Squaxin Island Tribe
The Squaxin Island Indian Reservation is a Native American tribal government in western Washington state in the United States. The Squaxin Island Tribe is made up of several Lushootseed clans living along several inlets of southern Puget Sound: The Squaxin Island people spoke the Lushootseed language, they moved onto their reservation in modern-day Mason County, Washington, in 1855. The Squaxin Island Tribe was one of the first Native American tribes in the U. S. to enter into the Self Governance Demonstration Project with the federal government. The reservation is in southeastern Mason Washington. Most of the main reservation is composed of Squaxin Island, but there is a small part of 26.13 acres at Kamilche, in addition to two parcels of off-reservation trust land near Kamilche, as well as a plot of 6.03 acres across Pickering Passage from Squaxin Island and a plot of 35.93 acres on Harstine Island, across Peale Passage. The total land area including off-reservation trust lands is 6.942 km².
Of the total resident population of 405 persons, 383 lived in off-reservation trust land to the southeast of Kamilche, 22 lived on Harstine Island, while the bulk of the reservation's territory, Squaxin Island, was unpopulated. Squaxin Island Tribe had a Squaxin Island Museum and Research Center as early as 2007; the Squaxin Island Museum Library and Research Center was built circa 2002. The 13,000-square-foot building, designed by a Seattle architecture firm, is shaped to resemble Thunderbird in profile; the property the museum and cultural center stands on was gifted to the tribe by the Taylor family of nearby Taylor Shellfish. The Tribal Journeys began in 1989, intending to coincide with the centennial celebration for Washington State. A total of 9 canoes participated in the "Paddle to Seattle" journey, in 1993, 23 canoes participated in the "Paddle to Bella Bella". Since 1993, "Tribal Journeys" or "The Paddle" has been held annually, with various tribes serving as the host tribe. A total of 102 canoes landed for the "Paddle to Squaxin Island" journey.
An estimated 40,000 people attended or visited the "Paddle to Squaxin Island" journey, hosted by the Squaxin Museum and The Evergreen State College, funded by a National Endowment for the Arts "Our Town" grant. Protocol and Dining were held in an old baseball field; the quiet community was loud for a whole week. Months before the event, major construction was done. Many parking lots were made, a campground was built and a Reflecting Pond was put in the Tribal Government Campus. Tribes from around the country and world attended the event, such as New Zealand, Alaska, etc. Squaxin Island Reservation and Off-Reservation Trust Land, Washington United States Census Bureau. Squaxin Island Tribe, official website Squaxin Island Tribe history
Makah Reservation is an Indian reservation of the Makah Native Americans located on the northwestern tip of the Olympic Peninsula in Clallam County, United States. The northern boundary of the reservation is the Strait of Juan de Fuca; the western boundary is the Pacific Ocean. It has a land area of 121.451 square kilometres and a 2000 census resident population of 1,356 persons. Its largest community is Neah Bay; the Makah in the early twelfth century inhabited Washington. According to the Lewis and Clark expedition, they numbered some 2,000; the Makah are the southernmost of the Wakashan linguistic group, the only member of this family living within the current boundaries of the United States. Other bands are First Nations peoples on the west coast of British Columbia. Makah culture was fundamentally that of the Pacific Northwest Coast area. In 1855 they ceded all their lands to the United States except a small area on Cape Flattery, set aside as a reservation. Today most of the 1,600 Makah in the United States live on the Makah Reservation.
Non-tribal members visiting the reservation are required to purchase a pass upon entering the reservation. Guests on official business are given a free pass. Indigenous languages of the Americas Nuu-chah-nulth Makah Reservation, Washington United States Census Bureau makah.com "Makah Tribe", official website The Makah Tribe: People of the Sea and the Forest, University of Washington Library Makah Tribal Profile "Makah Prepare to Hunt Whales", Turtle Track Andrew Engelson, "Makah Tribe's trail eases access to a wild stretch of coastline", Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 20 November 2003 Forks Guide - S. R. 112 to Neah Bay
The Muckleshoot are a Lushootseed-speaking Native American tribe, part of the Coast Salish peoples of the Pacific Northwest. They are descendants of the Duwamish and Puyallup peoples whose traditional territory was located along the Green and White rivers, including up to the headwaters in the foothills of the Cascade Mountains, in present-day Washington State. Since the mid-19th century, their reservation is located in the area of Auburn, about 15 miles northeast of the port of Tacoma and 35 miles southeast of Seattle, another major port; the federally recognized Muckleshoot Indian Tribe is a group that formed post-Treaty, made up of related peoples who shared territory and a reservation near Auburn. They organized a government in 1936; these include the following: Buklshuhls - they lived along the White River, from present-day Kent eastwards to the mountains and to the Green River Duwamish - this people formed two bands before the mid-1850s Dxʷ'Dəw? Abš / Dkhw'Duw'Absh Xacuabš Snoqualmie - they lived along the Tolt River and the Snoqualmie River) Upper Puyallup people: Puyallup bands along the Upper Puyallup River White River Valley tribes:Stkamish / Skekomish Smulkamish / Smalhkamish - They lived in villages on the present Muckleshoot Indian Reservation and near present-day Enumclaw) Skopamish - They lived in the central Green River Valley above the former confluence near present-day Auburn.
The term skop means "first big and little," in apparent reference to fluctuations of the Green River. Another source says their name is derived from the village name ill-AHL-koh at the historic confluence of the White and Green rivers at the present-day town of Auburn from the striped appearance of the Green River below the confluence before the waters merged. Tkwakwamish / T'Qua-qua-mish Yilalkoamish tribe Dothliuk Traditionally, the ancestors of the Muckleshoot lived along the eastern shores of Washington State's Puget Sound region and the adjacent rivers of the Cascade Range, they spoke a local form of Lushootseed. Most Muckleshoot today do not speak their ancestral language; the tribe has an active program for its resuscitation. Most Muckleshoot now live near the 15.871 km ² Muckleshoot Reservation. They have an approximate population of more than 3,000, making the Muckleshoot one of the largest Native American tribes in Washington State; the 2000 census reported a resident population of 3,606 on reservation land, with 28.65 percent reported Native American heritage.
The Coast Salish and Muckleshoot had long absorbed other peoples into their tribes and have had multi-racial descendants. Their children are raised culturally as Muckleshoot; the reservation is located on Muckleshoot Prairie, between the White and Green rivers southeast of the city of Auburn in King and Pierce counties. The city of Auburn extends within the reservation; some 72.6 percent of the reservation's population lives within the city boundaries. Although they were skilled hunters, salmon fishing was the mainstay of traditional Coast Salish life; the people gathered and cured salmon, sometimes trading it with other peoples along the coast and inland. Because it was central to survival, salmon was treated with reverence. In the elaborate First Salmon Ceremony, still observed, the entire community shares the flesh of a Spring Chinook, they return its remains to the river. This is; the other ceremony for the first salmon is to roast it. The Muckleshoot toss the bones and ashes back into the water or stream where they took the salmon, believing that the fish would come alive again.
With a endless supply of food, the people could engage in various crafts, including weaving, wood-carving, basket-making. A complex social structure emerged, consisting of a nobility, middle class, slaves; the latter were captured members of other tribes taken in raids or warfare. Coast Salish life changed radically as a result of
Kitsap County, Washington
Kitsap County is located in the U. S. state of Washington. As of the 2010 census, its population was 251,133, its county seat is Port Orchard, its largest city is Bremerton. The county was formed out of King County and Jefferson County, Washington, on January 16, 1857 and is named for Chief Kitsap of the Suquamish Tribe. Named Slaughter County, it was soon renamed. Kitsap County comprises the Bremerton-Silverdale, WA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Seattle-Tacoma, WA Combined Statistical Area; the United States Navy is the largest employer in the county, with installations at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Naval Undersea Warfare Center Keyport, Naval Base Kitsap. Kitsap County is connected to the eastern shore of Puget Sound by Washington State Ferries routes, including the Seattle-Bremerton Ferry, Southworth to West Seattle via Vashon Island, Bainbridge Island to Downtown Seattle, from Kingston to Edmonds, Washington; the Kitsap Peninsula was acquired by the U. S. Government in three pieces by three treaties negotiated with the Native American tribes: The Treaty of Medicine Creek, signed 26 December 1854, ratified 3 March 1855 The Treaty of Point Elliott, signed 22 January 1855, ratified 11 April 1859 Point No Point Treaty, signed 26 January 1855, ratified 8 March 1859.
Territorial Governor Isaac Stevens represented the United States in all three negotiations. When the Washington Territory was organized in 1853, the Kitsap Peninsula was divided between King County to the east and Jefferson County to the west. Official public papers were required to be filed at the county seat, which meant Peninsula business people had to travel to either Seattle or Port Townsend to transact business. On the understanding that they would "bring home a new county," area mill operators George Meigs and William Renton supported the candidacies to the Territorial Legislature of two employees from their respective mills: Timothy Duane Hinckley from Meigs' and S. B. Wilson from Renton's. Upon arrival in Olympia, the two men introduced bills to create a new county, to be named "Madison". Representative Abernathy from Wahkiakum County proposed an amendment to name it "Slaughter", in recognition of Lt. William Alloway Slaughter, killed in 1855 in the Yakima War; the bill passed as amended.
It was signed by Governor Isaac Stevens on January 16, 1857. The county seat would be located in Meigs's mill town at Port Madison. In Slaughter County's first election on July 13, 1857, voters were given the opportunity to rename the county; the options were "Mill", "Madison" or "Kitsap". Slaughter was not one of the options. Kitsap won by an overwhelming majority. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 566 square miles, of which 395 square miles is land and 171 square miles is water, it is the fourth-smallest county in Washington by land third-smallest by total area. In addition to occupying most of the Kitsap Peninsula, Kitsap County includes both Bainbridge Island and Blake Island. According to Puget Sound Partnership, Kitsap county has over 250 miles of saltwater shoreline; the portion of the county north of Silverdale is referred to as North Kitsap, the portion south of Bremerton as South Kitsap. Island County - northeast Snohomish County - east King County - east/southeast Pierce County - south/southeast Mason County - southwest Jefferson County - northwest As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 251,133 people, 97,220 households, 65,820 families residing in the county.
The population density was 635.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 107,367 housing units at an average density of 271.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 82.6% white, 4.9% Asian, 2.6% black or African American, 1.6% American Indian, 0.9% Pacific islander, 1.6% from other races, 5.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 6.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 21.3% were German, 14.4% were Irish, 13.8% were English, 7.1% were Norwegian, 4.2% were American. Of the 97,220 households, 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.2% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.3% were non-families, 25.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.97. The median age was 39.4 years. The median income for a household in the county was $59,549 and the median income for a family was $71,065. Males had a median income of $52,282 versus $38,499 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $29,755. About 6.1% of families and 9.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.8% of those under age 18 and 5.3% of those age 65 or over. Bainbridge Island Bremerton Port Orchard Poulsbo Kitsap County is been considered to be a Democratic area. In the 2016 U. S. presidential election, Democrat Hillary Clinton received 49.05% of the vote to Republican Donald Trump's 38.07%. On mainland Kitsap County, politics are dominated by working-class Bremerton, which casts moderate margins for Democratic candidates. However, population shifts have resulted in Bremerton playing less of a role in politics, unincorporated Kitsap County is a mix of battleground areas and staunchly Republican areas. Non-Bremerton parts of incorporated mainland Kitsap County vary, with Silverdale having become a Republican stronghold, Poulsbo marginally Democratic, Port Orchard electing Republican candidates over Democrats. Democrats carry the Indian reservations of the area by wide margins.
Port Madison Indian Reservation
The Port Madison Native Reservation is an Indian reservation in the U. S. state of Washington belonging to the Suquamish Tribe, a federally recognized indigenous nation and signatory to the Treaty of Point Elliott of 1855. The reservation is located in northern Kitsap County and consists of 7,657 acres, of which 1,475 acres are owned by the Suquamish Tribe, 2,601 acres are owned by individual citizens of the Suquamish Tribe, 3,581 acres are owned by non-Indians; the reservation is divided into two separate parcels by Miller Bay. The towns of Suquamish and Indianola both lie within the bounds of the reservation. A resident population of 6,536 persons was counted in the 2000 census; the reservation was authorized by the Point Elliott Treaty of January 22, 1855, for the Suquamish people, was established by an executive order issued October 21, 1864. Other Coast Salish peoples, including the Duwamish and Sammamish moved to the reservation; when the land was reserved by the Point Elliott Treaty, all land was held by Tribal members and designated for their sole use.
However, a series of procedures designed to accommodate non-Indian land acquisition created a situation where the reservation is interspersed with non-Tribal ownership. Successful economic development since the early 1990s has given the Suquamish Tribe government the ability to reacquire land lost during the allotment era, "the Tribe and Tribal members now own more than half of the land on the reservation for the first time in recent history," Suquamish Tribe communications director April Leigh said in a story in the North Kitsap Herald. Recent major acquisitions include White Horse Golf Club in 2010, placed into trust in March 2014. Completion of the Suquamish Museum in 2012 helped solidify Suquamish Village as a walkable cultural district which includes the grave of Chief Si'ahl, or Seattle, at the Suquamish Cemetery. On Suquamish Way and Highway 305, near the Agate Pass Bridge, is the Suquamish Clearwater Casino Resort, an events and entertainment destination, with 15,000 square feet of meeting space, a hotel with 183 rooms overlooking Agate Pass, a showcase of Coast Salish art.
Port Madison Reservation, Washington United States Census Bureau Suquamish Tribe of the Port Madison Indian Reservation, official website
Ferry County, Washington
Ferry County is a county located on the northern border of the U. S. state of Washington. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,551, making it the fourth-least populous county in Washington; the county seat and largest city is Republic. The county was created out of Stevens County in February 1899 and is named for Elisha P. Ferry, the state's first governor. During the time of Washington Territory, the Territorial Legislature created Stevens County in 1863, containing the entire NE corner of the new state, as well as portions of Montana and Idaho; the original area of Stevens County was carved off to form thirteen counties. The western section of Stevens County was separated and named Ferry County, in recognition of the Territory's final governor and the State's first governor, Elisha P. Ferry; the new county's area nearly equalled the remaining territory of Stevens County. The town of Republic is the county's seat of government, as well as the largest town, it was founded at the end of the nineteenth century by gold prospectors, was incorporated in 1900.
The original county courthouse, made of wood, burned in 1934. Its replacement, made of concrete and stucco, is presently being considered for historical preservation. Ferry County reaches to Canada on the north, to the Columbia River on the east, its southern portion is in the boundary of the Colville Indian Reservation, controlled by the Colville Confederated Tribes, its northern portion is occupied by Colville National Forest. As a result, only eighteen percent of the total county area is taxable-use ground; the county's economy is basedon timber-extraction, mining. Ferry County’s topography and climate make it an ideal recreation destination, so tourism is becoming a significant portion of the county's economy. Washington State Highway 20, designated a National Scenic Highway, crosses the county east-west, has the state's highest navigable pass; the county seat, Republic, is the site of the Stonerose Interpretive Center and Fossil Site, which exhibits and explains Eocene-era fossils from an ancient lake bed north of Republic.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,257 square miles, of which 2,203 square miles is land and 54 square miles is water. Most of the county is covered by the rugged Kettle River Range, which extends from the Canada–US border to its southernmost perimeter bounded by the Columbia River and Lake Roosevelt. Only a narrow north–south strip running the length of the county on the west between the San Poil River and the Okanogan County line is covered by the Okanogan Highland. Except for the town of Republic, the county is sparsely populated. Columbia River Kettle River Sanpoil River Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, called Lake Roosevelt Curlew Lake Swan Lake Ferry Lake Fish Lake Long Lake Stevens County, east Lincoln County, southwest Okanogan County, west Kootenay Boundary Regional District, British Columbia, north Pacific Northwest National Scenic Trail Colville National Forest Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area As of the census of 2000, there were 7,260 people, 2,823 households, 1,987 families residing in the county.
The population density was 3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,775 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 75.48% White, 0.21% Black or African American, 18.28% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 2.23% from other races, 3.46% from two or more races. 2.82% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 14.1% were of German, 9.5% United States or American, 9.1% Irish, 7.6% English ancestry. 96.7% spoke English and 1.9% Spanish as their first language. There were 2,823 households out of which 30.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.70% were married couples living together, 10.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.60% were non-families. 24.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.95. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.90% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 23.40% from 25 to 44, 29.50% from 45 to 64, 12.60% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 107.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,388, the median income for a family was $35,691. Males had a median income of $32,103 versus $23,371 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,019. About 13.30% of families and 19.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.40% of those under age 18 and 10.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 7,551 people, 3,190 households, 2,070 families residing in the county; the population density was 3.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,403 housing units at an average density of 2.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 76.3% white, 16.7% American Indian, 0.7% Asian, 0.3% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.2% from other races, 4.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.4% of the population.
In terms of ancestry, 23.0% were German, 18.0% were English, 12.3% were Irish, 3.7% were American. Of the 3,190 households, 23.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.2% were married couples living together, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.1% were non-families, 28.5% of all households were made up of individuals
Snohomish County, Washington
Snohomish County is a county located in the U. S. state of Washington. With an estimated population of 801,633 as of 2017, it is the third-most populous county in Washington, after nearby King and Pierce counties; the county seat and largest city is Everett. The county was created out of Island County on January 14, 1861 and is named for the Snohomish tribe. Snohomish County is included in WA Metropolitan Statistical Area; the western portion of the county, facing Puget Sound and other bodies of water, has the majority of its population and cities. The eastern portion of the county is mountainous and is part of the Cascade Mountains and the Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, with few settlements along major rivers. "Snohomish" comes from the name of the largest Native American tribe in the area when settlers arrived in the 19th century. The name is spelled as "Sdoh-doh-hohbsh" in the Lushootseed language and has a disputed meaning with unclear origins, with Indian agent Dr. Charles M. Buchanan once saying that he had "never met an Indian who could give a meaning to the word Snohomish" in his 21 years with the Tulalips.
Chief William Shelton, the last hereditary tribal chief of the Snohomish tribe, claimed that it meant "lowland people", a name associated with the tribe's location on the waters of the Puget Sound. The name is used for the Snohomish River, which runs through part of the county, the City of Snohomish, the former county seat, renamed after the formation of the county; the current spelling of the name was adopted by the Surveyor General of Washington Territory in 1857, with earlier documents and accounts using alternative spellings. John Work of the Hudson's Bay Company recorded the name "Sinnahmis" in 1824, while the Wilkes Expedition of 1841 used "Tuxpam" to describe the Snohomish River; the same river was named "Sinahomis" by Captain Henry Kellett in 1847, was accepted by the U. S. government for several years. Snohomish County was inhabited by several Coast Salish groups, predominantly settled along the western coastline and near the region's rivers; the Snohomish were the largest group and occupied an area from present-day Warm Beach to Shoreline, while Stillaguamish lived in the Stillaguamish River basin.
The region was first charted and named by European explorers in the late 18th century, beginning with Captain George Vancouver and his British expedition. Vancouver arrived in Puget Sound and Port Gardner Bay on June 4, 1792, landing near present-day Everett; the Treaty of Point Elliott was signed at present-day Mukilteo on January 22, 1855, marking the cession of Coast Salish territories in the Puget Sound lowlands. The Tulalip Indian Reservation was established to house the remaining tribes, including the Snohomish and Skykomish. Snohomish County was created out of Island County on January 14, 1861; the territorial legislature designated Mukilteo, the area's largest settlement, as the temporary county seat in January 1861. The county government was permanently moved to Cadyville Snohomish, in July of that year. After the incorporation of the city of Everett in 1893, the city's leaders attempted to move the county seat from Snohomish. A countywide general election on November 6, 1894 chose to relocate the county seat to Everett, amid controversy and allegations of illegal votes.
After two years of litigation between the cities of Snohomish and Everett, the county seat was relocated to Everett in December 1896. One of the first county censuses was taken in 1862 by Sheriff Salem A. Woods. Early important pioneers in the Snohomish County region included E. F. Cady of Snohomish, E. C. Ferguson of Snohomish and Isaac Cathcart. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,196 square miles, of which 2,087 square miles is land and 109 square miles is water. Snohomish County is located in the western part of Washington, about halfway between the state's north and south borders. Possession Sound and Puget Sound define the county's western border, while the eastern border is defined by the summits of the Cascade Range. Four counties are adjacent to Snohomish County: Skagit County to the north, Chelan County to the east, King County to the south, Island County to the west; the county's surface is covered by plains in the mountainous terrain in the east. The Cascade Range passes through the eastern part of the county and includes the highest point in Snohomish County, Glacier Peak at 10,541 feet above sea level.
Most of the eastern part of the county is preserved by the Mount Baker National Forest and Snoqualmie National Forest, which are consolidated into the Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. The mountains provide a source for several major rivers in the east, including the Snohomish, Skykomish and Stillaguamish, that in turn form major bodies of water to the west; as of the 2010 census, there were 713,335 people, 268,325 households, 182,282 families residing in the county. The population density was 341.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 286,659 housing units at an average density of 137.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 78.4% white, 8.9% Asian, 2.5% black or African American, 1.4% American Indian, 0.4% Pacific islander, 3.8% from other races, 4.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 9.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 20.3% were German, 12.6% were Irish, 12.2% were English, 8.2% were Norwegian, 3.6% were American. Of the 268,325 households, 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.4% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husban