Diné Bahaneʼ, the Navajo creation myth, describes the prehistoric emergence of the Navajo, centers on the area known as the Dinétah, the traditional homeland of the Navajo. This story forms the basis for the traditional Navajo way of life; the basic outline of Diné Bahaneʼ begins with the Niłchʼi Diyin being created, the mists of lights which arose through the darkness to animate and bring purpose to the four Diyin Dineʼé, supernatural and sacred in the different three lower worlds. All these things were spiritually created in the time before the Earth existed and the physical aspect of humans did not exist yet, but the spiritual did; the First or Dark World, Niʼ Hodiłhił, was small and centered on an island floating in the middle of four seas. The inhabitants of the first world were the four Diyin Dineʼé, the two Coyotes, the four rulers of the four seas, mist beings and various insect and bat people, the latter being the Air-Spirit People; the supernatural beings First Woman and First Man came into existence here and met for the first time after seeing each other's fire.
The various beings started fighting with one another and departed by flying out an opening in the east. They journeyed to the Second or Blue World, Niʼ Hodootłʼizh, inhabited by various blue-gray furred mammals and various birds, including blue swallows; the beings from the First World offended Swallow Chief, Táshchózhii, they were asked to leave. First Man created a wand of jet and other materials to allow the people to walk upon it up into the next world through an opening in the south. In the Third or Yellow World, Niʼ Hałtsooí, there were two rivers that formed a cross and the Sacred Mountains but there was still no sun. More animal people lived here too; this time it was not discord among the people that drove them away but a great flood caused by Tééhoołtsódii when Coyote stole her two children. When the people arrived in the Fourth or White World, Niʼ Hodisxǫs, it was covered in water and there were monsters living here; the Sacred Mountains were re-formed from soil taken from the original mountains in the Second World.
First Man, First Woman, the Holy People created the sun, moon and stars. It was here that true death came into existence via Coyote tossing a stone into a lake and declaring that if it sank the dead would go back to the previous world; the first human born in the Fourth World is Yoołgai Asdzáá who matures into Asdzáá Naadleehí, in turn, gives birth to the Hero Twins called Naayééʼ Neizghání and Tóbájíshchíní. The twins have many adventures. Multiple batches of modern humans were created a number of times in the Fourth World and the Diyin Dineʼé gave them ceremonies which are still practiced today. Of a time long ago these things are said; the first world was small, black as soot. In the middle of the four seas there was an island floating in the mist. On the island grew a pine tree. Dark ants dwelt there. Red ants dwelled there. Dragonflies dwelled there. Yellow beetles dwelled there. Hard beetles dwelled there. Stone-carrier beetles dwelled there. Black beetles dwelled there. Coyote-dung beetles dwelled there.
Bats dwelled there. Whitefaced beetles dwelled there. Locusts dwelled there. White locusts dwelled there; these were the twelve groups of the Níłchʼi Dineʼé, the Air-Spirit People, who lived in the First World. Around the floating island were four seas; each sea was ruled by a being. In the sea to the East dwelled Tééhoołtsódii, Big Water Creature, The One Who Grabs Things in the Water. In the sea to the south lived Táłtłʼááh álééh, Blue Heron. In the sea to the west dwelled Chʼał, Frog. In the ocean to the north dwelled Iiʼniʼ Jiłgaii, Winter Thunder. Above each sea appeared a cloud. There was a black cloud, a white cloud, a blue cloud, a yellow cloud; the Black Cloud contained the Female spirit of Life. The White Cloud contained the Male spirit of Dawn; the Black Cloud and the White Cloud came together in the East, the wind from the clouds blew. From the breath of wind, First Man, Áłtsé Hastiin, was formed and with him the white corn, Kóhonotʼíinii, perfect in shape, with kernels covering the whole ear.
Crystal, symbol of the mind and clear seeing, was with him. The Blue Cloud and the Yellow Cloud came together in the West, a wind from the clouds blew. From the breath of wind, First Woman, Áłtsé Asdzą́ą́, was formed, with her the yellow corn, perfect in shape, with kernels covering the whole ear. White shell, turquoise, yucca were there with her. First Man made a fire with his crystal, its light was the mind's first awakening. First Woman made a fire with her turquoise, they saw each other's light in the distance. When the Blue Cloud and the Yellow Cloud rose high in the sky, First Woman saw the light of First Man's fire, she went out to find it. Three times she was unsuccessful; the fourth time she found the home of First Man. "I wondered what this thing could be," she said. "I saw you walking and wondered why you did not come," First Man said. "Why do you not come with your fire, we will live together." First Woman agreed to this. So instead of the man going to the woman, as is the custom now, the woman went to live with the man.
Another person, Mąʼiitoʼí Áłchíní, Great Coyote, was formed in the water. He told First Man and First Woman that he had been hatched from an egg, knew all, under the water and all, in the skies. First Man believed him. A second coyote, Áłtsé Hashké, First Angry, appeared, he said to the three, "You believe. You are mistaken. I was living when you were formed." First Angry brought witchcraft into the world. The Air-Spirit People began to fight; the rulers of the four seas, Blue
A kachina is a spirit being in the religious beliefs of the Pueblo people, Native American cultures located in the southwestern part of the United States. In the Pueblo culture, kachina rituals are practiced by the Hopi, Hopi-Tewa and certain Keresan Tribes, as well as in most Pueblo Tribes in New Mexico; the kachina concept has three different aspects: the supernatural being, the kachina dancers, kachina dolls, small dolls carved in the likeness of the kachina, that are given only to those who are, or will be responsible for the respectful care and well-being of the doll, such as a mother, wife, or sister. Kachinas are personifications of things in the real world; these spirits are believed to visit the Hopi villages during the first half of the year. A kachina can represent anything in the natural world or cosmos, from a revered ancestor to an element, a location, a quality, a natural phenomenon, or a concept; the local pantheon of kachinas varies in each pueblo community. Kachinas are understood as having humanlike relationships.
Although not worshipped, each is viewed as a powerful being who, if given veneration and respect, can use his particular power for human good, bringing rainfall, fertility, or protection, for example. One observer has written: The central theme of the kachina is the presence of life in all objects that fill the universe. Everything has an essence or a life force, humans must interact with these or fail to survive; the exact origin of the kachinas is not known, but according to one version of Hopi belief, the kachinas were beneficent spirit-beings who came with the Hopis from the underworld. The underworld is a concept common to all the Pueblo Indians, it is a place where the spirits or shades live: the newly born come from there and the dead return there. The kachinas wandered with the Hopis over the world until they arrived at Casa Grande, where both the Hopis and the kachinas settled for a while. With their powerful ceremonies, the kachinas brought rain for the crops and were in general of much help and comfort.
All of the kachinas were killed when the Hopis were attacked by enemies and their souls returned to the underworld. Since the sacred paraphernalia of the kachinas were left behind, the Hopis began impersonating the kachinas, wearing their masks and costumes, imitating their ceremonies in order to bring rain, good crops, life's happiness. Another version says that in an early period, the kachinas danced for the Hopis, bringing them rain and all the many blessings of life, but the Hopis came to take the kachinas for granted, losing all respect and reverence for them, so the kachinas left and returned to the underworld. However, before they left, the kachinas taught some of their ceremonies to a few faithful young men and showed them how to make the masks and costumes; when the other Hopi realized their loss, they remorsefully turned to the human substitute of kachinas, the ceremonies have continued since then. In many ways the Kachina Cult and its rituals are the most important ceremonial observances in the Hopi religious calendar.
Within Hopi religion, the kachinas are said to live on the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona. To the Hopis, the name refers to the supernatural beings who visit the villages to help the Hopis with everyday activities and act as a link between gods and mortals; these spirits are impersonated by men who dress up in costumes and masks to perform ceremonial dances throughout the year. The most anticipated ceremony is the Powamuya Ceremony. There are hundreds of different kachinas practiced by the Hopi. In addition, the wooden carvings of these spirits are made to give to the children to help them identify the many kachinas. Overall, the kachinas can be said to represent historical events and things in nature, are used to educate children in the ways of life; the most important Hopi kachinas are known as wuya. In Hopi, the word is used to represent the spiritual beings themselves, the dolls, or the people who dress as kachinas for ceremonial dances, which are understood to embody all aspects of the same belief system.
These are some of the wuyas: The Hopi are not the only Pueblo tribe to observe the Kachina Cult in its religious calendar. The Zuni have a religious solar calendar, practiced year-round; the Zuni Kachina Cult is one of the six major cults of Zuni. There are a number of kachinas that represent time in the Zuni religion. One of the most famous and known ceremonies is the Shalako Ceremony. There are a number of other rituals, it is hard to specify the total number of kachinas in the Zuni religion because the Zuni do not believe in using or exploiting their kachinas for open public economic gain and believe they should be kept in private. It is believed that some of the older kachina rituals are no longer practiced, but there are new ones that have been introduced. In addition, it is believed that there are hundreds of different kachina rituals that are practiced in the Zuni religion; the Zuni Kachina Cult is not constant, it changes to time. The Zuni believe that the kachinas live in the Lake of the Dead, a mythical lake, reached through Listening Spring Lake.
This is located at the junction of the Little Colorado River. Although some archaeological investigations have taken place, they hav
In Inuit mythology, Igaluk is one of the most powerful gods of the pantheon. He is a lunar deity. In Greenland, he is known as Aningan. According to Inuit mythology and his sister Malina lived together in a village, they were close when young, but came to live apart as they grew older, in the lodges for women and for men. One day, as Igaluk looked at the women, he found, and so that night, as everyone slept, he crept into the women's dwelling and forced himself upon her. As it was dark, Malina was unable to tell who her attacker was, but the next night, when the same thing happened, she covered her hands with the soot from the lamps and smeared the Anningan's face with it. Afterwards, she looked through the skylight of the men's lodge, she was surprised to find that the man was her own brother. So Malina cut off her breasts, she put them in a bowl and carried this to the men's lodge, presented it to Igaluk, saying "If you enjoy me so much eat these," and ran away out the door, grabbing a torch as she went.
Igaluk chased after her taking a torch, was able to follow her path, as her footsteps were marked with great pools of blood. However, he tripped and dropped his torch, the flame was put out, except for a faint glow. However, Igaluk caught up to his sister, the two ran so fast that they took off into the sky and became the moon and the sun. Tulok, according to Inuit mythology, is the nemesis of Aningan. A true warrior, after hearing of the incest of Aningan decided to challenge him to battle; as by this time Aningan had become the sun he devised a plan to run so fast he could reach into the sky and pour a bucket of mythical water over the sun to put out its flames. But upon hearing this, realising the devastating effect of the loss of the sun, banded together with Aningan and became an eclipse, so that when Tulok reached the sky he would become trapped, it is said after this he split to a thousand pieces, became the stars. Malina and Anningan the Sun and The Moon: An Inuit Sky Tale When Moon Chases Sun
The Abenaki are a Native American tribe and First Nation. They are one of the Algonquian-speaking peoples of northeastern North America; the Abenaki live in Quebec and the Maritimes of Canada and in the New England region of the United States, a region called Wabanahkik in the Eastern Algonquian languages. The Abenaki are one of the five members of the Wabanaki Confederacy. "Abenaki" is a geographic grouping. As listed below, there were tribes who shared many cultural traits, they came together as a post-contact community after their original tribes were decimated by colonization and warfare. The word Abenaki, its syncope, are both derived from Wabanaki, or Wôbanakiak, meaning "People of the Dawn Land" in the Abenaki language. While the two terms are confused, the Abenaki are one of several tribes in the Wabanaki Confederacy. Wôbanakiak is derived from wôban and aki — the aboriginal name of the area broadly corresponding to New England and the Maritimes, it is sometimes used to refer to all the Algonquian-speaking peoples of the area—Western Abenaki, Eastern Abenaki, Wolastoqiyik-Passamaquoddy, Mi'kmaq—as a single group.
The Abenaki people call themselves Alnôbak, meaning "Real People" and by the autonym Alnanbal, meaning "men". Ethnologists have classified the Abenaki by geographic groups: Western Abenaki and Eastern Abenaki. Within these groups are the Abenaki bands: The homeland of the Abenaki, which they call Ndakinna, extended across most of northern New England, southern Quebec, the southern Canadian Maritimes; the Eastern Abenaki population was concentrated in portions of New Brunswick and Maine east of New Hampshire's White Mountains. The other major tribe, the Western Abenaki, lived in the Connecticut River valley in Vermont, New Hampshire and Massachusetts; the Missiquoi lived along the eastern shore of Lake Champlain. The Pennacook lived along the Merrimack River in southern New Hampshire; the maritime Abenaki lived around the St. Croix and Wolastoq valleys near the boundary line between Maine and New Brunswick; the English settlement of New England and frequent wars forced many Abenaki to retreat to Quebec.
The Abenaki settled in the Sillery region of Quebec between 1676 and 1680, subsequently, for about twenty years, lived on the banks of the Chaudière River near the falls, before settling in Odanak and Wôlinak in the early eighteenth century. The name "Abenaki" was derived from the terms w8bAn and Aki, which mean "people in the rising sun" or "people of the East". In those days, the Abenaki practiced a subsistence economy based on hunting, trapping, berry picking and on growing corn, squash and tobacco, they produced baskets, made of ash and sweet grass, for picking wild berries, boiled maple sap to make syrup. Basket weaving remains a traditional activity for members of both communities. During the Anglo-French wars, the Abenaki were allies of France, having been displaced from Ndakinna by immigrating English people. An anecdote from this period tells the story of a Maliseet war chief named Nescambuit or Assacumbuit, who killed more than 140 enemies of King Louis XIV of France and received the rank of knight.
Not all Abenaki natives fought on the side of the French, however. Much of the trapping was done by the people, traded to the English colonists for durable goods; these contributions by Native American Abenaki peoples went unreported. Two tribal communities formed in Canada, one once known as Saint-Francois-du-lac near Pierreville and the other near Bécancour on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River, directly across the river from Trois-Rivières; these two Abenaki reserves continue to develop. Since the year 2000, the total Abenaki population has doubled to 2,101 members in 2011. 400 Abenaki reside on these two reserves, which cover a total area of less than 7 square kilometres. The unrecognized majority are off-reserve members, living in various cities and towns across Canada and the United States. There are about 3,200 Abenaki living in Vermont and New Hampshire, without reservations, chiefly around Lake Champlain; the remaining Abenaki people live in multi-racial towns and cities across Canada and the U.
S. A. in Ontario, New Brunswick, northern New England. Four Abenaki tribes are located in Vermont. On April 22, 2011, Vermont recognized two Abenaki tribes: the Nulhegan Band of the Coosuk-Abenaki and the Elnu Abenaki Tribe. On May 7, 2012, the Abenaki Nation at Missisquoi and the Koasek Traditional Band of the Koas Abenaki Nation received recognition by the State of Vermont; the Nulhegan are located in the Northeast Kingdom of Vermont, with tribal headquarters in Brownington, the Elnu Abenaki are located in southeastern Vermont with tribal headquarters in Jamaica, Vermont. The Elnu Abenaki tribe focuses on carrying on the traditions of their ancestors through their children and teaching about their culture; the chief and political leader of the Nulhegan Band is Don Stevens. The Sokoki are located along the Missisquoi River in northwestern Vermont, with tribal headquarters in Swanton, their traditional land is along the river, extending to its outlet at Lake Champlain. In December 2012, Vermont's Nulhegan Abanaki Tribe created a tribal forest in the town of Barton.
This forest was established with assista
This article is about the spiritual beliefs and practices in Kwakwaka'wakw mythology. The Kwakwaka'wakw are a group of Indigenous nations, numbering about 5,500, who live in the central coast of British Columbia on northern Vancouver Island and the mainland. Kwakwaka'wakw translates into "Kwak'wala speaking tribes." However, the tribes are single autonomous nations and do not view themselves collectively as one group. These people share many common cultural customs with neighboring nations, they share beliefs in many of the same deities, although speak different languages. Some spirits are however unique to one or two cultures and are not universally known throughout the Northwest Coast; each tribe has its own history and stories. Some origin stories belong to only one specific tribe, but many practices and ceremonies occur throughout Kwakwaka'wakw culture, in some cases, neighboring indigenous cultures also. The Kwakwaka'wakw creation narrative states the world was created by a raven flying over water, finding nowhere to land, decided to create islands by dropping small pebbles into the water.
He created trees and grass, after several failed attempts, he made the first man and woman out of wood and clay. Main page: Deluge Like all Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, most of the Kwakwaka'wakw tribes have stories about their people surviving the flood. With some of these nations, their history talks of their ancestors transforming into their natural form and disappearing while the waters rose subsided. For others, they have stories of their people attaching their oceangoing canoes to tall peaking mountains. For the stories about supernatural powers, these figures tend to be the founding clans of some Kwakwaka'wakw nations. Tseiqami is a man who comes from the cedar tree and Thunderbird, lord of the winter dance season, a massive supernatural bird whose wing beats cause the thunder, the flash of whose eyes causes lightning. Tseiqami hunts whales for its dinner out at sea, sometimes helped heroic ancestors build houses by placing giant cedar beams for them. Thunderbird has a younger brother named Kolus.
Thunderbird's adversary is Qaniqilak, spirit of the summer season, identified as the sea god, Kumugwe. Kumugwe or Komokwa is the name of "Undersea Chief." Many Kwakwaka'wakw families have been blessed by riches and supernatural treasures bestowed by this god of the tides and maker of coppers. Sisiutl is a giant three-headed sea serpent. Cross beams of clan houses sometimes are carved with his appearance. Blessed ancestors have sometimes received sisiutl's help when he transforms himself into an invincible war canoe, sometimes into a magic belt with which to gird oneself against all dangers. Dzunukwa comes in both male and female forms. In most legends, the female form is the most told. Children outwit her, sometimes killing her and taking her treasures without being eaten. Bakwas is king of the ghosts, he is a small green spirit whose face has a long curving nose. He tries to bring the living over to the world of the dead. In some myths Bakwas is the husband of Dzunukwa. U'melth is the Raven, who brought the Kwakwaka'wakw people the moon, salmon, the sun and the tides.
Pugwis is a sort of aquatic creature with large incisors. Kwakwaka'wakw spirituality is transmitted at ceremonies during the winter season; these ceremonies are referred to as potlatches. They are designed for the transference and reaffirmation of family and spiritual status inherited from primeval ancestors who contacted the spirit world and were given privileges from beings of a supernatural nature; these beings prefer honor and magic through the gift of Tlugwe, which are supernatural treasures taking the physical form of masks and regalia, but comprising stories, recitations and other intangible performances. Kwakwaka'wakw spirits, like those of other Northwest Coast peoples, can be divided into four separate spirit realms, including sky spirits, sea spirits, earth spirits, otherworldly spirits. All four realms interact with one another, human beings attempt to contact all four worlds and channel their spirits at sacred ceremonies wherein dancers go into trances while wearing masks and other regalia associated with the spiritworld.
Of particular importance in Kwakwaka'wakw culture is the secret society called Hamatsa. During the winter, there is a four-day, complex dance that serves to initiate new members of Hamatsa; the Hamatsa dancer represents the spirit of Baxbaxwalanuksiwe. Hamatsa initiates are possessed by Baxwbakwalanuksiwe'. On the first day of the Hamatsa ceremonies the initiate is lured out of the woods and brought into the Big House to be tamed; when the initiate returns, he enacts his cannibalistic possession symbolically. Gwaxwgwakwalanuksiwe' is the most prestigious role in the Supernatural Man-Eater Birds ceremony. Galuxwadzuwus and Huxhukw are other participants. Kwak'wala Sisiutl Winalagalis Dantsikw Kwakiutl Art by Audrey Hawthorn Chief James Wallas. Kwakiutl Legends. ISBN 0-88839-230-3. Hamatsa: The Enigma of Cannibalism on the Pacific Northwest Coast by Jim
Much of the mythology of the Iroquois has been preserved, including creation stories and some folktales. Recorded in wampum as recitations, written down the spellings of names differed as transliteration varies and spellings in European languages were not regularized. Different versions of some stories exist, reflecting different times, it is possible. Each village had its own storyteller, responsible for learning all the stories by heart. No stories were told during the summer months. Violations would be punished by the Jo-ga-oh, if the violator ignored the warning he would suffer greater evils; this version of the creation story is taken from ConverseThe Earth was a thought in the mind of the ruler of a great island floating above the clouds. This ruler was called by various names, among them Ha-wen-ni-yu, meaning He who governs or The Ruler; the island is a place of calm where all needs are provided and there is no pain or death. On this island grew a great apple tree where the inhabitants held council.
The Ruler said "let us make a new place. Under our council tree is a great sea of clouds which calls out for light." He ordered the council tree to be uprooted and he looked down into the depths. He had Sky Woman, look down, he heard the voice of the sea calling. He dropped her down through the hole. All the birds and animals who lived in the great cloud sea were panicked; the Duck asked "where can it rest?" "Only the earth can hold it," replied the Beaver—the oeh-dah from the bottom of our great sea—"I will get some." The Beaver never came up. The Duck tried, but its dead body floated to the surface. Many of the other birds and animals failed; the Muskrat returned with some earth in his paws. "It's heavy", he said, "who can support it?" The Turtle volunteered, the earth was placed on top of his shell. When the earth was ready the birds flew up and carried Ata-en-sic on their wings to the Turtle's back; this is how the Turtle, came to be the earth bearer. When he moves the sea gets rough and the earth shakes.
Once brought to the surface the oeh-dah became an island. Ata-en-sic knew her time had come. One voice was calm and quiet; these were The Twins. The good twin, Hah-gweh-di-yu or Teharonhiakwako, was born in the normal way; the evil twin, Hä-qweh-da-ět-gǎh or Sawiskera, forced his way out from under his mother's arm, killing her. After the death of Sky Woman the island was shrouded in gloom. Hah-gweh-di-yu shaped the sky and created the sun from his mother's face saying "you shall rule here where your face will shine forever." Hä-qweh-da-ět-gǎh, set the great darkness in the west to drive down the sun. Hah-gweh-di-yu took the Moon and Stars from his mother's breast, placed them, his sisters, to guard the night sky, he gave his mother's body to the earth, the Great Mother from. Ga-gaah, the Crow, came from the sun land carrying a grain of corn in his ear. Hah-gweh-di-yu planted the corn above his mother's body, it became the first grain. Ga-gaah hovers over the corn fields, guarding them from harm but claiming his share.
Hah-gweh-di-yu, corresponding to the Huron spirit Ioskeha, created the first people. He healed disease, defeated demons, gave many of the Iroquois magical and ceremonial rituals. Another of his gifts was tobacco, used as a central part of the Iroquois religion. Hah-gweh-di-yu is aided by a number of subordinate spirits. Hé-no is the spirit of thunder, he is represented as a man dressed as a warrior, wearing on his head a magic feather that makes him invulnerable to the attacks of Hah-gweh-di-yu. On his back he carries a basket filled with pieces of chert which he launches at evil spirits and witches, it is the responsibility of Hé-no to bring rain to nourish the crops. The Iroquois address Hé-no as Tisote, he once lived in a cave under Niagara Falls. At that time a young girl living above the falls was engaged to marry a disagreeable old man. Rather than marry him she headed down the river; the girl and the canoe were carried over the falls. Hé-no and his two assistants brought her back to his cave.
One of the assistants, taken with her beauty, married her. Hé-no rescued her village from a huge serpent, devastating it with disease, he lured the serpent to a spot on Buffalo Creek. Fatally wounded, the serpent tried to escape to the safety of Lake Erie, but died before he could get away, his body floated downstream and stuck at the head of Niagara Falls, stretching nearly across the river and arching backward. The dammed up water broke the rocks, the whole verge of the Falls along with the snake's body fell onto the rocks below; the break in the process destroyed Hé-no's home. The name means Our Supporters. Called "The Three Sisters" they are the spirits of corn and squash, they have the form of beautiful maidens who like to live near each other. This is an analogy to the plants. One day while O-na-tah, the spirit of the corn, was wandering alone she was captured by Hä-qweh-da-ět-gǎh. Hä-qweh-da-ět-gǎh sent one of his monsters to devastate the fields, the other sisters ran away. Hä-qweh-da-ět-gǎh hel
The Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread North American native language groups. Today, thousands of individuals identify with various Algonquian peoples; the peoples were prominent along the Atlantic Coast and into the interior along the Saint Lawrence River and around the Great Lakes. This grouping consists of the peoples. Before Europeans came into contact, most Algonquian settlements lived by hunting and fishing, although quite a few supplemented their diet by cultivating corn and squash; the Ojibwe cultivated wild rice. The Algonquians of New England practiced a seasonal economy; the basic social unit was the village: a few hundred people related by a clan kinship structure. Villages were mobile; the people moved to locations of greatest natural food supply breaking into smaller units or gathering as the circumstances required. This custom resulted in a certain degree of cross-tribal mobility in troubled times. In warm weather, they constructed portable wigwams, a type of hut with buckskin doors.
In the winter, they erected the more substantial longhouses, in which more than one clan could reside. They cached food supplies in more semi-subterranean structures. In the spring, when the fish were spawning, they left the winter camps to build villages at coastal locations and waterfalls. In March, they caught moving about in birch bark canoes. In April, they netted alewife and salmon. In May, they caught cod with line in the ocean. Putting out to sea, the men hunted whales, porpoises and seals.dubious The women and children gathered scallops, mussels and crabs, all the basis of menus in New England today. From April through October, natives hunted migratory birds and their eggs: Canada geese, mourning doves and others. In July and August they gathered strawberries, raspberries and nuts. In September, they moved up the streams to the forest. There, the men hunted beaver, caribou and white-tailed deer. In December, when the snows began, the people created larger winter camps in sheltered locations, where they built or reconstructed longhouses.
February and March were lean times. The tribes in southern New England and other northern latitudes had to rely on cached food. Northerners developed a practice of going hungry for several days at a time. Historians hypothesize that this practice kept the population down, according to Liebig's law of the minimum. Northerners were food gatherers only; the southern Algonquians of New England burn agriculture. They cleared fields by burning for one or two years of cultivation, after which the village moved to another location; this is the reason the English found the region cleared and ready for planting. By using various kinds of native corn and squash, southern New England natives were able to improve their diet to such a degree that their population increased and they reached a density of 287 people per 100 square miles as opposed to 41 in the north. With mobile crop rotation, southern villages were less mobile than northern ones; the natives continued their seasonal occupation but tended to move into fixed villages near their lands.
They adjusted to the change by developing a gender-oriented division of labor. The women cultivated crops, the men fished and hunted. Scholars estimate that, by the year 1600, the indigenous population of New England had reached 70,000–100,000. At the time of the first European settlements in North America, Algonquian peoples occupied what is now New Brunswick, much of what is now Canada east of the Rocky Mountains, they were concentrated in the New England region. The homeland of the Algonquian peoples is not known. At the time of the European arrival, the hegemonic Iroquois Confederacy, based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, was at war with Algonquian neighbours. There are three "tribes" with plant uses that can be found at http://naeb.brit.org/uses/tribes/6/, http://naeb.brit.org/uses/tribes/7/, http://naeb.brit.org/uses/tribes/8/. The latter, "Tete-de-Boule," is an early European name for the Atikamekw; the French and English encountered the Maliseet of present-day Maine and New Brunswick.
Further north are the Betsiamite, Atikamekw and Innu/Naskapi. The Beothuk of Newfoundland might have been Algonquians, but as their last known speaker died in the early 19th century, little record of their language or culture remains. Colonists in the Massachusetts Bay area first encountered the Wampanoag, Nipmuck, Penobscot and Quinnipiac; the Mohegan, Pocumtuc and Narragansett were based in southern New England. The Abenaki were located in northern New England: present-day Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont in what became the United States and eastern Quebec in what became Canada, they had established trading relationships with French colonists who settled along the Atlantic coast and what was called the Saint Lawrence River. The Mahican was located in western New England and in the upper Hudson River Valley (around what was developed by Europeans as Albany