United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country. UNHCR was created in 1950, during the aftermaths of World War II, its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland and it is a member of the United Nations Development Group. The UNHCR has won two Nobel Peace Prizes, once in 1954 and again in 1981 and a Prince of Asturias Awards for International Cooperation in 1991. Following the demise of the League of Nations and the formation of the United Nations the international community was acutely aware of the refugee crisis following the end of World War II. In 1947, the International Refugee Organization was founded by the United Nations; the IRO was the first international agency to deal comprehensively with all aspects of refugees' lives. Preceding this was the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, established in 1944 to address the millions of people displaced across Europe as a result of World War II.
In the late 1940s, the IRO fell out of favor, but the UN agreed that a body was required to oversee global refugee issues. Despite many heated debates in the General Assembly, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees was founded as a subsidiary organ of the General Assembly by Resolution 319 of the United Nations General Assembly of December 1949. However, the organization was only intended to operate for 3 years, from January 1951, due to the disagreement of many UN member states over the implications of a permanent body. UNHCR's mandate was set out in its statute, annexed to resolution 428 of the United Nations General Assembly of 1950; this mandate has been subsequently broadened by numerous resolutions of the General Assembly and its Economic and Social Council. According to UNHCR, mandate is to provide, on a non-political and humanitarian basis, international protection to refugees and to seek permanent solutions for them. Soon after the signing of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, it became clear that refugees were not restricted to Europe.
In 1956, UNHCR was involved in coordinating the response to the uprising in Hungary. Just a year UNHCR was tasked with dealing with Chinese refugees in Hong Kong, while responding Algerian refugees who had fled to Morocco and Tunisia in the wake of Algeria's war for independence; the responses marked the beginning of a wider, global mandate in refugee protection and humanitarian assistance. Decolonization in the 1960s triggered large refugee movements in Africa, creating a massive challenge that would transform UNHCR. By the end of the decade, two-thirds of UNHCR's budget was focused on operations in Africa and in just one decade, the organization's focus had shifted from an exclusive focus on Europe. In 1967, the Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees was ratified to remove the geographical and temporal restrictions of UNHCR under the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees; as the Convention was confined to the refugee crisis in the aftermath of World War II in Europe, the Protocol was made to address the “new refugee situations that have arisen since the Convention was adopted and the refugees concerned that may therefore not fall within the scope of the Convention”.
In the 1970s, UNHCR refugee operations continued to spread around the globe, with the mass exodus of East Pakistanis to India shortly before the birth of Bangladesh. Adding to the woes in Asia was the Vietnam war, with millions fleeing the war-torn country; the 1980s saw new challenges for UNHCR, with many member states unwilling to resettle refugees due to the sharp rise in refugee numbers over the 1970s. These refugees were not fleeing wars between states, but inter-ethnic conflict in newly independent states; the targeting of civilians as military strategy added to the displacement in many nations, so even'minor' conflicts could result in a large number of displaced persons. Whether in Asia, Central America or Africa, these conflicts, fueled by superpower rivalry and aggravated by socio-economic problems within the concerned countries, durable solutions continued to prove a massive challenge for the UNHCR; as a result, the UNHCR became more involved with assistance programs within refugee camps located in hostile environments.
The end of the Cold War marked continued inter-ethnic conflict and contributed to refugee flight. In addition, humanitarian intervention by multinational forces became more frequent and the media began to play a big role in the lead up to the 1999 NATO mission in Yugoslavia, while by contrast, the 1994 Rwandan Genocide had little attention; the genocide in Rwanda caused a massive refugee crisis, again highlighting the difficulties for UNHCR to uphold its mandate, the UNHCR continued to battle against restrictive asylum policies in so called'rich' nations. UNHCR was established on 14 December 1950 and succeeded the earlier United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration; the agency is mandated to lead and co-ordinate international action to protect refugees and resolve refugee problems worldwide. Its primary purpose is to safeguard the rights and well-being of refugees, it strives to ensure that everyone can exercise the right to seek asylum and find safe refuge in another state, with the option to return home voluntarily, integrate locally or to resettle in a third c
John Bardeen was an American physicist and electrical engineer. He is the only person to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics twice: first in 1956 with William Shockley and Walter Brattain for the invention of the transistor; the transistor revolutionized the electronics industry, making possible the development of every modern electronic device, from telephones to computers, ushering in the Information Age. Bardeen's developments in superconductivity—for which he was awarded his second Nobel Prize—are used in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and medical magnetic resonance imaging. In 1990, Bardeen appeared on LIFE Magazine's list of "100 Most Influential Americans of the Century." Bardeen was born in Madison, Wisconsin, on May 23, 1908. He was the son of the first dean of the University of Wisconsin Medical School. Bardeen attended the University High School at Madison, he graduated from the school in 1923 at age 15. He could have graduated several years earlier, but this was postponed because he took courses at another high school and because of his mother's death.
He entered the University of Wisconsin in 1923. While in college, he joined the Zeta Psi fraternity, he raised the needed membership fees by playing billiards. He was initiated as a member of Tau Beta Pi engineering honor society, he chose engineering. He felt that engineering had good job prospects. Bardeen received his Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering in 1928 from the University of Wisconsin–Madison, he graduated in 1928 despite taking a year off to work in Chicago. He took all the graduate courses in physics and mathematics that had interested him, he graduated in five years instead of the usual four; this allowed him time to complete his Master's thesis, supervised by Leo J. Peters, he received his Master of Science degree in electrical engineering in 1929 from Wisconsin. Bardeen furthered his studies by staying on at Wisconsin, but he went to work for Gulf Research Laboratories, the research arm of the Gulf Oil Corporation, based in Pittsburgh. From 1930 to 1933, Bardeen worked there on the development of methods for the interpretation of magnetic and gravitational surveys.
He worked as a geophysicist. After the work failed to keep his interest, he applied and was accepted to the graduate program in mathematics at Princeton University; as a graduate student, Bardeen studied physics. Under physicist Eugene Wigner, he ended up writing his thesis on a problem in solid-state physics. Before completing his thesis, he was offered a position as Junior Fellow of the Society of Fellows at Harvard University in 1935, he spent the next three years there, from 1935 to 1938, working with to-be Nobel laureates in physics John Hasbrouck van Vleck and Percy Williams Bridgman on problems in cohesion and electrical conduction in metals, did some work on level density of nuclei. He received his Ph. D. in mathematical physics from Princeton in 1936. From 1941-1944 Bardeen headed the group working on magnetic mines and torpedoes and mine and torpedo countermeasures at the Naval Ordnance Laboratory. During this period his wife Jane gave birth to a son and a daughter. In October 1945, Bardeen began work at Bell Labs.
He was a member of a solid-state physics group, led by chemist Stanley Morgan. Other personnel working in the group were Walter Brattain, physicist Gerald Pearson, chemist Robert Gibney, electronics expert Hilbert Moore and several technicians, he moved his family to New Jersey. The assignment of the group was to seek a solid-state alternative to fragile glass vacuum tube amplifiers, their first attempts were based on Shockley's ideas about using an external electrical field on a semiconductor to affect its conductivity. These experiments mysteriously failed every time in all sorts of materials; the group was at a standstill until Bardeen suggested a theory that invoked surface states that prevented the field from penetrating the semiconductor. The group changed its focus to study these surface states, they met daily to discuss the work; the rapport of the group was excellent, ideas were exchanged. By the winter of 1946 they had enough results that Bardeen submitted a paper on the surface states to Physical Review.
Brattain started experiments to study the surface states through observations made while shining a bright light on the semiconductor's surface. This led to several more papers, which estimated the density of the surface states to be more than enough to account for their failed experiments; the pace of the work picked up when they started to surround point contacts between the semiconductor and the conducting wires with electrolytes. Moore built a circuit that allowed them to vary the frequency of the input signal and suggested that they use glycol borate, a viscous chemical that didn't evaporate, they began to get some evidence of power amplification when Pearson, acting on a suggestion by Shockley, put a voltage on a droplet of gu placed across a p–n junction. On December 23, 1947, Bardeen and Brattain were working without Shockley when they succeeded in creating a point-contact transistor that achieved amplification. By the next month, Bell Labs' patent attorneys started to work on the patent applications.
Bell Labs' attorneys soon discovered that Shockley's field effect principle had been anticipated and patented in 1930 by Julius Lilienfeld, who filed his MESFET
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is the institution that manages the currency, money supply, interest rates of a state or formal monetary union, oversees their commercial banking system. In contrast to a commercial bank, a central bank possesses a monopoly on increasing the monetary base in the state, generally controls the printing/coining of the national currency, which serves as the state's legal tender. A central bank acts as a lender of last resort to the banking sector during times of financial crisis. Most central banks have supervisory and regulatory powers to ensure the solvency of member institutions, to prevent bank runs, to discourage reckless or fraudulent behavior by member banks. Central banks in most developed nations are institutionally independent from political interference. Still, limited control by the executive and legislative bodies exists. Functions of a central bank may include: implementing monetary policies. Setting the official interest rate – used to manage both inflation and the country's exchange rate – and ensuring that this rate takes effect via a variety of policy mechanisms controlling the nation's entire money supply the Government's banker and the bankers' bank managing the country's foreign exchange and gold reserves and the Government bonds regulating and supervising the banking industry Central banks implement a country's chosen monetary policy.
At the most basic level, monetary policy involves establishing what form of currency the country may have, whether a fiat currency, gold-backed currency, currency board or a currency union. When a country has its own national currency, this involves the issue of some form of standardized currency, a form of promissory note: a promise to exchange the note for "money" under certain circumstances; this was a promise to exchange the money for precious metals in some fixed amount. Now, when many currencies are fiat money, the "promise to pay" consists of the promise to accept that currency to pay for taxes. A central bank may use another country's currency either directly in a currency union, or indirectly on a currency board. In the latter case, exemplified by the Bulgarian National Bank, Hong Kong and Latvia, the local currency is backed at a fixed rate by the central bank's holdings of a foreign currency. Similar to commercial banks, central banks incur liabilities. Central banks create money by issuing interest-free currency notes and selling them to the public in exchange for interest-bearing assets such as government bonds.
When a central bank wishes to purchase more bonds than their respective national governments make available, they may purchase private bonds or assets denominated in foreign currencies. The European Central Bank remits its interest income to the central banks of the member countries of the European Union; the US Federal Reserve remits all its profits to the U. S. Treasury; this income, derived from the power to issue currency, is referred to as seigniorage, belongs to the national government. The state-sanctioned power to create currency is called the Right of Issuance. Throughout history there have been disagreements over this power, since whoever controls the creation of currency controls the seigniorage income; the expression "monetary policy" may refer more narrowly to the interest-rate targets and other active measures undertaken by the monetary authority. Frictional unemployment is the time period between jobs when a worker is searching for, or transitioning from one job to another. Unemployment beyond frictional unemployment is classified as unintended unemployment.
For example, structural unemployment is a form of unemployment resulting from a mismatch between demand in the labour market and the skills and locations of the workers seeking employment. Macroeconomic policy aims to reduce unintended unemployment. Keynes labeled any jobs that would be created by a rise in wage-goods as involuntary unemployment: Men are involuntarily unemployed if, in the event of a small rise in the price of wage-goods to the money-wage, both the aggregate supply of labour willing to work for the current money-wage and the aggregate demand for it at that wage would be greater than the existing volume of employment.—John Maynard Keynes, The General Theory of Employment and Money p11 Inflation is defined either as the devaluation of a currency or equivalently the rise of prices relative to a currency. Since inflation lowers real wages, Keynesians view inflation as the solution to involuntary unemployment. However, "unanticipated" inflation leads to lender losses as the real interest rate will be lower than expected.
Thus, Keynesian monetary policy aims for a steady rate of inflation. A publication from the Austrian School, The Case Against the Fed, argues that the efforts of the central banks to control inflation have been counterproductive. Economic growth can be enhanced by investment such as more or better machinery. A low interest rate implies that firms can borrow money to invest in their capital stock and pay less interest for it. Lowering the interest is therefore considered to encourage economic growth and is used to alleviate times of low economic growth. On the other hand, raising the interest rate is used in times of high economic growth as a contra-cyclical device to keep the economy from overheating and avoid market bubbles. Further goals of monetary policy are stability of interest rates, of the financial market, of the foreign exchange market. Goals cannot be separated fr
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen was a German mechanical engineer and physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901. In honour of his accomplishments, in 2004 the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry named element 111, roentgenium, a radioactive element with multiple unstable isotopes, after him. Born to a German father and a Dutch mother, Röntgen attended high school in Netherlands. In 1865, he was unfairly expelled from high school when one of his teachers intercepted a caricature of one of the teachers, in fact done by someone else. Without a high school diploma, Röntgen could only attend university in the Netherlands as a visitor. In 1865, he tried to attend Utrecht University without having the necessary credentials required for a regular student. Upon hearing that he could enter the Federal Polytechnic Institute in Zurich, he passed its examinations, began studies there as a student of mechanical engineering.
In 1869, he graduated with a Ph. D. from the University of Zurich. In 1874, Röntgen became a lecturer at the University of Strassburg. In 1875, he became a professor at the Academy of Agriculture at Württemberg, he returned to Strassburg as a professor of physics in 1876, in 1879, he was appointed to the chair of physics at the University of Giessen. In 1888, he obtained the physics chair at the University of Würzburg, in 1900 at the University of Munich, by special request of the Bavarian government. Röntgen planned to emigrate, he accepted an appointment at Columbia University in New York City and bought transatlantic tickets, before the outbreak of World War I changed his plans. He remained in Munich for the rest of his career. During 1895, Röntgen was investigating the external effects from the various types of vacuum tube equipment — apparatuses from Heinrich Hertz, Johann Hittorf, William Crookes, Nikola Tesla and Philipp von Lenard — when an electrical discharge is passed through them. In early November, he was repeating an experiment with one of Lenard's tubes in which a thin aluminium window had been added to permit the cathode rays to exit the tube but a cardboard covering was added to protect the aluminium from damage by the strong electrostatic field that produces the cathode rays.
He knew the cardboard covering prevented light from escaping, yet Röntgen observed that the invisible cathode rays caused a fluorescent effect on a small cardboard screen painted with barium platinocyanide when it was placed close to the aluminium window. It occurred to Röntgen that the Crookes–Hittorf tube, which had a much thicker glass wall than the Lenard tube, might cause this fluorescent effect. In the late afternoon of 8 November 1895, Röntgen was determined to test his idea, he constructed a black cardboard covering similar to the one he had used on the Lenard tube. He covered the Crookes–Hittorf tube with the cardboard and attached electrodes to a Ruhmkorff coil to generate an electrostatic charge. Before setting up the barium platinocyanide screen to test his idea, Röntgen darkened the room to test the opacity of his cardboard cover; as he passed the Ruhmkorff coil charge through the tube, he determined that the cover was light-tight and turned to prepare the next step of the experiment.
It was at this point that Röntgen noticed a faint shimmering from a bench a few feet away from the tube. To be sure, he saw the same shimmering each time. Striking a match, he discovered the shimmering had come from the location of the barium platinocyanide screen he had been intending to use next. Röntgen speculated. 8 November was a Friday, so he took advantage of the weekend to repeat his experiments and made his first notes. In the following weeks he ate and slept in his laboratory as he investigated many properties of the new rays he temporarily termed "X-rays", using the mathematical designation for something unknown; the new rays came to bear his name in many languages as "Röntgen rays". At one point while he was investigating the ability of various materials to stop the rays, Röntgen brought a small piece of lead into position while a discharge was occurring. Röntgen thus saw the first radiographic image, his own flickering ghostly skeleton on the barium platinocyanide screen, he reported that it was at this point that he determined to continue his experiments in secrecy, because he feared for his professional reputation if his observations were in error.
Nearly two weeks after his discovery, he took the first picture using X-rays of his wife Anna Bertha's hand. When she saw her skeleton she exclaimed "I have seen my death!" He made a better picture of his friend Albert von Kölliker's hand at a public lecture. Röntgen's original paper, "On A New Kind Of Rays", was published on 28 December 1895. On 5 January 1896, an Austrian newspaper reported Röntgen's discovery of a new type of radiation. Röntgen was awarded an honorary Doctor of Medicine degree from the University of Würzburg after his discovery, he published a total of three papers on X-rays between 1895 and 1897. Today, Röntgen is considered the father of diagnostic radiology, the medical speciality which uses imaging to diagnose disease. A collection of his papers is held at the National Library of Medicine in Maryland. Röntgen was married to Ann
Emil von Behring
Emil von Behring, born as Emil Adolf Behring, was a German physiologist who received the 1901 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, the first one awarded, for his discovery of a diphtheria antitoxin. He was known as a "saviour of children," as diphtheria used to be a major cause of child death, he was honored with Prussian nobility in 1901, henceforth being known by the surname "von Behring." Behring was born in Kreis Rosenberg, Province of Prussia. His father was a schoolmaster. Between 1874 and 1878, he studied medicine at the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Akademie in Berlin, an academy for military doctors, since his family could not afford the university; as a military doctor, he studied the action of iodoform. In 1888, he became an assistant at the institute of Robert Koch in Berlin. In 1890 he published an article with Kitasato Shibasaburō reporting that they had developed "antitoxins" against both diphtheria and tetanus, they had injected diphtheria and tetanus toxins into guinea-pigs and horses. These antitoxins could cure the diseases in non-immunized animals.
In 1892 he started the first human trials of the diphtheria antitoxin. Successful treatment started in 1894, after the production and quantification of antitoxin had been optimized. In 1895 he became Professor of Hygienics within the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Marburg, a position he would hold for the rest of his life, he and the pharmacologist Hans Horst Meyer had their laboratories in the same building, Behring stimulated Meyer's interest in the mode of action of tetanus toxin. Behring won the first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1901 for the development of serum therapies against diphtheria, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1902. In 1904 he founded the Behringwerke in a company to produced antitoxins and vaccines. At the International Tuberculosis Congress in 1905 he announced that he had discovered "a substance proceeding from the virus of tuberculosis." This substance, which he designated "T C," plays the important part in the immunizing action of his "bovivaccine", which prevents bovine tuberculosis.
He tried unsuccessfully to obtain a therapeutic agents for humans. Behring died at Marburg, Hessen-Nassau, on 31 March 1917, his name survived in the Dade Behring organisation, in CSL Behring, a manufacturer of plasma-derived biotherapies, in Novartis Behring and in the Emil von Behring Prize of the University of Marburg, the highest endowed medicine award in Germany. His Nobel Prize medal is now kept on display at the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Museum in Geneva. Von Behring is believed to have cheated Paul Ehrlich out of recognition and financial reward in relation to collaborative research in diphtheria; the two men developed a diphtheria serum by injecting the deadly toxin into a horse. The serum was used during an epidemic in Germany. A chemical company preparing to undertake commercial production and marketing of the diphtheria serum offered a contract to both men, but von Behring maneuvered to claim all the considerable financial rewards for himself. To add insult to injury, only Behring received the first Nobel Prize in Medicine, in 1901, for his contributions.
In December, 29th, 1896, Behring married the twenty-year-old Else Spinola, a daughter of Bernhard Spinola, the director of the Charité hospital in Berlin, a Jewish-born mother - Elise Spinola, born Bendix - who had converted to Christianity upon her marriage. They had six sons, they held their honeymoon at villa "Behring" on Capri 1897. In 1909–1911, the Russian writer Maxim Gorky lived at this villa. Die Blutserumtherapie Die Geschichte der Diphtherie Bekämpfung der Infektionskrankheiten Beiträge zur experimentellen Therapie E. v. Behring's Gesammelte Abhandlungen Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf German inventors and discoverers Kornelia Grundmann. "Emil von Behring: The founder of serum therapy". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-07-21; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Ulrike Enke: Salvatore dell'Infanzia Behring and Capri Christoph Hans Gerhard: Trias deutschen Forschergeistes Emil von Behring Pflaum-Verlag / Munich Naturheilpraxis 71.
Jahrgang January, 2018 www.uni-marburg.de/behring-digital Newspaper clippings about Emil von Behring in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature. Since March 1901, it has been awarded annually to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses". Per Alfred Nobel's will, the recipient is selected by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, a five-member committee appointed by the Parliament of Norway. Since 1990, the prize is awarded on 10 December in Oslo City Hall each year; the prize was awarded in the Atrium of the University of Oslo Faculty of Law, the Norwegian Nobel Institute, the Parliament. Due to its political nature, the Nobel Peace Prize has, for most of its history, been the subject of numerous controversies. According to Nobel's will, the Peace Prize shall be awarded to the person who in the preceding year "shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".
Alfred Nobel's will further specified that the prize be awarded by a committee of five people chosen by the Norwegian Parliament. Nobel died in 1896 and he did not leave an explanation for choosing peace as a prize category; as he was a trained chemical engineer, the categories for chemistry and physics were obvious choices. The reasoning behind the peace prize is less clear. According to the Norwegian Nobel Committee, his friendship with Bertha von Suttner, a peace activist and recipient of the prize, profoundly influenced his decision to include peace as a category; some Nobel scholars suggest. His inventions included dynamite and ballistite, both of which were used violently during his lifetime. Ballistite was used in war and the Irish Republican Brotherhood, an Irish nationalist organization, carried out dynamite attacks in the 1880s. Nobel was instrumental in turning Bofors from an iron and steel producer into an armaments company, it is unclear why Nobel wished the Peace Prize to be administered in Norway, ruled in union with Sweden at the time of Nobel's death.
The Norwegian Nobel Committee speculates that Nobel may have considered Norway better suited to awarding the prize, as it did not have the same militaristic traditions as Sweden. It notes that at the end of the 19th century, the Norwegian parliament had become involved in the Inter-Parliamentary Union's efforts to resolve conflicts through mediation and arbitration; the Norwegian Parliament appoints the Norwegian Nobel Committee, which selects the Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Each year, the Norwegian Nobel Committee invites qualified people to submit nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize; the statutes of the Nobel Foundation specify categories of individuals who are eligible to make nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize. These nominators are: Members of national assemblies and governments and members of the Inter-Parliamentary Union Members of the Permanent Court of Arbitration and the International Court of Justice at the Hague Members of Institut de Droit International University professors of history, social sciences, philosophy and theology, university presidents, directors of peace research and international affairs institutes Former recipients, including board members of organizations that have received the prize Present and past members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Former permanent advisers to the Norwegian Nobel Institute Nominations must be submitted to the Committee by the beginning of February in the award year.
Nominations by committee members can be submitted up to the date of the first Committee meeting after this deadline. In 2009, a record 205 nominations were received, but the record was broken again in 2010 with 237 nominations; the statutes of the Nobel Foundation do not allow information about nominations, considerations, or investigations relating to awarding the prize to be made public for at least 50 years after a prize has been awarded. Over time, many individuals have become known as "Nobel Peace Prize Nominees", but this designation has no official standing, means only that one of the thousands of eligible nominators suggested the person's name for consideration. Indeed, in 1939, Adolf Hitler received a satirical nomination from a member of the Swedish parliament, mocking the nomination of Neville Chamberlain. Nominations from 1901 to 1956, have been released in a database. Nominations are considered by the Nobel Committee at a meeting where a short list of candidates for further review is created.
This short list is considered by permanent advisers to the Nobel institute, which consists of the Institute's Director and the Research Director and a small number of Norwegian academics with expertise in subject areas relating to the prize. Advisers have some months to complete reports, which are considered by the Committee to select the laureate; the Committee seeks to achieve a unanimous decision. The Nobel Committee comes to a conclusion in mid-September, but the final decision has not been made until the last meeting before the official announcement at the beginning of October; the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway on 10 December each year. The Peace Pri
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the royal academies of Sweden. It is an independent, non-governmental scientific organisation which takes special responsibility for the natural sciences and mathematics, but endeavours to promote the exchange of ideas between various disciplines, its purpose is to. Nobel Prizes in Physics and in Chemistry Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel Crafoord Prizes in astronomy and mathematics, geosciences and polyarthritis Sjöberg Prize Rolf Schock Prizes in logic and philosophy Gregori Aminoff Prize in crystallography Tobias Prize Göran Gustafsson Prize for research in mathematics, the natural sciences and medicine Söderberg Prize in economics or jurisprudence Ingvar Lindqvist Prizes for teachers in the fields of physics, chemistry and mathematics. Etc; the academy has elected about 1,700 Swedish and 1,200 foreign members since it was founded in 1739. Today the academy has about 470 Swedish and 175 foreign members which are divided into ten "classes", representing ten various scientific disciplines: Mathematics Astronomy and space science Physics Chemistry Geosciences Biosciences Medical sciences Engineering sciences Social sciences Humanities and for outstanding services to science The following persons have served as permanent secretaries of the academy: Anders Johan von Höpken, 1739–1740, 1740–1741 Augustin Ehrensvärd, April – June 1740 Jacob Faggot, 1741–1744 Pehr Elvius, 1744–1749 Pehr Wilhelm Wargentin, 1749–1783 Johan Carl Wilcke and Henrik Nicander, 1784–1796 Daniel Melanderhjelm and Henrik Nicander, 1796–1803 Jöns Svanberg and Carl Gustaf Sjöstén 1803–1808.
In parallel, other major series have appeared and gone: Öfversigt af Kungl. Vetenskapsakademiens förhandlingar Bihang till Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar Vetenskapsakademiens årsbok The academy started publishing annual reports in physics and chemistry, technology and zoology; these lasted into the 1860s. Starting in 1887, this series was once again split into four sections, which in 1903 became independent scientific journals of their own, titled "Arkiv för...", among them Arkiv för matematik, astronomi och fysik. Further restructuring of their topics occurred in 1949 and 1974. Current publicationsAmbio Acta Mathematica Arkiv för matematik Acta Zoologica Levnadsteckningar över Vetenskapsakademiens ledamöter, biographies of deceased members Porträttmatrikel, portraits of current members Zoologica Scripta, jointly with the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters The academy was founded on 2 June 1739 by naturalist Carl Linnaeus, mercantilist Jonas Alströmer, mechanical engineer Mårten Triewald, civil servants Sten Carl Bielke and Carl Wilhelm Cederhielm, statesman/author Anders Johan von Höpken.
The purpose of the academy was to focus on useful knowledge, to publish in Swedish in order to disseminate the academy's findings. The academy was intended to be different from the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala, founded in 1719 and published in Latin; the location close to the commercial activities in Sweden's capital was intentional. The academy was modeled after the Royal Society of London and Academie Royale des Sciences in Paris, which some of the founding members were familiar with. Members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Official website Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences video site