. Similar to its Upper Canada and Lower Canada namesakes, historically Upper Town was predominantly English speaking and Protestant whereas Lower Town was predominantly French, bytowns population grew to 1,000 as the Rideau Canal was being completed in 1832. In 1855 Bytown was renamed Ottawa and incorporated as a city, William Pittman Lett was installed as the first city clerk guiding it through 36 years of development. On New Years Eve 1857, Queen Victoria, as a symbolic, in reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock
Central Experimental Farm
The Central Experimental Farm, commonly known as the Experimental Farm, is an agricultural facility, working farm, and research centre of the Research Branch of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. As the name indicates, this farm is located in and now surrounded by the City of Ottawa, Ontario. The 4 square kilometres farm is a National Historic Site of Canada, the CEF original intent was to perform scientific research for improvement in agricultural methods and crops. While such research is still being conducted, the atmosphere of the CEF has become an important place of recreation and education for the residents of Ottawa. Furthermore, over the several other departments and agencies have encroached onto the CEF property, such as Natural Resources Canada, National Defence. The CEF is bordered by the Rideau Canal to the east, Prince of Wales Drive to the South-East, Baseline Road to the south, and Merivale and Fisher Roads to the west, and Carling Avenue to the north. The Victorian era was a time of great interest in the advancement of sciences and many nations built zoos, botanical gardens.
The CEF started out with 188 hectares, chosen because of their proximity to Parliament Hill, over the next few years the site was prepared by improving the land, building the facilities, and planting the Arboretum and forest belt. Early research projects focused only on entomology and horticulture, Charles D. Sutherland, Joseph Charles Gustave Brault Thomas Seaton Scott and Thomas Fuller adopted the Neo-Gothic style. David Ewart embraced the Scottish baronial style, in 1887-1888, William John Beckett, a contractor, served as foreman during the building of the residences and barns. In 1889, livestock was introduced to the CEF, Chief Dominion Architect David Ewart designed the Dominion Observatory, Carling Avenue in 1902, Chief Astronomers Residence,1909, and the Geodetic Survey Building,1914. Chief Dominion Architect Edgar Lewis Horwood designed the Cereal and Agrostology Building, 1915-16, Agricultural Building,1915, Chief Dominion Architect Richard Cotsman Wright designed a number of buildings including, the Poultry Office Building,1920, and the Botanical Laboratory Building, 1924–25.
John Bethune Roper designed the Administration Building, Carling Avenue,1934, William James Abra designed the Biological Building,1935. Over the years the scope of research grew and changed, prompting a need to increase the farms lands, from 1940-47, building 136, operated as a high frequency Naval Radio Station -CFF which frequently intercepted enemy transmissions. In 1983, the museum was created in the former Dairy Barn. The Federal Heritage Buildings Review Office recognized or classified a number of CEF buildings on the Register of the Government of Canada Heritage Buildings between 1984-1997, the Cereal Barn Building 76 was classified in 1984. The Victoria Memorial Museum was classified in 1986, the Main Dairy Barn Building 88 was classified in 1987. In 1988, the Botanical Laboratory / Horticulture Building 74 and the Sheep Showcase / Small Dairy Barn Building 95 were recognized, the Nutrition Building 59 was recognized in 1992
Sir Henri Charles Wilfrid Laurier GCMG, PC, KC, known as Wilfrid Laurier, was the seventh Prime Minister of Canada, in office from 11 July 1896 to 6 October 1911. Canadas first francophone prime minister, Laurier is often considered one of the countrys greatest statesmen and he is well known for his policies of conciliation, expanding Confederation, and compromise between French and English Canada. His vision for Canada was a land of liberty and decentralized federalism. He argued for an English-French partnership in Canada, I have had before me as a pillar of fire, he said, a policy of true Canadianism, of moderation, of reconciliation. He passionately defended individual liberty, Canada is free and freedom is its nationality, a 2011 Macleans historical ranking of the Prime Ministers placed Laurier first. Laurier holds a number of records, he holds the record for the most consecutive federal elections won, in addition, his nearly 45 years of service in the House of Commons is a record for that house.
At 31 years,8 months, Laurier was the leader of a major Canadian political party. Finally, he is the fourth-longest serving Prime Minister of Canada, behind King, John A. Macdonald, Lauriers portrait is displayed on the Canadian five-dollar bill. The second child of Carolus Laurier and Marcelle Martineau, Wilfrid Laurier was born in Saint-Lin, Canada East, Laurier was among the seventh generation of his family in Canada. His ancestor François Cottineau, dit Champlaurier, came to Canada from Saint-Claud and he grew up in a family where politics was a staple of talk and debate. His father, a man having liberal ideas, enjoyed a certain degree of prestige about town. In addition to being a farmer and surveyor, he occupied such sought-after positions as mayor, justice of the peace, militia lieutenant, at the age of 11, Wilfrid left home to study in New Glasgow, a neighbouring village largely inhabited by immigrants from Scotland. Over the next two years, he familiarized himself with the mentality and culture of British people, Laurier attended the Collège de LAssomption and graduated in law from McGill University in 1864.
He was first elected to the Canadian House of Commons in the 1874 election, chosen as leader of the federal Liberal Party in 1887, he gradually built up his partys strength through his personal following both in Quebec and elsewhere in Canada. The growing alienation of French-Canadians from the Conservative Party due to its links with anti-French and these factors, combined with the collapse of the Conservative Party of Quebec, gave Laurier an opportunity to build a stronghold in French Canada and among Catholics across Canada. Catholic priests in Quebec repeatedly warned their parishioners not to vote for Liberals and their slogan was le ciel est bleu, lenfer est rouge. Laurier led Canada during a period of growth, industrialization and immigration. His long career straddles a period of political and economic change
Billings Bridge is a bridge over the Rideau River in Ottawa. Bank Street passes over the river by way of this bridge, the bridge was named after Braddish Billings, who settled in this area and established a farm nearby in 1812. The first bridge, originally called Farmers Bridge, was built over the river here in 1830, the current bridge was built in 1916. Billings Bridge referred to a village, located south of the river near the bridge, the area, now an Ottawa neighbourhood, is still referred to as Billings Bridge. In the early XIXth century, the Ottawa area was settled by Europeans. In 1783, a tract of land including what is now Billings Bridge was purchased from the local aboriginal nations as part of the Crawford Purchase. First named in Lunenburg District in 1788, the became part of Township B in 1792. In 1793, the township was renamed Gloucester Township, after Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, Billings Bridge was not yet settled in 1800 when Russel County was established and Gloucester Township incorporated into it.
Braddish Billings arrived from Brockville in 1812 and cut out a farm on the Rideau River at the present-day Billings Bridge, the area was widely forested at the time and the early British settlement was focused on subsistence farming, as had Iroquois settlement elsewhere in the Ottawa Valley. The following year he married Lamira Dow of Merrickville and returned with her, Gloucester Township was incorporated in the Ottawa District in 1816. The Billings Bridge area slowly grew with the arrival of settlers, including friends. In 1823, Braddish Billings built a sawmill on a creek running through his property and this creek remains known as Sawmill Creek. Settlement accelerated with the development of Bytown and the Rideau Canal, the first bridge was built by Billings across the Rideau River at Bank Street in 1831. Originally called Farmers Bridge, by 1859 both the bridge and the community commonly known as Billings Bridge. This early bridge was washed out and rebuilt in 1847 and again in 1862, bridges at the time were more vulnerable to this, as they only had a clearance of about 1m above the water level.
The concrete central span of the bridge collapsed 21 March 1913, construction of a new bridge began in 1914. It was inaugurated 2 September 1915, the ceremony was conducted on the North bank of the river. The mayor of Ottawa drove across the bridge, turned around without pause, the community around the bridge and the Billings estate slowly grew over the years
Canadian Forces Station Carp is a former Canadian military facility located in the rural farming community of Carp, approximately 30 km west of downtown Ottawa. CFS Carp was decommissioned in 1994 and it was not until 1998 that it was reopened as a museum and designated a National Historic Site of Canada. Currently, the facility operates as a museum and is open year-round for tours and these shelters were part of what came to be known as the Continuity of Government plan, which was meant to protect various members of government in the event of a nuclear attack. The original site, some 9.7 km east of Almonte was abandoned when ground water proved impossible to remove, an abandoned gravel pit outside Carp was selected instead, construction began in 1959 and was completed by 1962. The Carp shelter would be the largest of such facilities and the one in the immediate Ottawa area. The underground 4-storey bunker required 32,000 tonnes of concrete and 5,000 tonnes of steel, the structure was capable of withstanding a nuclear blast up to 5 megatons from 1.8 km away.
It had massive blast doors at the surface, as well as air filters to prevent radiation infiltration. Underground storage was built for food, fresh water, the bunker was built to accommodate 565 people for up to one month without receiving additional supplies from the outside. It included an emergency broadcast studio for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and these facilities were administered by the Royal Canadian Corps of Signals. CFS Carp was decommissioned in 1994 following the reduction in the ICBM threat, from 1959 to 1994, the site was owned and operated by the Government of Canada, Department of National Defence. After the local municipality took control of the facility in 1994 and it was purchased by the Diefenbunker Development Group in 1998, and officially opened as a museum. The name of the facility was changed to the Diefenbunker, Canadas Cold War Museum shortly thereafter and it is currently open year-round for public tours. The rest of the 358 rooms have been converted to exhibits of the Cold War era, upon its opening in 1998, the museum was run completely by volunteers.
However, the 5,000 visitors received that year was too much to be handled solely by volunteers, in 1999, the museums second year of operation, a curator was hired along with some students. The museums visitation doubled to 10,000 people that year, the museum continued to grow into the 2000s. Close to 15,000 visitors passed through the Diefenbunker in 2000, additional part-time staff was hired throughout the year to keep up with museum maintenance and upkeep. As of 2008, the Diefenbunker averages approximately 25,000 visitors each year, four full-time staff, nine part-time staff and numerous volunteers work to keep the museum running smoothly. In 2012, the museum had 45,280 visitors and this was one of the highest increases in attendance other than the opening year of the Bunker
Arnprior is a town in Renfrew County, in the eastern portion of Southern Ontario, Canada. It is located at the confluence of the Madawaska River and the Ottawa River in the Ottawa Valley, Arnprior has experienced significant growth in populations with the widening of the 417 Provincial Highway to four lanes. The Town experienced an increase in population by 8. 5% from 2011 to 2016, the town is a namesake of Arnprior, and is known for lumber, hydro power generation, aerospace and its proximity to the National Capital Region. In May 1613 European explorers, led by Samuel de Champlain, first visited the Ottawa River valley, in 1823, a 1, 200-acre surveyed block was ceded to Archibald McNab and given the eponymous name, McNab Township. McNab had approval from the Family Compact to treat the settlers on his land in the feudal manner practiced in Scotland, in 1831 the town was named by the Buchanan Brothers after McNabs ancestral home of Arnprior, Scotland. Tired of the treatment, the settlers revolted and, after a government investigation.
Arnprior, Braeside and NcNab township grew as separate communities and boomed when they integrated into eastern Ontarios massive timber industry. The lumber industry maintained a significant position until the closing of the Gillies Mill, one of the most enduring structures of the day was a grist mill built by the Buchanans on the west bank of the Madawaska River. By 1869, Arnprior was an Incorporated Village with a population of 2000 in the Township of McNab and it was on the Brockville and Ottawa Railway at the junction of the Madawaska and Ottawa Rivers. The average price of land $20 to $40, the facility has been bought by Ontario Hydro prior to the restructuring on the bridge and the creation of a new weir to control the river. The building was consumed by fire in 1976, the forests of the period are represented in the Grove which is an excellent example of indigenous forest, grown after a fire in the 18th century. With individual specimens reaching 175 feet, these are the tallest white pines in Ontario, Arnprior was incorporated as a village in 1862.
Thirty years later, it was incorporated as a town, on 8 June 1944 a Castle class corvette, HMS Rising Castle, was re-commissioned as HMCS Arnprior until 1946. Arnprior became a name in the numismatic trade. This has a link to a local employer. In 1955 Playtex ordered some silver dollars for their employees and these coins are found to show only two and one-half water lines instead of four to the right of the canoe. This variety becomes known as the Arnprior dollar, the history of Arnprior is preserved and documented at the Arnprior and District Museum and the Arnprior and District Archives, located next door in the basement of the public library. The sandstone building is the element in local architecture For the past 60 years Arnprior has been a leading contender when drawing new business to Eastern Ontario
Gatineau, officially Ville de Gatineau, is a city in western Quebec, Canada. It is the fourth largest city in the province after Montreal, Quebec City and it is located on the northern bank of the Ottawa River, immediately across from Ottawa, together with which it forms Canadas National Capital Region. As of 2011 Gatineau had a population of 265,349, the Ottawa–Gatineau census metropolitan area had a population of 1,236,324. Gatineau is coextensive with an equivalent to a regional county municipality and census division of the same name. It is the seat of the district of Hull. The current city of Gatineau is centred on an area called Hull, Wright brought his family, five other families and twenty-five labourers and a plan to establish an agriculturally based community to what was a mosquito-infested wilderness. But soon after and his family took advantage of the large lumber stands, the original settlement was called Wrightstown, it became Hull and in 2002, after amalgamation, the City of Gatineau.
In 1820, before immigrants from Great Britain arrived in numbers, Hull Township had a population of 707, including 365 men,113 women. Note the discrepancy in the number of men and women, owing to the work of the timber trade. In 1824, there were 106 families and 803 persons, during the rest of the 1820s, the population of Hull doubled, owing to the arrival of Ulster Protestants. By 1851, the population of the County of Ottawa was 11,104, by comparison, Bytown had a population of 7,760 in 1851. By 1861, Ottawa County now had a population of 15,671, the gradual move to the Township by French Canadians continued over the years, with the French Canadians growing from 10% of the population in 1850, to 50% in 1870, and 90% in 1920. The Gatineau River, like the Ottawa River, was much the preserve of the draveurs. Ottawa was founded later, as the terminus of the Rideau Canal built under the command of Col. John By as part of fortifications and its greater distance from the Canada–US border left the new parliament less vulnerable to foreign attack.
In the 1940s, during World War II, along various other regions within Canada, such as the Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean. Hulls prison was simply labelled with a number and remained unnamed just like Canadas other war prisons, the prisoners of war were sorted and classified into categories by nationality and civilian or military status. In this camp, POWs were mostly Italian and German nationals, during the Conscription Crisis of 1944 the prison eventually included Canadians who had refused conscription. Also, prisoners were forced into hard labour which included farming and lumbering the land, during the 1970s and early 1980s, the decaying old downtown core of Hull was transformed by demolition and replacement with a series of large office complexes
National Arts Centre
The National Arts Centre is a centre for the performing arts located in Ottawa, between Elgin Street and the Rideau Canal. The National Arts Centre was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 2006, Ottawa did not have a major performing arts venue after 1928 when the Russell Theatre was expropriated and demolished to make way for Confederation Square. Performers and orchestras visiting the capital were required to use the stage of the Capitol Cinema, in 1963, an organization named the National Capital Arts Alliance was founded by G. Hamilton Southam and Levi Pettler. They successfully convinced the city and government to build the new centre, the NAC was one of a number of projects launched by the government of Lester B. Pearson to commemorate Canadas 1967 centenary. It opened its doors to the public for the first time on 31 May 1969 having cost C$46 million to build, the site at one time was home to Ottawa City Hall, and the city donated the land to the federal government. Conductor Jean-Marie Beaudet served as the NACs first music director, in June 2010 a life size bronze statue of the Canadian jazz pianist Oscar Peterson was unveiled outside the NAC by Queen Elizabeth II during her royal tour of Canada.
In February 2014, the centre unveiled a new logo and slogan, Canada is our stage, the former logo had been designed by Ernst Roch and was in use since the centres opening. The building, designed by Fred Lebensold, is in the Brutalist style and based on the shape of a triangle, the building is constructed of reinforced concrete. The exterior and many walls are faced with precast concrete panels containing exposed aggregate of crushed brown Laurentian granite. The center rises from a base that sits on a 950-space underground parking garage, the base houses offices, dressing rooms, workshops and a restaurant. The site slopes from Elgin Street to the Rideau Canal allowing for an underground level overlooking the canal. The roof of the forms a multi-level terrace containing gardens that are open to the public. The three main performance spaces rise from the base as a series of hexagonal structures faced with brown precast panels in a variety of textures, windows are tall, narrow slits framed by vertical ribs.
The hexagonal theme flows through the interior and appears in ceilings, light fixtures and stairwells house several major pieces of visual art. Plans for the centre included an organ in Southam Hall, however funding did not permit this, on 17 March 1970, the 25th anniversary of the liberation of the Netherlands, a Dutch-Canadian Committee presented two organs purchased as the result of its Operation Thankyou Canada. The concert organ premiered in a recital 7 October 1973 by Albert de Klerk, in 2000, the NAC was named by the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada as one of the top 500 buildings produced in Canada during the last millennium. The NAC operates in the performing arts fields of music, English theatre, French theatre, variety. The NAC supports programs for young and emerging artists and programs for young audiences, the NAC is the only multidisciplinary, performing arts centre in North America, and one of the largest in the world
National War Memorial (Canada)
The National War Memorial is a tall, granite memorial arch with accreted bronze sculptures in Ottawa, Canada, designed by Vernon March and first dedicated by King George VI in 1939. It now serves as the pre-eminent war memorial of 76 cenotaphs in Canada, in 2000, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier was added in front of the memorial and symbolizes the sacrifices made by all Canadians who have died or may yet die for their country. The National War Memorial is the point of Confederation Square in Canadas capital city, Ottawa. This locates it between Parliament Hill to the west and the Château Laurier hotel to the east. The memorial, from grade to the tip of the surmounting statues wings, is approximately 21.34 m, with the arch itself 3.05 m wide,2.44 m deep, and 8.03 m high. The lowest step of the pedestal is 15.9 m by 8.08 m, below are the depictions of 22 Canadian servicemen and women from all branches of the forces and other groups engaged in the First World War. At front, to the left, a Lewis gunner, to the right, following these are a pilot in full gear and an air mechanic of the Royal Canadian Air Force, as well as a sailor in the Royal Canadian Navy from HMCS Stadacona.
There are three additional infantrymen, all six carry among them respirators and other items of the load carried by every member of the infantry. The figures are moving towards the call of duty atop a pedestal, the dates 1939-1945 and 1950-1953 are on the east and west flanks of the base, while the years 1899-1902 and 2001-2014 are on the east and west arch pier footings, respectively. The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier rests in the surface immediately in front of. Since 1940, the National War Memorial is the site of the national Remembrance Day ceremony, some of these groups place wreaths at the foot of the war memorial. The event is attended by between 25,000 and 45,000 people and is nationally televised, plywood is placed over surrounding flower beds and approximately 6,000 metres of cable is run to connect sound systems and 12 television cameras. Whenever the monarch or another member of the Royal Family is in Ottawa, they will, regardless of the date, the Department of Canadian Heritage and the Department of Veterans Affairs fund summer students at the site, hired to provide site and historical information.
There was opposition to the idea, mostly to its cost, especially as the argument continued through the Great Depression. An early proposal in 1919 was a hall in Ottawa. It did not grow past the stage, but, an idea from the CWMF for a memorial building did progress to the detail design phase. It would have resembled the Pantheon in Rome and housed the art in the CWMFs collection, immediately after the wars end, focus shifted to the burial of the dead, the design of markers and headstones. This, Mackenzie King said, put it in the most visible spot in the city, akin to The Cenotaph and Nelsons Column in London, in May 1923, the Minister of Public Works James Horace King asked the legislature to approve $10,000 for the memorial