Bedřich Šupčík was a former Czechoslovak gymnast and Olympic champion. He competed at the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris, where he received a gold medal in rope climbing, a bronze medal and in all-round individual, he received a silver medal in team combined exercises at the 1928 Summer Olympics in Paris
France at the 1912 Summer Olympics
France competed at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden. 119 competitors, 118 men and 1 woman, took part in 66 events in 13 sports. Jacques Cariou — Equestrian, Individual jumping Gaston Thubé, Jacques Thubé and Amédée Thubé — Sailing, Men's 6m class Paul Colas — Shooting, Men's 300m free rifle, three positions Paul Colas — Shooting, Men's 600m free rifle André Gobert and Maurice Germot — Tennis, Men's doubles indoor André Gobert — Tennis, Men's singles indoor Marguerite Broquedis — Tennis, Women's singles outdoor Charles Poulenard, Pierre Failliot, Charles Lelong and Robert Schurrer — Athletics, Men's 4 × 400 m Relay Jean Bouin — Athletics, Men's 5000m Louis Ségura — Gymnastics, Men's all-around Pierre Dufour d'Astafort, Jacques Cariou, Ernest Meyer and Gaston Seigner — Equestrian, Team jumping Jacques Cariou — Equestrian, Individual eventing Albert Canet and Eduard Meny De Marangue — Tennis, Men's doubles outdoor Marguerite Broquedis and Albert Canet — Tennis, Mixed doubles outdoor Three swimmers competed for France at the 1912 Games.
It was the third time. None of the three French swimmers advanced past the quarterfinals in any event. Ranks given for each swimmer are within the heat. Men France made its second appearance in Olympic water polo in 1912; the 1912 French team had little success, losing to Sweden and Belgium to be eliminated from the tournament. QuarterfinalsRepechage final 32 athletes represented France, it was the fourth appearance of the nation in athletics, which France appeared in each time the nation appeared at the Olympics. Jean Bouin set a new Olympic record in the 5000 metres in the semifinals, holding it only until the final. Despite dropping another nearly 30 seconds off his time in the final, he came in second a mere.1 seconds behind Hannes Kolehmainen of Finland. The French 4x400 metre relay took a silver medal to bring the nation's total in athletics to 2 silver medals. Ranks given are within that athlete's heat for running events. Twelve cyclists represented France, it was the fourth appearance of the nation in cycling, which had only not competed in cycling in 1904.
Joseph Racine had the best time in the time trial, the only race held. The French team included; the top four French cyclists had a combined time. DressageEventing Jumping Six gymnasts represented France, it was the fourth appearance of the nation in gymnastics, in which France had not competed only in 1904. Louis Ségura, the defending bronze medalist, earned the silver in the individual all-around. France did not enter a team in any of the team competitions. France had two competitors in the first Olympic pentathlon competition; the French pentathletes placed 19th among the 22 finishers. Seventeen rowers represented France, it was the nation's second appearance in rowing, first since the nation hosted the 1900 Summer Olympics. No French boat reached the semifinals. Three sailors, a set of brothers, represented France, it was the nation's third appearance in sailing, in which France had competed each time the sport was held at the Olympics. France's single boat took the gold medal in the six metre class, winning a two-boat race-off after tying in the standings after the first two races.
Nineteen shooters represented France. It was the nation's fourth appearance in shooting, in which France had not competed only in 1904. Paul Colas won a pair of gold medals, the only medals France won in 1912 and the first golds the nation had won since 1900. Six tennis players, including one woman, represented France at the 1912 Games, it was the nation's fourth appearance in tennis, having missed only 1904. The lone French woman, won the women's outdoor singles event while Gobert took the men's indoor singles championship; the indoor men's doubles pair won, giving Gobert two gold medals. Broquedis had a second medal. Canet finished with a pair of bronzes, his other one coming in partnership with Mény in the men's outdoor doubles. MenWomenMixed France was represented by six wrestlers in its Olympic wrestling debut. None of the six was able to win a single match, each being eliminated after losing their first two bouts. Official Olympic Reports International Olympic Committee results database
Italy at the 1920 Summer Olympics
Italy competed at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium. 174 competitors, 173 men and 1 woman, took part in 79 events in 18 sports. Ettore Caffaratti, Garibaldi Spighi, Giulio Cacciandra and Carlo Asinari — Equestrian, Men's Team three-day event Alessandro Valerio — Equestrian, Individual jumping Aldo Nadi — Fencing, Men's Individual Sabre Pietro Annoni and Erminio Dones — Rowing, Men's double scull Pietro Bianchi — Weightlifting, Middleweight Ernesto Ambrosini — Athletics, Men's 3000m steeplechase Valerio Arri — Athletics, Men's marathon Edoardo Garzena — Boxing, Featherweight Ettore Caffaratti — Equestrian, Individual three-day event Ettore Caffaratti, Giulio Cacciandra, Alessandro Alvisi and Carlo Asinari — Equestrian, Team jumping A single diver represented Italy in 1920, it was the nation's third appearance in the sport. De Sanctis was unable to advance past the first round in either of his two events. MenRanks given are within the semifinal group. Four swimmers, all men, represented Italy in 1920.
It was the nation's fourth appearance in the sport. None of the individual swimmers advanced to the finals, though the relay did advance before finishing fifth in the final. Ranks given are within the heat. Men Italy competed in the Olympic water polo tournament for the first time in 1920; the Bergvall System was in use at the time. Italy forfeited its round of 16 match with Spain was defeated by Greece in the bronze medal tournament. SquadRound of 16Italy forfeited the match. Bronze medal quarterfinalsFinal rank 11th 24 athletes represented Italy in 1920, it was the nation's fourth appearance in athletics. Frigerio gave the nation its first gold medals in the sport by winning both of the racewalking competitions. Italy's long-distance successes included a bronze in the marathon and a bronze in the steeplechase. Overall, the nation placed. Ranks given are within the heat. Five boxers represented Italy at the 1920 Games, it was the nation's debut in boxing. Garzena had the best performance for Italy, taking all three of the nation's wins on his way to a bronze medal.
Twelve cyclists represented Italy in 1920. It was the nation's third appearance in the sport. Italy took its first Olympic cycling medal. Italy had three cyclists place in the top eight of the 50 kilometres event, though none was able to secure a medal. Ranks given are within the heat. Ten equestrians represented Italy in 1920, it was the nation's second appearance in the sport. The Italian equestrians were successful, winning five medals to take third place on the equestrian leader board for the Games. Italians took the top two spots in the individual jumping competition, as well as a bronze in the individual eventing; the nation earned a medal in each of the two team events in which it participated, a silver in the eventing and a bronze in jumping. Nineteen fencers represented Italy in 1920, it was the nation's fourth appearance in the sport. The Italian fencers took five of the six gold medals. Nedo Nadi took the individual gold medals in the sabre. Aldo Nadi took a silver medal in the individual sabre.
Ranks given are within the group. Italy competed in the Olympic football tournament for the second time; the team beat Egypt in the first round before falling to France in the quarterfinals. In the tournament for second place, the Italians beat Norway before losing to Spain in the consolation semis. Team RosterPiero Campelli Giovanni Giacone Antonio Bruna Renzo de Vecchi Virginio Rosetta Gracco de Nardo Ettore Reynaudi Mario Meneghetti Giuseppe Parodi Luigi Burlando Rinaldo Roggero Giustiniano Marucco Pio Ferraris Giuseppe Forlivesi Cesare Lovati Enrico Sardi Adolfo Baloncieri Emilio Badini Guglielmo Brezzi Aristodemo Santamaria Adevildo De MarchiFirst round Quarterfinals Consolation first round Consolation semifinals Final rank 5th Twenty-seven gymnasts represented Italy in 1920, it was the nation's fourth appearance in the sport. The Italians took gold medals in both of the events in which they competed, with Zampori taking the men's individual all-around and leading the Italians to a team gold.
Italy did not compete in Swedish system team events. A single pentathlete represented Italy in 1920, it was the nation's debut in the sport. A point-for-place system was used, with the lowest total score winning. Six rowers represented Italy in 1920, it was the nation's third appearance in the sport. Italian rowers reached the finals for the first time, winning the nation's first two Olympic rowing medals: a gold in the coxed pairs and a silver in the double sculls. Ranks given are within the heat. Ten shooters represented Italy in 1920, it was the nation's second appearance in the sport, the first since 1896. Greece took a silver medal in the team military pistol, its first medal in shooting since 1896. Italy's best result was a fourth-place finish in the team standing military rifle. Four tennis players, three men and one woman, competed for Italy in 1920, it was the nation's debut in the sport. Balbi and Colombo reached the quarterfinals in the men's doubles, the best result for Italy that year. Italy competed in the Olympic tug of war tournament for the first time in 1920, the final appearance of the sport in the Olympics.
The Bergvall System was used in 1920. Italy lost its first match in the semifinals to the Netherlands; because the Dutch went on to win the silver medal, Italy received an opportunity to contest the bronze. In the bronze medal semifinals, the Italians lost again, th
Gymnastics at the 1936 Summer Olympics
At the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, nine events in gymnastics were contested. The competitions were held from August 10, 1936 to August 12, 1936. Gymnastics at the 1936 Berlin Summer Games. Sports-reference.com "Olympic Medal Winners". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2006-11-18
Artistic gymnastics is a discipline of gymnastics in which athletes perform short routines on different apparatuses, with less time for vaulting. The sport is governed by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique, which designs the code of points and regulates all aspects of international elite competition. Within individual countries, gymnastics is regulated by national federations, such as Gymnastics Canada, British Gymnastics, USA Gymnastics. Artistic gymnastics is a popular spectator sport at many competitions, including the Summer Olympic Games; the gymnastic system was mentioned in works by ancient authors, such as Homer and Plato. It included many disciplines that would become separate sports, such as swimming, wrestling and riding, was used for military training. In its present form, gymnastics evolved in Bohemia and what is now at the beginning of the 19th century, the term "artistic gymnastics" was introduced at the same time to distinguish free styles from the ones used by the military.
The German educator Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, known as the father of gymnastics, invented several apparatus, including the horizontal bar and parallel bars, which are used to this day. Two of the first gymnastics clubs were Sokols. In 1881, the FIG was founded, it remains the governing body of international gymnastics, it included only three countries and was called the European Gymnastics Federation until 1921, when the first non-European countries joined the federation and it was reorganized into its present form. Gymnastics was included in the program of the 1896 Summer Olympics, but women have been allowed to participate in the Olympics only since 1928; the World Championships, held since 1903, were open only to men until 1934. Since that time, two branches of artistic gymnastics have developed: women's artistic gymnastics and men's artistic gymnastics. Unlike men's and women's branches of many other sports, WAG and MAG differ in apparatus used at major competitions and in techniques. Women's gymnastics entered the Olympics as a team event in 1928 and was included in the 12th gymnastics world championships in 1950.
Individual women were recognized in the all-around as early as the tenth world championships in 1934. Two years after the full women's program was introduced at the 1950 World Championships, it was added to the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki and the format has remained to this day; the earliest champions in women's gymnastics tended to be in their 20s, most had studied ballet for years before entering the sport. Larisa Latynina, the first great Soviet gymnast, won her first Olympic all-around medal at the age of 22 and her second at 26. Věra Čáslavská of Czechoslovakia, who followed Latynina to become a two-time Olympic all-around champion, was 22 before she started winning gold medals. In the 1970s, the average age of Olympic gymnasts began to decrease. While it was not unheard-of for teenagers to compete in the 1960s—Ludmilla Tourischeva was 16 at her first Olympics in 1968—younger female gymnasts became the norm as the sport's difficulty increased. Smaller, lighter girls excelled in the more challenging acrobatic elements required by the redesigned Code of Points.
The 58th Congress of the FIG—held in July 1980, just before the Olympics—decided to raise the minimum age for senior international competition from 14 to 15. The change, which came into effect two years did not eliminate the problem. By the time of the 1992 Summer Olympics, elite competitors consisted exclusively of "pixies"—underweight, prepubertal teenagers—and concerns were raised about athletes' welfare; the FIG responded to this trend by raising the minimum age for international elite competition to 16 in 1997. This, combined with changes in the Code of Points and evolving popular opinion in the sport, led to the return of older gymnasts. While the average elite female gymnast is still in her middle to late teens and of below-average height and weight, it is common to see gymnasts competing well into their 20s. At the 2004 Olympics, both the second-place American team and the third-place Russians were captained by women in their mid-20s. At the 2008 Olympics, the silver medalist on vault, Oksana Chusovitina, was a 33-year-old mother.
She received another silver medal on vault at the 2011 World Championships in Tokyo, when she was 36. At the age of 41, Chusovitina competed at her 7th consecutive Olympics at the 2016 Olympics, a world record for gymnastics. Both male and female gymnasts are judged on all events for execution, degree of difficulty, overall presentation skills. Vault The vault is an event as well as the primary piece of equipment used in that event. Unlike most of the gymnastic events employing apparatuses, the vault is common to both men's and women's competition, with little difference between the two categories. A gymnast sprints down a runway, a maximum of 25 m in length, before leaping onto a springboard. Harnessing the energy of the spring, the gymnast directs his or her body hands-first towards the vault. Body position is maintained while "popping" the vaulting platform; the gymnast rotates his or her body so as to land in a standing position on the far side of the vault. In advanced gymnastics, multiple twists and somersaults may be added before landing.
Successful vaults depend on the speed of the run, the length of the hurdle, the power the gymnast generates from the legs and shoulder girdle, kinesthetic awareness
France at the 1920 Summer Olympics
France competed at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium. 304 competitors, 296 men and 8 women, took part in 113 events in 23 sports. Julien Louis Brule — Archery, Men's Individual moving bird 50m Joseph Guillemot — Athletics, Men's 5000m Paul Fritsch — Boxing, Featherweight Fernand Canteloube, Georges Detreille, Achille Souchard and Marcel Gobillot — Cycling, Men's Time Trial Armand Massard — Fencing, Men's Individual Epee Suzanne Lenglen and Max Decugis — Tennis, Mixed doubles Suzanne Lenglen — Tennis, Women's singles Henri Gance — Weightlifting, Middleweight Ernest Cadine — Weightlifting, Light heavyweight Julien Louis Brulé, Léonce Gaston Quentin, Pascal Fauvel, Eugène Grisot, Eugène Richez, Artur Mabellon, Léon Epin and Paul Leroy — Archery, Men's Team moving bird 33m Julien Louis Brulé, Léonce Gaston Quentin, Pascal Fauvel, Eugène Grisot, Eugène Richez, Artur Mabellon, Léon Epin and Paul Leroy — Archery, Men's Team moving bird 50m Léonce Gaston Quentin — Archery, Men's Individual moving bird 28m Julien Louis Brule — Archery, Men's Individual moving bird 33m Joseph Guillemot — Athletics, Men's 10000m René Tirard, René Lorain, René Mourlon and Émile Ali-Khan — Athletics, Men's 4 × 100 m relay Jean Gachet — Boxing, Featherweight Field — Equestrian, Individual vaulting Field, Cauchy — Equestrian, Team vaulting Alexandre Lippmann — Fencing, Men's Individual Epee Philippe Cattiau — Fencing, Men's Individual Foil André Labattut, Georges Trombert, Marcel Perrot, Lucien Gaudin, Philippe Cattiau, Roger François Ducret, Gaston Amson and Lionel Bony De Castellane — Fencing, Men's Team Foil Jean Margraff, Marc Marie Jean Perrodon, Henri Marie Raoul De Saint Germain and Georges Trombert — Fencing, Men's Team Sabre Marco Torrès — Gymnastics, Men's Individual all-around Gabriel Poix, Maurice Monney-Bouton and Ernest Barberolle — Rowing, Men's pair with coxswain Men's Team — Rugby Albert Weil, Félix Picon and Robert Monier — Sailing, 6.5 metre class Léon Johnson, Émile Rumeau, Achille Paroche, André Parmentier and Georges Roes — Shooting, Men's Team 300m military rifle, prone Léon Johnson — Shooting, Men's 300m military rifle, prone Julien Louis Brulé, Léonce Gaston Quentin, Pascal Fauvel, Eugène Grisot, Eugène Richez, Artur Mabellon, Léon Epin and Paul Leroy — Archery, Men's Team moving bird 28m Géo André, Gaston Féry, Maurice Delvart and André Devaux — Athletics, Men's 4 × 400 m relay Albert Eluère — Boxing, Heavyweight Fernand Canteloube — Cycling, Men's Individual Time Trial Gustave Buchard — Fencing, Men's Individual Epee Armand Massard, Alexandre Lippmann, Gustave Buchard, Georges Casanova, Georges Trombert, Gaston Amson and Louis Moureau — Fencing, Men's Team Epee Roger François Ducret — Fencing, Men's Individual Foil Jean Gounot — Gymnastics, Men's Individual all-around Men's Team — Gymnastics Gaston Giran and Alfred Plé — Rowing, Men's double scull Pierre Albarran and Max Decugis — Tennis, Men's doubles Elisabeth D'Ayen and Suzanne Lenglen — Tennis, Women's doubles Louis Bernot — Weightlifting, Heavyweight France sent eight archers in its third Olympic archery appearance, all of whom won at least three medals.
The team ended up with one gold medal, four silvers, a bronze. Because of the lack of competition, the team's worst possible result would have been five silvers and a bronze. A single diver represented France in 1920, it was the nation's debut appearance in the sport. Weil did not advance to the final. MenRanks given are within the semifinal group. Thirteen swimmers, ten men and three women, represented France in 1920, it was the nation's fourth appearance in the sport. None of the swimmers were able to advance to an event final. Ranks given are within the heat. MenWomen France competed in the Olympic water polo tournament for the third time in 1920. A modified version of the Bergvall System was in use at the time. France was defeated by Brazil in the opening round, not qualifying for either the silver or bronze tournaments. Round of 16Final rank 11th 59 athletes represented France in 1920, it was France's sixth appearance in athletics. Guillemot took the nation's first Olympic gold medal in athletics by winning the 5,000 metres.
He added a silver in the 10,000 while the team took two more medals in the relay events. Ranks given are within the heat. 15 boxers represented France at the 1920 Games. It was the nation's second appearance in boxing; the team won three medals, including one of each type, after four of the 15 men advanced to the semifinals. The two French featherweight boxers faced off in the finals, taking silver; the bronze came in the heavyweight class. France, which had not won a single bout in 1908, took fourth place on the boxing medals leader board. Thirteen cyclists represented France in 1920, it was the nation's fifth appearance in the sport. After a disappointing result in 1912, the French road cyclists had a better Games in 1920; the four-man team took the gold medal in the team time trial, on the strength of three top-10 individual performances including Canteloube's individual bronze. The track cyclists were unable to take a medal, with highlights including Lanusse reaching the semifinals of the sprint and Alancourt taking eighth in the 50 kilometres.
Ranks given are within the heat. Twenty-four equestrians represented France in 1920, it was the nation's third appearance in the sport, having been one of three countries to have appeared at each Olympic equestrian competition. For the first time, France earned no gold medals in equestrian; the best results for the country were in vaulting with a pair of silvers, on
Heikki Savolainen (gymnast)
Heikki Ilmari Savolainen was a Finnish artistic gymnast. He competed in five consecutive Olympics from 1928 to 1952 and won at least one medal in each of them. In 1928, he won a bronze on pommel horse, the first-ever medal in gymnastics for Finland. Winning his last medal at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, he became the oldest gymnastics medalist, at 44 years old. In 1932, Savolainen and his teammate Einari Teräsvirta had the same score on horizontal bar, but the Finnish team voted to give the silver medal to Savolainen. In 1948, he again had the same score as teammates Veikko Huhtanen and Paavo Aaltonen on pommel horse, the gold medal was shared between the three. At the world championships, Savolainen won only one medal, a team silver in 1950. Domestically, he collected 20 titles between 1928 and 1950, including six individual all-around titles in 1928–37. Savolainen graduated as a physical education teacher in 1931, a Doctor of Medicine in 1939, after which he started working as a doctor in his home town Kajaani, Finland.
During the Winter War he served with the rank of lieutenant colonel as the head doctor in a military hospital. In parallel Savolainen worked for the Finnish sports magazine Urheilulehti in 1932–37. From 1946 to 1959 he served as vice-president of the Finnish Gymnastics Federation, in 1946–56 as president of gymnastics federation of Kajaani, the town where he lived most of his life. Savolainen is the only Finnish gymnast inducted into the International Gymnastics Hall of Fame. List of multiple Olympic medalists