Sarpsborg, historically Borg, is a city and municipality in Østfold county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the city of Sarpsborg, Sarpsborg is part of the fifth largest urban area in Norway when paired with neighbouring Fredrikstad. As of 1 January 2016, according to Statistics Norway these two municipalities have a population of 132,351 with 54,192 in Sarpsborg and 78,159 in Fredrikstad. Borregaard Industries is, and always has been, the most important industry in the city, the city is the home of Borg Bryggerier, part of the Hansa Borg Bryggerier, which is Norways second largest brewery-group. In Norse times the city was just called Borg, the background for this was the fortification built by Olav Haraldsson. Later the genitive case of the name of the waterfall Sarpr was added, in Norse times Østfold county was called Borgarsýsla which means the county of Borg and the law district of southeast Norway was called Borgarþing meaning the thing/court of Borg. The old name has been revived in the diocese of Borg, the coat-of-arms is from modern times.
They were granted on 13 November 1991 and it is based on a coat-of-arms from 1556. It shows a bear over a castle, the bear was introduced as early as sometime in the 13th century, by the earl of Sarpsborg, Alv Erlingsson. He used the bear to symbolize his strength, the castle symbolizes the fortress that once gave the city its original name. The city was founded as Borg by the Viking King Olav Haraldsson in 1016 and it was burned to the ground by Swedish invaders in 1567 during the Northern Seven Years War. Half the population was evacuated down the river to what is known as Fredrikstad. Much of the town disappeared into the river Glomma during a 1702 mudslide. Again Borg was rebuilt, and it was recreated as a city in 1839, the rural municipalities of Tune and Varteig were merged with the city on 1 January 1992. The population is growing, and during the summer of 2005 it reached 50,000 inhabitants. In football, Sarpsborg 08 FF has taken over the local throne, on 6 November 2009, they sent arch-rival FFK down from the Tippeliga in a play-off game in Fredrikstad stadion.
Sarpsborg-08 has a football team that was promoted to the womens division-1 at the end of 2011. Sarpsborg BK plays in the highest bandy division, Sarpsborg famous for their two elit leagues teams in floorball, Sarpsborg IBK and Greåker IBK
Porsgrunn is a city and municipality in Telemark county, Norway. It is part of the region of Grenland. The administrative centre of the municipality is the city of Porsgrunn, the municipality of Porsgrunn was established on 1 January 1838. The town of Brevik and the district of Eidanger were merged into the municipality of Porsgrunn on 1 January 1964. The conurbation of Porsgrunn and Skien is considered by Statistics Norway to be the seventh-largest city in Norway, the place is first mentioned in 1576 by the writer Peder Claussøn Friis in his work Concerning the Kingdom of Norway. He writes, Two and a half miles from the sea, the Skien river flows into the fjord, and that place is called Porsgrund. The name was given during medieval times to the swampy area by the nuns of Gimsøy Abbey, who went here to collect the shrub pors. Prior to 1931, the name was spelled Porsgrund, the coat of arms is from modern times. They were granted on 16 January 1905, the arms were devised in 1905 when the city needed a new city hall.
The silver bend is the river running through the city. The upper half shows a branch of bog myrtle on a red background and is thus a canting symbol. The silver anchor on a blue background symbolizes the importance of the local harbor, Porsgrunn has been an important harbor town in the Grenland area since the late 16th century. Moving the Custom House to Porsgrunn added to the flourishing harbor activity, in the 18th century, it was the home of some of Norways most influential families at the time, such as the Aalls, Cappelens, Løvenskiolds, and Deichmans. Also in this period, Porsgrunn was considered the centre of Norway. On the ecclesiastical side, Porsgrunn was separated from the ancient rural parishes of Eidanger, churches within the Porsgrunn prestegjeld include Østre Porsgrunn Church and Vestre Porsgrunn Church. The city was granted limited city status in 1807, but this was expanded to full city status in 1842, Porsgrunn was once home to Skomvær, the countrys largest sailing ship. In 1985, the sculpture Amphitrite, the wave and the sea birds was unveiled in Porsgrunn, the sculpture, which is one of Jørleif Uthaugs best known works, has a nautical theme in honor of Porsgrunns maritime history.
Porsgrunn borders the municipalities of Skien and Siljan to the north, Bamble in the west and it is part of a cluster of municipalities in southern Telemark that constitute the Grenland area of Norway
Northern Norway is the geographical region of Norway, consisting of the three northernmost counties Nordland and Finnmark, in total about 35% of the Norwegian mainland. Some of the largest towns in Northern Norway are Mo i Rana, Bodø, Harstad, Tromsø, Northern Norway is often described as the land of the midnight sun and the land of the northern lights. Further north, halfway to the North Pole, is the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, the region is multi-cultural, housing not just Norwegians but the indigenous Sami people, Norwegian Finns and Russian populations. Finnish is spoken in only a few communities in the east of Finnmark, Northern Norway covers about a third of Norway. The southernmost part, roughly the part south of the Arctic Circle, is called Helgeland, the inland is covered with dense spruce forests and mountains near the Swedish border, some of the biggest rivers in the region are the Vefsna and the Ranelva. The highest mountain in Northern Norway is found here in the Okstindan range south of Mo i Rana with Oksskolten reaching 1,915 metres above sea level, the Saltfjellet range, with its Svartisen glacier and intersecting Arctic Circle, divides Helgeland from the next region, called Salten.
Notable peaks in Salten are the Børvasstindan south of Bodø, Suliskongen near Fauske, the Steigartindan, between Saltfjellet and eastern Finnmark, Norway spruce trees have originally been planted and are mostly privately owned. The older plantations are now producing lumber,80 years after planted, Lofoten is a chain of peaks that jut out of the ocean. From the mainland side it looks very barren, but behind the violet-black peaks there are flatlands with good grazing for sheep, the Vesterålen islands consist of smaller and bigger islands with a huge variation in landscape. There are glaciers, like Frostisen and Blåisen, big islands like Senja, Kvaløya and Ringvassøya have green, forested interiors and a barren, mountainous coastline, with smaller islands offshore. The Lyngen Alps are the highest mountains of the area, rising to 1,833 metres, the 269 metres Mollisfossen waterfall in Nordreisa is the highest waterfall in the north, while Målselvfossen is Norways national waterfall. Finnmark county has fjords and glaciers in the far southwest, the inland is covered by Finnmarksvidda, a relatively barren plateau about 300 to 400 metres high, with many lakes and rivers like Alta-Kautokeino and Tana/Deatnu.
Even at this latitude, pine forests grow naturally in lowland areas inland, east of Honningsvåg, there are no islands protecting the barren coasts that rise directly up from the sea. The landscape towards the Russian border is comparatively flat, Finnmark is situated north of northernmost Finland, and to the east Norway has a 196 kilometres border with Russia. The oldest known historical culture in the region is called Komsa, the first people possibly arrived around 12–13,000 years ago, but it is uncertain whether they came from southern Norway or from the Kola Peninsula. Today the rock carvings at Hjemmeluft in Alta or at Leknes in Nordland are among the remainders of the Stone Age cultures, showing reindeer swimming across the fjords. A significant find area is between the river Tana and the fjord of Varanger, where the reindeer probably ran over the isthmus on the way between the winter and summer grazing, metals were introduced around 500 BC. The Sami culture can be traced back at least 2,000 years, there is some archeological evidence of Bronze Age agricultural settlements about 2,500 years old, as in Steigen and Sømna
Trondheim, historically Kaupangen and Trondhjem, is a city and municipality in Sør-Trøndelag county, Norway. It has a population of 187,353, and is the third most populous municipality in Norway and it is the third largest city in the country, with a population of 169,972 inhabitants within the city borders. The city functions as the centre of Sør-Trøndelag county. Trondheim lies on the shore of Trondheim Fjord at the mouth of the river Nidelva. The settlement was founded in 997 as a trading post, from 1152 to 1537, the city was the seat of the Catholic Archdiocese of Nidaros, since then, it has remained the seat of the Lutheran Diocese of Nidaros and the Nidaros Cathedral. The current municipality dates from 1964, when Trondheim merged with Byneset, Strinda, for the ecclesiastical history, see Archiepiscopate of Nidaros Trondheim was named Kaupangen by Viking King Olav Tryggvason in 997. Shortly thereafter it came to be called Nidaros, in the beginning it was frequently used as a military retainer of King Olav I.
It was frequently used as the seat of the king, and was the capital of Norway until 1217, people have been living in the region for thousands of years as evidenced by the rock carvings in central Norway, the Nøstvet and Lihult cultures and the Corded Ware culture. In ancient times, the Kings of Norway were hailed at Øretinget in Trondheim, Harald Fairhair was hailed as the king here, as was his son, Haakon I, called the Good. The battle of Kalvskinnet took place in Trondheim in 1179, King Sverre Sigurdsson, some scholars believe that the famous Lewis chessmen, 12th-century chess pieces carved from walrus ivory found in the Hebrides and now at the British Museum, may have been made in Trondheim. Trondheim was the seat of the Archdiocese of Nidaros for Norway from 1152, due to the introduction of Lutheran Protestantism in 1537, the last Archbishop, Olav Engelbrektsson, had to flee from the city to the Netherlands, where he died in present-day Lier, Belgium. The city has experienced major fires.
Since much of the city was made of wooden buildings, many of the fires caused severe damage. Great fires ravaged the city in 1598,1651,1681,1708, twice in 1717,1742,1788,1841 and 1842, the 1651 fire destroyed 90% of all buildings within the city limits. The fire in 1681 led to an almost total reconstruction of the city, overseen by General Johan Caspar von Cicignon, broad avenues like Munkegaten were created, with no regard for property rights, in order to stop the next fire. At the time, the city had a population of roughly 8000 inhabitants, after the Treaty of Roskilde on 26 February 1658, Trondheim and the rest of Trøndelag, became Swedish territory for a brief period, but the area was reconquered 10 months later. The conflict was settled by the Treaty of Copenhagen on 27 May 1660. During World War II, Trondheim was occupied by Nazi Germany from 9 April 1940, the home of the most notorious Norwegian Gestapo agent, Henry Rinnan, was in Trondheim
Norwegian Football Cup
The Norwegian Football Cup is the main knockout cup competition in Norwegian football. It is run by the Football Association of Norway and has contested since 1902. The tournament is known as Cupen or NM, an acronym formed from Norgesmesterskap. These terms are used to both the mens and womens competitions. The equivalent competition for womens teams is the Norwegian Womens Football Cup and this differs from, for example, English football, where the winners of the FA Premier League are the ones who become English champions. The current Norwegian champions and holders of the cup are Rosenborg, the first rounds of the cup are played in April, around the same time as the Norwegian Premier League starts. Early upsets, where a team knocks a professional team out of the tournament do happen occasionally. For example, in 2012 the Tippeliga teams Sandnes Ulf and Sogndal IL were knocked out in the first round by the division teams Staal Jørpeland IL. Even if the team loses, squaring off against a professional team may well be the highlight of their season.
Later matchups are drawn at random, the face off once. The final match is played at Ullevaal Stadium in November, the cup is very popular in Norway, and tickets for the final match are hard to get hold of, as the game usually sells out quickly. The supporters of the two playing in the final match are seated at the two short-ends of the pitch, while the more neutral supporters are seated by the long-ends. The match is televised on national television, the first cup was played in 1902, but was open for county champions only. This continued until 1933, when the cup was opened for all clubs of a certain standing, the competition was not nationwide until 1963. Before the 2004 cup final, NRK awarded the 1986 final between Tromsø and Lillestrøm with the title Tidenes Cupfinale, and ex-Rosenborg striker Gøran Sørloth with Tidenes Cuphelt, since 1978, an official cup for womens clubs has been played. The womens cup final is played on a Saturday, the day before the mens cup final. The 1978 cup final between BUL and Trondheims-Ørn was the only Norwegian cup final to be decided on penalties, before the 2006 final, the Norwegian Football Association decided that the Womens final would be played at Bislett Stadium instead of Ullevaal Stadion, which caused some debate.
When the semi-finals of the 2006 cup were drawn, all 4 clubs boycotted the draw in a protest against the move, soccerway RSSSF archive List of Norwegian Football Cup finals
Skien is a city and municipality in Telemark county, Norway. It is part of the region of Grenland. The administrative centre of the municipality is the city of Skien, Skien is the administrative centre of Telemark county. Skien is one of Norways oldest cities, with a history dating back to the Middle Ages. From the 15th century, the city was governed by a 12-member council, the modern municipality of Skien was established on 1 January 1838. The rural municipalities of Gjerpen and Solum were merged into the municipality of Skien on 1 January 1964 and this area is home to more than 100,000 people. Skien was historically Norways most important port town for shipping timber and one of Norways leading commercial cities with extensive contact with neighbouring countries, the city was the birthplace of playwright Henrik Ibsen, and many of his famous dramas are set in places reminiscent of 19th-century Skien. In general the population of Skien is younger than the national average,60. 4% Of Skiens population is ethnic Norwegian, an increase of 6% since 2002. 19.
6% of Skien´s population are either first or second generation immigrants, the number is expected to rise to around 37% by 2030. African Norwegians make up the single largest ethnic minority, in 2013, 40% of Skiens primary school pupils were registered as having another first language than Norwegian. The Old Norse form of the name was Skiða, and the town is named after a brook with this name. The coat-of-arms are derived from the oldest known seal of the city, the seal shows two skis and in the middle a cross, with a small star on the crosspoint. The skis are an element and the cross is a religious symbol. There have been several theories about the meaning of the cross and it has been suggested that it is a symbol for the main church in Skien, the Holy Cross church. The small star may be a symbol of St. Mary as the medieval church of Skien was devoted to her. Besides the skis and cross, there are two meadow buttercups on each side, in 1854, the arms were shown as two skis, but the cross was now made from ski poles, as another canting element.
This remained so until the half of the 20th century. In the 1980s, the city adopted the current arms
Lyn Toppfotball is a Norwegian football club and a department of the sports club Ski- og Fotballklubben Lyn based in Oslo, whose members participate in Nordic skiing and orienteering. Until 2010, SFK Lyn had two departments, one professional section and one amateur section. After the professional department, FK Lyn was bankrupted in 2010. With the help of some of the old FK Lyn players, the team plays its home matches at Bislett Stadium, and the head coach is Finn Bredo Olsen. Lyn was founded in 1896 and is one of the oldest football clubs in Norway, the club won the league in 1964 and 1968 and have won the cup eight times. Lyn was the initiator of the construction of Ullevaal Stadion, Lyn has traditionally been perceived as representing the upper and middle classes, whereas the eastside club Vålerenga was seen as belonging to the workers. The club enjoyed success during the first half of the 20th century, securing many Cup titles. The Norwegian national football team won the bronze medal at the 1936 Summer Olympics included six players from Lyn.
The captain of team was Lyn-player Jørgen Juve, who is still the player with the most goals scored for the Norwegian national team. The clubs most recent period of success was during the 1960s, Lyn fields a womens team, which in 2012 won promotion to the First Division, the second tier in womens football Lyn was founded on 3 March 1896 at St. Hanshaugen. Lyn was one of three clubs who in 1902 founded the Football Association of Norway, and is the one still existing. In the first decade of Football in Norway, the club was one of the strongest, Jørgen Juve is still the player with the most goals scored for the Norwegian national team. Lyn won the cup in 1945 and 1946 but had to wait till 1964 for their first league-title, because of the weather conditions during the winter in Norway, both matches were played in Spain. Lyn lost the first game 2-3 and in the second match Lyn was leading 2-0 with 15 minutes left to play, the match ended 2-2 and thus Lyn was eliminated. The Double was followed by a period in the clubs history.
The club was relegated in 1969, and even though the team was promoted back after one year and reached the cup final in 1970, the club was again relegated in 1973. During the next 30 years, Lyn was swiftly relegated and promoted between the first and the tier and the club was never playing in the top division for more than three consecutive seasons. During this period the fan base eroded and Lyn is said to have lost a generation of supporters, during the 90s the club went back and forth between the Premier League and the First Division
IF Fram Larvik
Idrettsforeningen Fram, better known as Fram Larvik to distinguish it from other sport clubs, is a sports club from Torstrand in Larvik, Norway. It has sections for football, athletics and speed skating. It was found 15 January 1894, and is one of Norways oldest association football clubs and it is often known as Fram Larvik, mainly to distinguish it from IL Fram from Skatval. The mens football team plays in the Norwegian Second Division. It played in the Second Division to 1995, but was down to the Fourth Division for a period after relegation in the 1999 Norwegian Third Division campaign. After that, the team was remade to Larvik Fotball, which won several promotions, the cooperation club Larvik Fotball ceased to exist in late 2004, and the 2005 Norwegian Second Division was played as IF Fram, but with abysmal results. After a few seasons back in the Third Division, Fram won the league in 2008 and the subsequent playoffs, notable footballers include Tom Rüsz Jacobsen, Lars Bakkerud, Freddy Ørbeck Jonny Hansen and Sverre Hansen.
The current head coach is Petter Belsvik, who took over after the 2013 season from Tom Helge Jacobsen. Norwegian Premier League, Winners, 1949–50 Norwegian Football Cup, Runners-up,1912 The club have a team, that plays in the First Division. Ole Kristian Strøm is the coach, and they play their matches in Framhallen, notable handballers include Eivind Ellingsen, Pål Myrdam, Are Ruud and Tom Bakke. Notable speed skaters in Fram include Christine Foldvik, Bjørg Eva Jensen, Tom Erik Oxholm, Roger Strøm, Else Marie Christiansen, Minna Nystedt, Anne Therese Tveter, Bjørn Tveter and Øyvind Tveter. Official website Fram – Football section Fram Larvik – Handball section Fram Larvik – Speed Skating section Fram Larvik Supporterklubb Framparken
Oslo is the capital and the most populous city in Norway. It constitutes both a county and a municipality, founded in the year 1040, and established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814, after being destroyed by a fire in 1624, the city was moved closer to Akershus Fortress during the reign of Christian IV of Denmark and renamed Christiania in his honour. It was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838, following a spelling reform, it was known as Kristiania from 1877 to 1925, at which time its original Norwegian name was restored. Oslo is the economic and governmental centre of Norway, the city is a hub of Norwegian trade, banking and shipping. It is an important centre for industries and maritime trade in Europe. The city is home to companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the worlds largest shipping companies, shipbrokers.
Oslo is a city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme. Oslo is considered a city and ranked Beta World City in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group. It was ranked one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine. A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo. In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world, as of January 1,2016, the municipality of Oslo has a population of 658,390, while the population of the citys urban area was 942,084. The metropolitan area had an population of 1.71 million. The population was during the early 2000 increasing at record rates and this growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing faster than the Norwegian population.
As of January 1,2016, the municipality of Oslo has a population of 658,390, the urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus, the total population of this agglomeration is 942,084. To the north and east, wide forested hills rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre. The urban municipality of Oslo and county of Oslo are two parts of the entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated
Odds Ballklubb, commonly known as Odd, is a Norwegian football club from Skien. Originally the football section of a club, founded in 1894 nine years after the clubs founding. All other sports than football were discontinued and the club dedicated to football only. Odd plays in the Norwegian top division and holds the winning the Norwegian Football Cup the most times. The club was known as Odd Grenland between 1994 and 2012, founded in 1894, Odd is one of the oldest football clubs in Norway. As of may 13th 2017 the club is granted a membership in Club of Pioneers and it will become the first nordic football club to be granted this membership. IF Odd was founded in 1885, and is one of the older sports clubs in Norway still in existence. The name derives from Viktor Rydbergs novel Seierssverdet, where one of the characters was a Norwegian athlete called Orvar Odd. In the beginning, IF Odd was mainly focused on gymnastics, a sub-section for football named Odds BK was founded on 31 March 1894. This was the second effort to do so, some time after English workers at nearby Skotfoss brought the game of football to Skien.
Odd is counted as Norways oldest football still in existence. Odd started a cooperation with the local club Pors in 1994, in conjunction with the name change, a public limited company named Grenland Fotball was founded. Odd won the Norwegian Football Cup in 1903,1904,1905,1906,1913,1915,1919,1922,1924,1926,1931 and 2000, more than any other team in Norway. In the late 20th century, the team struggled in the lower divisions for many years. The team had survived relegation twice, first in 2005 after a start of the campaign. In 2007 the team was relegated to the Norwegian First Division after being beaten by Bodø/Glimt in the relegation play-offs, in 2008, with three games still to play, Odd secured the promotion back to the Tippeligaen after winning 4–0 at home against Hødd. Norwegian Police were invited to measure the distance, and calculated the length as to be 58.13 metres, the home ground is Skagerak Arena. Largest crowd, Approx 12,500 people in 1984 Cup semi-final against Viking, the highest attendance is 12.436, achieved in the 2015 Europa League play-off against Borussia Dortmund
Frogner stadion is a sports stadium in Oslo, which has artificial ice in the winter for speed skating and bandy. The artificial grass is used in the summertime for soccer and American football and it is located close to the Frogner Park, between the park and Majorstuen. One match, Norway-Belarus, was played here at the 2013 Bandy World Championship and it opened in 1901, and was built by the speed skating club Kristiania Skøiteklub. In 1914, the stadium was moved to its current position, at the inaugural race in 1914, two speed skating world records were set by Oscar Mathisen, in 500 m and 1,500 m. In 1928, Oslo Municipality took over responsibility for the stadium, Frogner stadion was the most important skating arena in Norway until 1940. A long series of championships were held at Frogner stadion, both in figure skating and in speed skating, a total of 23 speed skating world records have been set at the stadium. Seventeen of the records from Frogner are listed among the official ISU world records in speed skating, outside the stadium are statues of Oscar Mathisen and Sonja Henie.
Frogner stadion has been the venue for international matches both in football and bandy, as well as track and field athletics competitions. The venue hosted the Norwegian Athletics Championships in 1906,1911,1912,1914,1917,1918,1920,1922 and 1924, after the rebuild in 2010 it became the homefield of the Oslo Vikings American football, currently the second best team in Norway. World records at the old stadium In 1911, Nikolay Strunnikov skated the 5,000 m distance in a record time of 8,37.2. This record was not approved by ISU, but is now listed among the world records. Oscar Mathisen set two records on 17 and 18 February 1912, the 500 m time was 44.2, while the 10,000 m record was 17,46.3. He improved his own record twice in 1913, first in Trondhjem and at Frogner, World records at the new stadium from 1914 Oscar Mathisen set two world records at the opening of the new stadium in 1914. The time was 43.7 over 500 m and 2,19.4 over 1,500 m, in 1916, Oscar Mathisen set a world record over 5,000 m, with the time 8,36.3.
In 1921, Harald Strøm set the record 8,27.7, strøms 5,000 m record from 1922 lasted seven years, the longest lasting of all world records set at Frogner, until it was beaten by Ivar Ballangrud in Davos in 1929. In 1932, Clas Thunberg skated the 1,000 m distance in 1,27.4, better than the world record, but this time is not registered as an official record. In 1936, Allan Potts set a record over 500 m, with the time 42.4. This record lasted only 12 days, when Engnestangen set another record in Davos