Dawes County, Nebraska
Dawes County is a county in the U. S. state of Nebraska. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,182, the county was formed in 1885 and named after Governor James W. Dawes. In the Nebraska license plate system, Dawes County is represented by the prefix 69. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,401 square miles, the population density was 6 people per square mile. There were 4,004 housing units at a density of 3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93. 34% White,0. 81% Black or African American,2. 88% Native American,0. 31% Asian,0. 06% Pacific Islander,1. 03% from other races, and 1. 58% from two or more races. 2. 43% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,38. 0% were of German,9. 9% English,9. 2% Irish and 7. 4% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 31. 00% of all households were made up of individuals and 12. 90% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.87.
In the county, the population was out with 21. 20% under the age of 18,23. 40% from 18 to 24,20. 40% from 25 to 44,20. 30% from 45 to 64. The median age was 31 years, for every 100 females there were 95.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.10 males, the median income for a household in the county was $29,476, and the median income for a family was $41,092. Males had an income of $29,162 versus $17,404 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,353, about 9. 80% of families and 18. 90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14. 40% of those under age 18 and 9. 80% of those age 65 or over. Dawes County Nebraska Historic Buildings Survey, Nebraska, Nebraska State Historical Society
Buffalo Bill Ranch
Buffalo Bill Ranch State Historical Park, known as Scouts Rest Ranch, is a living history state park located west of North Platte, Nebraska. The ranch was established in 1878 with a purchase of 160 acres south of the Union Pacific tracks by William Cody. The 4,000 acre ranch was sold in 1911 and has been under the management of the Nebraska Game, the 25 acre historic state park, deemed a National Historic Landmark in 1978, is open weekdays from April to October. The house and outbuildings can be toured, including a museum documenting Cody’s life from a Pony Express rider to his Wild West shows, in 1877 Cody contacted Major Frank North, the leader of the Pawnee Scouts, who was living in Sidney, Nebraska. Cody founded the Cody-North Partnership with the North brothers to form a cattle business, North found land along the Dismal River,65 miles north of North Platte, on which cattle could graze and a ranch could be built. Cody continued touring his “Buffalo Bill’s Wild West” show while North purchased cattle at the end of the Texas cattle trail, near Ogallala.
North hired cowboys to help operate the ranch while Cody was on tour, the ranch grew in size to encompass seven thousand acres. 2,500 acres were planted for alfalfa and 2,500 were corn, the Omaha Bee reported on Cody’s ranching operations several times. The Bee described the ranch as one of the most improved farms in Nebraska, in cooperation with Isaac Dillon, a neighboring rancher and Dillon built a 12 mile irrigation ditch, capable of watering 6,000 acres of crops. This property was financially viable for Cody, by the 1880s, other homesteaders had begun to move into this area of Nebraska and had taken grazing land. In 1882 the Cody-North Ranching Operation ended and was out by John Bratt. During the time of owning the Cody-North Ranch, in 1878, the first purchase of land was 160 acres for $750, south of the Union Pacific tracks that run through North Platte. Cody purchased nearly 4,000 more acres adjacent to North Platte, an eighteen-room mansion on the property which was a treeless prairie.
Cody had land in Kansas that had tall, established trees. Al Goodman, his brother-in-law, discovered why trees would not grow on his new property or the North Platte area, Goodman found issues of water absorption and planted many cottonwoods and box-elder around the property, able to withstand the conditions. The ranch now had many growing trees and this information was shared with the people of North Platte to increase tree population in the area. Louisa and their daughters moved to North Platte in February 1878 and they monitored the property, where Cody wanted to retire. Cody showed his new land and brought out family and these guests, along with his family, spent time with the cowboys employed on the ranch
Fort Kearny was a historic outpost of the United States Army founded in 1848 in the western U. S. during the middle and late 19th century. The fort was named after Col. and General Stephen W. Kearny, the outpost was located along the Oregon Trail near Kearney, Nebraska. The town of Kearney took its name from the fort, the e was added to Kearny by postmen who consistently misspelled the town name. The fort became the anchor of the Great Platte River Road and thus an important military. Wagon trains moving west, were able to resupply after completing about a sixth of the journey, the fort offered a safe resting area for the eastern immigrants in this new and hostile land. Livestock could be traded for fresh stock and letters sent back to the States, the fort continued to expand over the years, until there were over 30 buildings before its closure in 1871. It took on roles as a Pony Express station, an Overland Stage station. The fort was built in response to the growth of emigration to Oregon after 1845.
The first post, Fort Kearny, was established in the spring of 1848 near the head of the Grand Island along the Platte River by Lieutenant Daniel P. Woodbury. It was first called Fort Childs, but in 1848 the post was renamed Fort Kearny in honor of General Stephen Watts Kearny, the earliest surviving photograph of the post, taken in 1858 by Samuel C. Mills, shows the post as a collection of adobe buildings without any wall or fortifications, by the 1860s the fort had become a significant state and freighting station and home station of the Pony Express. During the Indian Wars of 1864-1865 a small stockade was built upon the earth embankment still visible. Although never under attack, the post did serve as a depot for several Indian campaigns. The fort was a source of provisions for emigrants on the early section of the trail for several decades during the height of the trail use until its abandonment in 1871. At the height of the trail use in the 1850s. One of the forts final duties was the protection of workers building the Union Pacific, in 1871, two years after the completion of the transcontinental railroad, the fort was discontinued as a military post.
Its buildings were disassembled and moved West to outfit newer posts, the fort was intended mostly as a supply post, and not as defensive position in the Indian Wars. Throughout most of its history, the fort consisted mostly of buildings surrounding a central parade ground without fortified walls
Dixon County, Nebraska
Dixon County is a county in the U. S. state of Nebraska. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,000, the county was created in 1856 and attached to Dakota County. Dixon County is part of the Sioux City, IA–NE–SD Metropolitan Statistical Area, in the Nebraska license plate system, Dixon County is represented by the prefix 35. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 483 square miles, U. S. Dixon was named for an early settler. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,339 people,2,413 households, the population density was 13 people per square mile. There were 2,673 housing units at a density of 6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 94. 64% White,0. 03% Black or African American,0. 49% Native American,0. 27% Asian,3. 79% from other races,5. 49% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 45. 5% were of German,10. 4% Irish,8. 5% Swedish,5. 9% American,5. 9% Norwegian and 5. 1% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 25. 90% of all households were made up of individuals and 14. 40% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.12.
In the county, the population was out with 27. 50% under the age of 18,7. 10% from 18 to 24,24. 90% from 25 to 44,22. 40% from 45 to 64. The median age was 39 years, for every 100 females there were 98.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.50 males, the median income for a household in the county was $34,201, and the median income for a family was $41,122. Males had an income of $27,784 versus $20,573 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,350, about 7. 50% of families and 10. 00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12. 40% of those under age 18 and 9. 00% of those age 65 or over. Ponca Wakefield Lime Grove National Register of Historic Places listings in Dixon County, Nebraska
St. Deroin, Nebraska
St. Deroin is a ghost town in Nemaha County, originally located below the river bluffs on the Missouri River. Formally chartered in 1854, the town had a ferry crossing over the Missouri River for more than three decades. The river changed course, ending the ferry, after a railroad spur bypassed the town, it drew off more commerce. The community rebuilt its school on the river bluff when it was threatened by flooding, the town was completely abandoned by 1920, as flooding had destroyed much of the townsite. The site is at the edge of Indian Cave State Park. Founded by half-breeds to serve the Nemaha Half-Breed Reservation, the town grew up around a trading post and was named in 1853 after Joseph Deroin, Deroin was the son of a Métis French Canadian trapper Amable De Rouins and his Otoe wife. The elder De Rouins had traded along the nearby Missouri River for decades, in 1840, Joseph Deroin set up a trading post along the rivers edge at the mouth of the Platte River, at the main village of the Otoe.
He married Meek-Ka-Ahu-me, an Omaha woman, and they had a daughter Mary, in 1842, Deroin married the two Métis sisters and Susée Baskette, who were daughters of an Otoe woman, together he had a total of eight children with them. Joseph and his brother John Deroin each received allotments of land at the Nemaha Reservation, josephs daughter Mary and his third wife, Susée Baskette Deroin, were recorded as having allotments there. Joseph was killed in 1858 by a settler in a dispute over money owed. Increasingly, white settlers were moving into Otoe and Omaha land, as well as the Nemaha Reservation and they laid out a townsite below the river bluffs in 1856. Although the Native Americans appealed to the US government to remove the interlopers, european American settlers moved in around Deroins trading post and named the town St. Deroin, hoping to link it to the downriver cities of St. Joseph and St. Louis. From 1854, a ferry service brought passengers from Iowa across the Missouri, in addition to the early trading post and ferry service, a U. S.
Post Office operated in the town from 1861 to 1910, the town had a subscription school that was started in 1858. Residents built a schoolhouse in 1868, when river commerce revived after the end of the American Civil War. In 1912 when the river was rapidly swallowing the town site, other buildings in town included a hotel and two blacksmith shops. In the 1870s, at probably its peak, the town had nearly 200 residents and 20 businesses. By 1880, its population had dropped to about 90, steamboats became infrequent and, with construction of a railroad spur between Nemaha and Shubert, Nebraska that bypassed St. Deroin, its economic life dried up
United States Army
The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, from the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and it played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold Wars onset, the U. S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its personnel from a pool of paid volunteers. As of 2016, the United States spends about $580.3 billion annually to fund its military forces, put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the worlds military expenditures.
For the period 2010–14, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute found that the United States was the worlds largest exporter of major arms, the United States was the worlds eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U. S. military dates to 1775 and these forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Army, the Continental Navy, the United States President is the U. S. militarys commander-in-chief. Rising tensions at various times with Britain and France and the ensuing Quasi-War and War of 1812 quickened the development of the U. S. Navy, the reserve branches formed a military strategic reserve during the Cold War, to be called into service in case of war. Time magazines Mark Thompson has suggested that with the War on Terror, Command over the armed forces is established in the United States Constitution. The sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief, the Constitution allows for the creation of executive Departments headed principal officers whose opinion the President can require.
This allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act, the Defense Department is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and member of the Cabinet. The Defense Secretary is second in the chain of command, just below the President. Together, the President and the Secretary of Defense comprise the National Command Authority, to coordinate military strategy with political affairs, the President has a National Security Council headed by the National Security Advisor. The collective body has only power to the President
The Platte River /plæt/ is a major river in the state of Nebraska and is about 310 mi long. Measured to its farthest source via its tributary the North Platte River, the Platte River is a tributary of the Missouri River, which itself is a tributary of the Mississippi River which flows to the Gulf of Mexico. The Platte over most of its length is a muddy, shallow, meandering stream with a swampy bottom and these characteristics made it too difficult for canoe travel, and it was never used as a major navigation route by European-American trappers or explorers. This expression is very close to the French words rivière plate, in central north Colorado is the North Park valley, ringed by mountains of 12,000 feet height, this is where the North Platte River originates. The nearest Colorado town is Walden, the county seat, the rugged Rocky Mountains Continental Divide surrounding Jackson County have at least twelve peaks over 11,000 feet in height. From Jackson County, the North Platte flows north about 200 miles out of the Routt National Forest and North Park near what is now Walden to Casper, Wyoming.
Shortly after passing Casper, the North Platte turns to the east-southeast and flows about 350 miles to the city of North Platte, Nebraska. In Colorado and Wyoming, the North Platte is narrower and much swifter flowing than it is in Nebraska, the North Platte River has been dammed about eight times for water storage and irrigation purposes in Wyoming and Nebraska as it flows to its confluence with the South Platte River. The upper reaches of the river in the Rockies in Colorado and Wyoming are popular for rafting and lure and fly fishing for rainbow, cutthroat trout. In western Nebraska, the banks and riverbed of the North Platte provide a green oasis amid an otherwise semi-arid region of North America, today, by the time the North Platte reaches Paxton, Nebraska it is much smaller due to the extensive water taken from it for irrigation. Historically, the North Platte River was up to a mile wide in places, as evidenced by the old streambed. The South Platte drains a part of the Front Range mountains east of the continental divide.
The part of the river labeled the South Platte is formed in Park County, located southwest of Denver, in the South Park grassland basin and mountains east of the continental divide. It is formed by the confluence of the South Fork South Platte River and Middle Fork South Platte River, approximately 15 miles southeast of Fairplay, Colorado. From Greeley, the South Platte turns east and flows about 200 miles to its confluence with the North Platte River near the city of North Platte, Nebraska. The South Platte River has been dammed about 20 times for storage, drinking water. The total number of dams in the South Platte drainage may exceed 1,000 as nearly all major streams have at least one dam on them, the South Platte River serves as the principal source of water for arid eastern Colorado. The South Platte River valley provided a major emigration path to Denver, the wagon trails followed the south side of the Platte/North Platte River
Smith Falls, at 63 feet, is the highest waterfall in the state of Nebraska. Located 18 miles east of Valentine, the falls is part of Smith Falls State Park and is adjacent to the Niobrara National Scenic River, the 252-acre state park was established by the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission in 1992. In 1996, the historic Verdigris bridge was moved to its present site spanning the Niobrara River to provide more convenient public access, the falls are on a short spring-fed stream that plunges into a small canyon on the south side of the Niobrara. The canyon is home to paper birch and an endemic hybrid grove of quaking aspen, during the Wisconsin glaciation that ended around 10,000 years ago, north-central Nebraska was much cooler than it is today. The ice age climate supported boreal forest trees like birches, spruces, as the glaciers retreated, so did the boreal forest, which is ill-suited for hot, dry summers. However, the canyons along the Niobrara sheltered some of these trees. The spruce trees did not survive in Nebraska, the nearest extant population is in the Black Hills of South Dakota, a small population of paper birches and aspens survive, protected by the cool microclimates of the small canyons that feed into the Niobrara River.
The continued survival of these trees is threatened by warming temperatures, the paper birch population around Smith Falls is not currently reproducing, and may soon die out. Smith Falls State Park offers tent camping, fishing, Smith Falls State Park Nebraska Game and Parks Commission Smith Falls State Park Map Nebraska Game and Parks Commission
Ashfall Fossil Beds
Ash from a Yellowstone hotspot eruption 10-12 million years ago created these fossilized bone beds. The Ashfall Fossil Beds are especially famous for fossils of mammals from the middle Miocene geologic epoch, the Ashfall Fossil Beds are stratigraphically part of the Serravallian-age Ogallala Group. The fall of ash drifted downwind from the Bruneau-Jarbidge supervolcano eruption, a large number of very well preserved fossil Teleoceras, small three-toed and one-toed horses and birds have been excavated. Many animals were preserved with their bones articulated, one still bears her unborn fetus. The bones of the show features that indicate that the animals died of lung failure induced by inhaling volcanic ash. The smaller animals with smaller lung capacity were the first to die, bite-marks on some bones show that local predators scavenged some of the carcasses, but no predator remains have yet surfaced. There are abundant clues to the ecology, indicating a savanna of grassland interspersed with trees that luxuriated in a warmer, milder climate than todays.
The rapidly accumulating ash, windblown into deep drifts at low places like the waterhole site, the ash preserved the animals in three dimensions, not even the delicate bones of birds or the carapaces of turtles were crushed. Above the layer of ash, a stratum of more erosion-resistant sandstone has acted as caprock to preserve the strata beneath, the first hint of the sites richness was the skull of a juvenile rhinoceros noticed in 1971 eroding out of a gully at the edge of a cornfield. The state purchased the Ashfall site in 1987, it became Ashfall Fossil Beds State Historical Park in 1991, the site was declared a National Natural Landmark on May 9,2006. The remains of Teleoceras are so numerous and concentrated that the section of Ashfall is called the Rhino Barn. Other fossils at the Rhino Barn include the remains of horses,81, University of Nebraska State Museum Ashfall Fossil Beds Fossilworks, Gateway to the Paleobiology Database Ashfall NebraskaStudies. org
Niobrara State Park
Niobrara State Park is a public recreation area located on the bluffs at the confluence of the Missouri and Niobrara rivers in the northeast corner of Nebraska. The state park is on the outskirts of the village of Niobrara, the state park has 1,640 acres of land and 7 acres of water. The park includes the Niobrara River Bridge, a railroad bridge listed on the National Register of Historic Places. A variety of animals, most notably the white-tailed deer, roam about the park, at night, one can hear the call of the whippoorwill as it mingles around the howl of the coyote. Park facilities include a pool and interpretive center. Visitors can tour the park via 7 miles of roads and 14 miles of hiking trails, the park offers RV and primitive camping as well as cabins that overlook the river. Niobrara National Scenic River Missouri National Recreational River Niobrara State Park Nebraska Game and Parks Commission Niobrara State Park Map Nebraska Game and Parks Commission
Indian Cave State Park
The 3, 052-acre state park preserves a cave with prehistoric petroglyphs and the partially reconstructed village of St. Deroin established in 1853 and part of the former Nemaha Half-Breed Reservation. Some of the carvings within Indian Cave are believed to be several years old. The park offers horseback riding, hiking trails and picnic facilities, fishing areas, Indian Cave State Park Nebraska Game and Parks Commission Indian Cave State Park Trail Map Nebraska Game and Parks Commission
Lake McConaughy is a reservoir on the North Platte River. It is located 9 miles north of Ogallala, United States, near U. S. Highway 26, the reservoir was named for Charles W. McConaughy, a grain merchant and mayor of Holdrege, one of the leading promoters of the project. When full, the reservoir has a capacity of 1,740,000 acre feet, covers 35,700 acres and has 76 miles of shoreline, making it the largest reservoir in Nebraska. Lake McConaughy was constructed to store water for irrigation for The Tri-County, renamed Central Nebraska Public Power, a hydro-electric plant was added and went online in 1984. The total cost of the Project was $43 million, paid by a $19 million PWA grant, the Depression-era construction project provided jobs to more than 1,500 people. CNPPID, a subdivision of the State of Nebraska and operates the dam and reservoir. The source of water for Lake McConaughy is primarily the North Platte River, water flows into the lake from a 32, 500-square-mile drainage area west of the dam.
Return flows from these projects to the North Platte River make up a significant portion of the inflows to Lake McConaughy, on the east side of Kingsley Dam is Lake Ogallala, commonly called the Little Lake. This smaller lake has rocky shores, but is known for great camping and fishing. Lake McConaughy is a location for fishing, water sports. The Nebraska Game and Parks Commission operates a State Recreation Area at the lake, nGPCs offices are at the Lake McConaughy Visitors Center just south of the dam. The Visitor Center contains an interpretive center, gift shop, theater. The current superintendent of Lake McConaughy State Recreation Area is Colby Johnson, Kingsley Dam is located at the east end of Lake McConaughy and was the second largest hydraulically filled earthen dam in the world on the time of its completion. The dam was named for George P. Kingsley, a Minden, Nebraska banker, who worked with C. W. McConaughy to promote the project. The dam was built by pumping sand and gravel from the bed to form its sides, while pumping a mixture of loess soil.
Seepage of water under the dam is prevented by a wall of interlocked sheet piling driven 30 to 160 ft deep, the dams face is protected by more than a million tons of rock in several layers and more than 180,000 jackstones, each weighing 800 lb. The dam is 162 feet tall,3.1 miles long, the Kingsley Hydroplant, which went on-line in 1984, is situated below the south end of the dam