Innsbruck is the capital city of Tyrol in western Austria and the fifth-largest city in Austria. It is in the Inn valley, at its junction with the Wipp valley, which provides access to the Brenner Pass some 30 km to the south. Located in the broad valley between high mountains, the so-called North Chain in the Karwendel Alps to the north, the Patscherkofel and Serles to the south. Innsbruck is an internationally renowned winter sports center, hosted the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics as well as the 1984 and 1988 Winter Paralympics. Innsbruck hosted the first Winter Youth Olympics in 2012; the name translates as "Inn Bridge". The earliest traces suggest initial inhabitation in the early Stone Age. Surviving pre-Roman place names show that the area has been populated continuously. In the 4th century the Romans established the army station Veldidena at Oenipons, to protect the economically important commercial road from Verona-Brenner-Augsburg in their province of Raetia; the first mention of Innsbruck dates back to the name Oeni Pontum or Oeni Pons, Latin for bridge over the Inn, an important crossing point over the Inn river.
The Counts of Andechs acquired the town in 1180. In 1248 the town passed into the hands of the Counts of Tyrol; the city's arms show a bird's-eye view of the Inn bridge, a design used since 1267. The route over the Brenner Pass was a major transport and communications link between the north and the south of Europe, the easiest route across the Alps, it was part of a medieval imperial road under special protection of the king. The revenues generated by serving. Innsbruck became the capital of all Tyrol in 1429 and in the 15th century the city became a centre of European politics and culture as Emperor Maximilian I resided in Innsbruck in the 1490s; the city benefited from the emperor's presence. Here a funeral monument for Maximilian was planned and erected by his successors; the ensemble with a cenotaph and the bronze statues of real and mythical ancestors of the Habsburg emperor are one of the main artistic monuments of Innsbruck. A regular postal service between Innsbruck and Mechelen was established in 1490 by the Thurn-und-Taxis-Post.
In 1564 Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria received the rulership over Tirol and other Further Austrian possessions administered from Innsbruck up to the 18th century. He had Schloss Ambras built and arranged there his unique Renaissance collections nowadays part of Vienna's Kunsthistorisches Museum. Up to 1665 a stirps of the Habsburg dynasty ruled in Innsbruck with an independent court. In the 1620s the first opera house north of the Alps was erected in Innsbruck. In 1669 the university was founded; as a compensation for the court as Emperor Leopold I again reigned from Vienna and the Tyrolean stirps of the Habsburg dynasty had ended in 1665. During the Napoleonic Wars Tyrol was ceded to ally of France. Andreas Hofer led a Tyrolean peasant army to victory in the Battles of Bergisel against the combined Bavarian and French forces, made Innsbruck the centre of his administration; the combined army overran the Tyrolean militia army and until 1814 Innsbruck was part of Bavaria. After the Vienna Congress Austrian rule was restored.
Until 1918, the town was part of the Austrian monarchy, head of the district of the same name, one of the 21 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in the Tyrol province. The Tyrolean hero Andreas Hofer was executed in Mantua. During World War I, the only recorded action taking place in Innsbruck was near the end of the war. On February 20, 1918, Allied planes flying out of Italy raided Innsbruck, causing casualties among the Austrian troops there. No damage to the town is recorded. In November 1918 Innsbruck and all Tyrol were occupied by the 20 to 22 thousand soldiers of the III Corps of the First Italian Army. In 1929, the first official Austrian Chess Championship was held in Innsbruck. In 1938 Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany in the Anschluss. Between 1943 and April 1945, Innsbruck suffered heavy damage. In 1996, the European Union approved further cultural and economic integration between the Austrian province of Tyrol and the Italian autonomous provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino by recognizing the creation of the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino.
Innsbruck has a humid continental climate, since it has larger annual temperature differences than most of Central Europe due to its location in the centre of the Continent and its position around mountainous terrains. Winters are very cold and snowy, although the foehn wind sometimes brings pronounced thaws. Spring is brief. Summer is variable and unpredictable. Days can be cool 17 °C and rainy, or sunny and hot, sometimes hitting 34 °C. In summer, as expected for an alpine-influenced climate, the diurnal temperature variation is very high as nights remain cool, being 12 °C on average, but sometimes dipping as low as 6 °C; the average annual temperature is 9 °C. Innsbruck is divided into nine boroughs that were formed from previo
2024 Summer Olympics
The 2024 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XXXIII Olympiad, known as Paris 2024, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event, scheduled to take place from 26 July to 11 August 2024 in Paris, France. Having hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics, Paris will become the second city to host the Olympic Games three times, along with London; the 2024 Games mark the centennial of the 1924 Games. This will be the sixth overall Olympic Games held in France. Bidding to host these Games began in 2015 with five candidate cities in contention, but Hamburg and Budapest withdrew, leaving Paris and Los Angeles as the two candidates remaining. A proposal to elect the 2024 and 2028 Olympic host cities at the same time was approved by an Extraordinary IOC Session on 11 July 2017 in Lausanne. On 31 July 2017, the IOC made a deal with Los Angeles to host the 2028 Summer Olympics, making Paris the host of the 2024 Summer Olympics; the formal announcement of the hosts for both Olympiads took place at the 131st IOC Session in Lima, Peru, on 13 September 2017.
Paris, Budapest and Los Angeles were the five candidate cities. However, the process was hit by withdrawals, with political uncertainty and cost cited as deterring bidding cities. Hamburg withdrew its bid on 29 November 2015 after holding a referendum. Rome withdrew its bid on 21 September 2016 citing fiscal difficulties. On 22 February 2017, Budapest withdrew its bid after a petition against the bid collected more signatures than necessary for a referendum. Following these withdrawals, the IOC Executive Board met in Lausanne, Switzerland to discuss the 2024 and 2028 bid processes on 9 June 2017; the International Olympic Committee formally proposed electing the 2024 and 2028 Olympic host cities at the same time in 2017, a proposal, approved by an Extraordinary IOC Session on 11 July 2017 in Lausanne. The IOC set up a process whereby the LA 2024 and Paris 2024 bid committees would meet with the IOC to discuss who would host the 2024 Games, who would host the 2028 Games, whether it were possible to select the host city for both at the same time.
Following the decision to award the 2024 and 2028 Games Paris was understood to be the preferred host for the 2024 Games. On 31 July 2017, the IOC announced Los Angeles as the sole candidate for the 2028 Games, opening Paris up to be confirmed as hosts for the 2024 Games. Both decisions were ratified at the 131st IOC Session on 13 September 2017. Paris was elected as the host city on September 2017 at the 131st IOC Session in Lima, Peru; the two French IOC members, Guy Drut and Tony Estanguet were ineligible to vote in this host city election under the rules of the Olympic Charter. In 2007, the IOC established the concept of Olympics including 28 sports: 25 permanent'core' sports with 3 additional sports selected for each individual Games. On 8 September 2013, IOC added wrestling to the Olympic programme for the 2020 and 2024 Games, representing one of these additional sports. FILA changed freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestling weight classes for men and decreased to 6 categories in order to add more weights for women.
However, in August 2016, the IOC added five sports to the 2020 Olympics, with plans to separately evaluate the existing 28 sports. No indication was given how this would affect the number of sports in 2024. In August 2017, it was reported that the Paris organizers held discussions with the IOC and various professional eSport organizations to study the possibility of introducing eSports as a medal-winning sport during the Olympics. On February 21, 2019, the Paris Organizing Committee announced they would propose breakdancing for inclusion in the program to the IOC, along with three of the sports that will debut at the 2020 Games: surfing and skateboarding. During the Lima Session, the IOC approved the Rio 2016 sports program for Paris 2024. New sports will be chosen during the 134th IOC Session in 2019 in Lausanne, subject to final approval by the IOC Executive Board in December 2020; the 2024 Summer Olympic programme is scheduled to feature 28 sports encompassing 319 events, though this is to change depending on success of the five additional sports added to the Tokyo Olympics.
This means there could be up to 33 sports, any new sports which are added to the Olympic programme. The number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses. Most of the Olympic events will be held in and around Paris, including the suburbs of Saint-Denis, Le Bourget, Nanterre and Vaires-sur-Marne, just outside the city environs; the sailing and surfing events will be held in the remote coastal resorts of Marseille and Biarritz respectively. Football will be hosted in various cities around France. Notes Parc des Princes, 61,338, Paris Stade Vélodrome, 67,394, Parc Olympique Lyonnais, 59,186, Stade Pierre-Mauroy, 50,157, Stade Matmut Atlantique, 42,115, Stade Geoffroy-Guichard, 41,965, Saint-Étienne, YellowPark, 40,000, Allianz Riviera, 35,624, Stadium Municipal, 33,150, France A call for tenders was launched in October 2018 to create the new Visual identity of Paris 2024, including the logo, the derivative brands, the Olympic torch relay, the g
2010 Summer Youth Olympics
The 2010 Summer Youth Olympics were the first edition of the Youth Olympic Games, an international multi-sport and cultural event for youths based on the tradition of the Olympic Games. Held in Singapore from 14 to 26 August 2010, it was the first International Olympic Committee-sanctioned event held in Southeast Asia; the Games featured about 3,600 athletes aged 14–18 from 204 nations, who competed in 201 events in 26 sports. No official medal tables were published, but the most successful nation was China, followed by Russia. Most unique features of the YOG, such as mixed-NOCs teams and the Culture and Education Programme, made their debut at the 2010 Games. Although the concept dates back to 1998, formal plans for the YOG were only announced at the 119th IOC session on 6 July 2007. On 21 February 2008, Singapore was selected as the host city after defeating Moscow 53-44 in a postal vote by 105 International Olympic Committee members; the Singapore Youth Olympic Games Organising Committee prepared eighteen competition venues and twelve training venues.
The Float@Marina Bay hosted the opening and closing ceremonies and the Youth Olympic Village was located at Nanyang Technological University. The committee selected Games mascots Lyo and Merly, the Spirit of Youth emblem and the theme song "Everyone", performed by five singers representing each major continent, combining North and South America. Online media, Asian newspapers and 166 television broadcasters provided extensive coverage of the Games; the torch relay, which began on 23 July 2010, comprised a thirteen-day world tour of five cities, each representing a continent, a six-day domestic leg. Highlights of the opening and closing ceremonies include performances about Singaporean history and culture, a 32-metre Olympic cauldron, flags being brought onto stage and items featuring YOG symbols; the Games were marred by discrepancies in the budget and attendance figures, two wrestlers caught doping, a walkover in the taekwondo final and allegations that Bolivian footballers were overage. The concept of the YOG was developed in 1998 by Johann Rosenzopf in response to concerns over childhood obesity and declining youth participation in sports.
IOC President Jacques Rogge formally announced plans for the YOG at the 119th IOC session in Guatemala City on 6 July 2007. Singapore, which had hosted the 117th session, made its first formal bid to host a multi-disciplinary sporting event of this magnitude. Positive factors in its bid included its high connectivity with the world, its youthfulness as an independent country, its positive reputation for excellence and multiracial harmony; the city-state rolled out a high-publicity campaign which included being amongst the first to launch its official website, bid logo and a bid tagline "Blazing the Trail" on 16 October 2007. It got the local population to support its bid, including an effort by students to collect 1 million signatures. Eleven cities expressed interest in hosting the Games, nine of which applied. Five cities amongst the nine were selected for the shortlist: Athens, Moscow and Turin; the list was further shortened to two finalists and Moscow. On 21 February 2008, Rogge announced that Singapore had won the postal vote 53-44 and was thus selected as the host for the Games.
There were concerns over whether two new venues, planned – a Youth Olympic Village and an equestrian complex – would be ready in time for the Games. A construction expert believed the US$423 million plan for an Olympic Village at the National University of Singapore was feasible, that the equestrian venue could be delivered on time. In spite of the expert's findings, the Youth Olympic Village at the NUS's University Town did run into difficulties owing to increasing construction costs, it was subsequently decided that existing student halls of residence at Nanyang Technological University in Jurong West would be used for the Olympic Village. The Singapore Youth Olympic Games Organising Committee was tasked with organising the inaugural Games, it was aided by a panel of advisors composed of Cabinet ministers and Senior Parliamentary Secretary Teo Ser Luck. In addition, an Inter-Ministry Committee was established with Niam Chiang Meng, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Community Development and Sports as its chairman.
Singapore received some international support for the Games preparations. The People's Republic of China, host of the 2008 Summer Olympics, expressed its desire to assist Singapore in its preparations. Sebastian Coe, Lord Coe, Chairman of the London Organising Committee for the 2012 Summer Olympics, announced that members of his organising team, including coaches and administrators, planned to attend the event; the Bid Committee secured 4,310 guaranteed rooms in 36 hotels. The official hotel partner for the Games was the Fairmont Singapore; the IOC projected in 2007 the Youth Olympic Games would cost US$30 million to stage. Singapore won its bid in 2008 with a budget of US$75.5 million with strong government support. The budget was increased to U$284 million, thrice the original amount, which the organisers attributed to major revisions in the scope and scale of the Games. Costs were increased for logistics and transport and upgrades of various sports venues and
2012 Winter Youth Olympics
The 2012 Winter Youth Olympic Games known as the I Winter Youth Olympic Games, were an international multi-sport event for youths that took place in Innsbruck, on 13–22 January 2012. They were the inaugural Winter Youth Olympics, a major sports and cultural festival celebrated in the tradition of the Olympic Games. 1100 athletes from 70 countries competed. The decision for Innsbruck to host the Games was announced on 12 December 2008 after mail voting by 105 International Olympic Committee members. Innsbruck is the first city to host three winter Olympic events, having hosted the 1964 Winter Olympics and the 1976 Winter Olympics. All four applicant cities were kept as candidate cities by the IOC in August 2008. Swedish skier Pernilla Wiberg was the Evaluation Chair for the Commission to score the applicant cities. In November 2008, two cities were cut from the list, leaving both Kuopio and Innsbruck in the running. On 12 December, the final vote was revealed to be 84 votes to 15, with Innsbruck winning the hosting rights.
All venues that will be used for the 2012 Winter Youth Olympics were existing when Innsbruck was awarded the games in 2008. Innsbruck thus proposed a budget of $22.5 million USDs to stage the games. The athlete's village will cost $121 million to build. Marketing for the games included sponsor BMW painting cars with the Innsbruck 2012 logo and information to spread awareness across Austria. There are twelve official worldwide partners of the International Olympic Committee such as McDonald's and Coca-Cola, which have been designated as "World Olympic Partners" by the organizing committee for the event; the organizing committee designated fifteen companies as official sponsors and suppliers of which include BMW and Raiffeisen Zentralbank among others. About 60% of the costs associated with the games are expected to be covered by sponsorship by the various companies; the official mascot of the 2012 Winter Youth Olympics is an anthropomorphic chamois named Yoggl. The name is a compound of "Joggl", the Tyrolean nickname for Jakob, YOG, the acronym of the Youth Olympic Games.
He represents respect for nature, the lifestyles and geography of the host country, modernity and athleticism. The mascot was designed by Luis Andrés Abbiati of Argentina. All of the venues are located at venue clusters in two major zones in Innsbruck and Seefeld, Olympiaworld Innsbruck and Seefeld Arena. All venues are existing with the exception of the curling and biathlon venues, which will be temporary; the torch relay of the Games was announced on 9 October 2011, involving 65 sites over 18 days with some 2,012 torchbearers carrying the flame. The torch was lit on 17 December 2011 in Athens, Greece by the first torchbearer Carlos Pecharromán from Spain and the relay began in Innsbruck on 27 December 2011 and ended with the opening ceremony in Bergiselschanze on 13 January 2012, it is the first time the Olympic flame had gone to the same city three times as Innsbruck was the host of the Winter Olympic Games in 1964 and 1976. Below is the list of route locations: 27 December: Innsbruck, Neustift im Stubaital, Sölden, Ischgl 28 December: Jerzens, Lustenau, Bludenz 29 December: Sankt Anton am Arlberg, Lienz, Dellach 30 December: Millstatt, Wolfsberg, Murau 31 December: Kapfenberg, Wiener Neudorf 1 January: Vienna, Mönichkirchen 2 January: Bad Waltersdorf, Fürstenfeld 3 January: Graz, Oberpullendorf 4 January: Eisenstadt, Schwechat, Vösendorf, Sankt Pölten 5 January: Waidhofen an der Ybbs, Linz, Wels 6 January: Hinterstoder, Mondsee, Neumarkt am Wallersee, Hallein 7 January: Wals, Gosau, Filzmoos 8 January: Ramsau, Haus 9 January: Schladming, Sankt Johann im Pongau, Maria Alm 10 January: Kirchberg, Bad Gastein, Zell am See 11 January: Seefeld, Kühtai, Fugen 12 January: Sankt Ulrich am Pillersee, Telfs, Zirl 13 January: Kufstein, Mutters, Lans The opening ceremony of the games took place on 13 January 2012, at 6:30 pm CET at Bergiselschanze.
15,000 people packed the snow-filled stadium to watch the ceremony, where for the first time three cauldrons were lit to commemorate the previous two Winter Olympics Innsbruck has hosted. Heinz Fischer, the President of Austria declared the games open; the Closing ceremony took place on 22 January. IOC President Jacques Rogge stated that the first Winter Youth Olympic Games were "ten glorious days" and that the games "exceeded all expectations and laid solid foundations for future Youth Olympic Games". In accordance with IOC guidelines, only youths aged between 14 and 19 years were able to participate in the 2012 Winter Youth Olympics. Unlike the Olympic Games, the youth athletes taking part in the YOG will be expected to stay in the host city throughout the Games to take part in an integrated sport and culture and education programme; the qualification criteria for participation in the Games differs by sport, are determined by the NOCs and international sports federations. The YOG featured 63 medal events over 15 disciplines.
The top ten listed National Olympic Committees by number of gold medals are listed below with the host nation, being highlighted. A competition was announced in early 2011 to design the medals. Medals won by teams of athletes from more than one NOC are included in the table as medals awarded to a mixed-NOCs team. There were three events which composed of mixed-NOCs teams, as such all nine medals in these events, were swept by mixed-NOC
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
The Olympic symbols are icons and symbols used by the International Olympic Committee to elevate the Olympic Games. Some—such as the flame and theme—are more used during Olympic competition, but others, such as the flags, can be seen throughout the years; the Olympic flag was created under the guidance of Baron Coubertin in 1913 and was released in 1914. But it was first hoisted in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium at the 1920 Summer Olympics in the main stadium. Five rings equal the Five continents of the world; the Olympic motto is the hendiatris Citius, Fortius, Latin for "Faster, Stronger". It was proposed by Pierre de Coubertin upon the creation of the International Olympic Committee in 1894. Coubertin borrowed it from his friend Henri Didon, a Dominican priest, an athletics enthusiast. Coubertin said "These three words represent a programme of moral beauty; the aesthetics of sport are intangible." The motto was introduced in 1924 at the Olympic Games in Paris. A more informal but well-known motto introduced by Coubertin, is "The most important thing is not to win but to take part!"
Coubertin got this motto from a sermon by the Bishop of Pennsylvania during the 1908 London Games. The rings are five interlocking rings, coloured blue, black and red on a white field, known as the "Olympic rings"; the symbol was designed in 1912 by de Coubertin. He appears to have intended the rings to represent the five continents: Europe, Africa and America. According to Coubertin, the colours of the rings together with the white of the background included the colours composing every competing nation's flag at the time. Upon its initial introduction, Coubertin stated the following in the August 1912 edition of Olympique:... the six colours combined in this way reproduce the colours of every country without exception. The blue and yellow of Sweden, the blue and white of Greece, the tricolour flags of France, the United States, Belgium and Hungary, the yellow and red of Spain are included, as are the innovative flags of Brazil and Australia, those of ancient Japan and modern China; this is an international emblem.
In his article published in the Olympic Revue the official magazine of the International Olympic Committee in November 1992, the American historian Robert Barney explains that the idea of the interlaced rings came to Pierre de Coubertin when he was in charge of the USFSA, an association founded by the union of two French sports associations and until 1925, responsible for representing the International Olympic Committee in France: The emblem of the union was two interlaced rings and the idea of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung: for him, the ring symbolized continuity and the human being. The 1914 Congress was suspended due to the outbreak of World War I, but the symbol and flag were adopted, they debuted at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium. The symbol's popularity and widespread use began during the lead-up to the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. Carl Diem, president of the Organizing Committee of the 1936 Summer Olympics, wanted to hold a torchbearers' ceremony in the stadium at Delphi, site of the famous oracle, where the Pythian Games were held.
For this reason he ordered construction of a milestone with the Olympic rings carved in the sides, that a torchbearer should carry the flame along with an escort of three others from there to Berlin. The ceremony was celebrated but the stone was never removed. Two American authors and Gray Poole, when visiting Delphi in the late 1950s, saw the stone and reported in their History of the Ancient Games that the Olympic rings design came from ancient Greece; this has become known as "Carl Diem's Stone". This created a myth; the current view of the International Olympic Committee is that the symbol "reinforces the idea" that the Olympic Movement is international and welcomes all countries of the world to join. As can be read in the Olympic Charter, the Olympic symbol represents the union of the "five continents" of the world and the meeting of athletes from throughout the world at the Olympic Games. However, no continent is represented by any specific ring. Prior to 1951, the official handbook stated that each colour corresponded to a particular continent: blue for Europe, yellow for Asia, black for Africa, green for Australia and Oceania, red for the Americas.
The logo of the Association of National Olympic Committees places the logo of each of its five continental associations inside the ring of the corresponding colour. The Olympic flag was created by Pierre de Coubertin in 1913; the Olympic flag has a white background, with five interlaced rings in the centre: blue, black and red. This design is symbolic. There are specific Olympic flags that are displayed by cities that will be hosting the next Olympic games. During each Olympic closing ceremony in what is traditionally known as the Antwerp Ceremony, the flag is passed from the mayor of one host city to the next host, where it will be taken to the new host and displayed at city hall; these flags should not be confused with the larger Olympic flags designed and created for each games, which are flown over the host stadium and retired. Because there is no specific flag for this purp
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c