List of Orientalist artists

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This an incomplete list of artists who have produced works in an Orientalist style.[1]

Artists listed on this page may have worked across multiple genres, and it should not be assumed that all of their work is necessarily in the Orientalist genre. The list also includes Orientalist photographers, engravers and lithographers. It is worth noting that this listing includes links to the English Wikipedia, and where no English article exists, named artists are linked to foreign language versions of Wikipedia, where available.

Note: This listing uses Spanish naming customs: the first family name is the paternal name and the second is the maternal family name. Artists are listed alphabetically by their paternal family name. For example, the Spanish artist, Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida, is listed under "S" for Sorolla, the paternal family name.


A[edit]

B[edit]

C[edit]

D[edit]

E[edit]

F[edit]

G[edit]

H[edit]

I[edit]

J[edit]

K[edit]

L[edit]

M[edit]

N[edit]

O[edit]

P[edit]

R[edit]

S[edit]

T[edit]

U[edit]

V[edit]

W[edit]

Y[edit]

Z[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ This is a composite listing compiled from multiple sources including: Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005; Juler, C., Les Orientalistes de l'Ecole Italienne, Edicion Internationale, Paris, ACR,1994; Thornton, L., The Orientalists: Painter Travellers, [Edition en langue anglaise], Paris, ACR, 1994; Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994; Meagher, J., "Orientalism in Nineteenth-Century Art," [The Metropolitan Museum of Art Essay], Online: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/euoAckerr/hd_euor.htm; Orientalist Painting http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/history-of-art/orientalist-painting.htm; Pouillon, F., Dictionnaire des Orientalistes de Langue Française, KARTHALA, 2008; Hannavy, J.Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, 2013; Abykayeva-Tiesenhausen, A. and Hannavy, J. (eds), Central Asia in Art: From Soviet Orientalism to the New Republics, I.B.Tauris, 2016 and Atroschenko, O., Bulatov, V., Kouteinikova, I., Solovyeva, K. and Schimmelpenninck van der Oye, D., Russia's Unknown Orient: Orientalist Painting 1850-1920, Nai010 Publishers, 2010; Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37-41 <Online:https://journals.openedition.org/mcv/2821> (translated from Spanish); Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997 (translated from French); Haja,M., Between Dream and Reality: Austrian Orientalist Painters in the Nineteenth Century, Salzburg, E. Mayer-Oehring, 1997; The Greek Painters from the 19th Century to the 20th Century, Volume One, Melissa, 1974. Reference has also been made to Wikipedia articles for Orientalist artists for whom notability has been established.
  2. ^ Vidal-Bué, M.(ed.), L'Algérie des peintres: 1830-1960, Paris-Méditerranée, 2002, p. 103
  3. ^ Dean, S., European paintings of the 19th and early 20th centuries in the National Gallery of Victoria, National Gallery of Victoria, 1995, p. 17
  4. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 272 (translated from French)
  5. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 18-19
  6. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37-41 Online: (translated from Spanish)
  7. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 272
  8. ^ Thorton, L. (ed.), Orientalists: Painter-travellers, ACR edition, 1994, p. 69
  9. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 272
  10. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 273
  11. ^ Thorton, L. (ed.), Orientalists: Painter-travellers, ACR edition, 1994, p. 19
  12. ^ Germaner, S. and İnankur, Z., Orientalism and Turkey, Turkish Cultural Service Foundation, 1989, p.41
  13. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 26
  14. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37-41 Online: (translated from Spanish)
  15. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 273
  16. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 273
  17. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, p. 26,52, 70, 100-119
  18. ^ Holloway, S.W., Orientalism, Assyriology and the Bible, Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2006, p.xi
  19. ^ Germaner, S. and İnankur, Z., Orientalism and Turkey, Turkish Cultural Service Foundation, 1989, p.41
  20. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 27
  21. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37-41 Online: (translated from Spanish)
  22. ^ Thornton, L., The Orientalists: Painter Travellers, [Edition en langue anglaise], Paris, ACR, 1994, p. 19
  23. ^ Thornton, L., The Orientalists: Painter Travellers, [Edition en langue anglaise], Paris, ACR, 1994, pp 29-30
  24. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37-41 Online: (translated from Spanish)
  25. ^ Orientalists: postcards of the Holy Land, 1800-1935: from the collection of Yoel Amer, 2008, p. 110
  26. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37-41 Online: (translated from Spanish)
  27. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 24
  28. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 16-19
  29. ^ Oakes, J., Algeria, Bradt Travel Guides, 2008, p. 120
  30. ^ Thornton, L., The Orientalists: Painter Travellers, [Edition en langue anglaise], Paris, ACR, 1994, p. 32
  31. ^ Ketner, J.D., A Gallery of Modern Art: At Washington University in St. Louis, Washington University, 1994, p. 32
  32. ^ Phaidon, P.J., The Orientalists: European Painters of Eastern Scenes, 1977, p 7 and 54
  33. ^ Atroschenko, O., Bulatov, V., Kouteinikova, I., Solovyeva, K. and Schimmelpenninck van der Oye, D., Russia's Unknown Orient: Orientalist Painting 1850-1920, Nai010 Publishers, 2010
  34. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 204-209
  35. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 274
  36. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 260-61
  37. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 54-55 (translated from French)
  38. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 274 (translated from French)
  39. ^ Thornton, L., Women as Portrayed in Orientalist Painting, ACR edition, 1994, p. 42
  40. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 50-51
  41. ^ "Russia's Unknown Orient," Artworldwide, Online:
  42. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 58-61 (translated from French)
  43. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 52-61
  44. ^ Netton, I.R., Orientalism Revisited: Art, Land and Voyage, Routledge, 2013, p. 123
  45. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, p. 49 and 86; Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 66-68
  46. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 69-71
  47. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 128-129
  48. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. p. 273
  49. ^ Germaner, S. and İnankur, Z., Orientalism and Turkey, Turkish Cultural Service Foundation, 1989, p.41
  50. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 275 (translated from French)
  51. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 72-73
  52. ^ Germaner, S. and İnankur, Z., Orientalism and Turkey, Turkish Cultural Service Foundation, 1989, p. 111
  53. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37-41 Online: (translated from Spanish); Shubert, A. and Junco, J.A., The History of Modern Spain: Chronologies, Themes, Individuals, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2017, p. 233
  54. ^ Thornton, L., Women as Portrayed in Orientalist Painting, ACR edition, 1994, p. 141
  55. ^ Holloway, S.W., Orientalism, Assyriology and the Bible, Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2006, p.xi
  56. ^ Hannavy, J.Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, 2013, pp 408-09
  57. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 238-39; Netton, I.R., Orientalism Revisited: Art, Land and Voyage, Routledge, 2013, p. 123
  58. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 275
  59. ^ Thornton, L., The Orientalists: Painter Travellers, [Edition en langue anglaise], Paris, ACR, 1994, p. 74
  60. ^ Mayr-Oehring, E. and Haja, M., Orient: Austrian painting between 1848 and 1914, Residenzgalerie Salzburg, Die Galerie, 1997,p. 308
  61. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 166-167
  62. ^ Germaner, S. and İnankur, Z., Orientalism and Turkey, Turkish Cultural Service Foundation, 1989, p. 111
  63. ^ Thornton, L., Women as Portrayed in Orientalist Painting, ACR edition, 1994, p. 140
  64. ^ Hannavy, J.Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, 2013, pp 441-442; Behdad, A. and Gartlan, L., Photography's Orientalism: New Essays on Colonial Representation. Getty Publications, 2017, p. 14
  65. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. p. 274
  66. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 272 (translated from French)
  67. ^ Thornton, L., Women as Portrayed in Orientalist Painting, ACR edition, 1994, p. 142
  68. ^ Thornton, L., Women as Portrayed in Orientalist Painting, ACR edition, 1994, p. 180
  69. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, p. 26
  70. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37-41 Online: (translated from Spanish)
  71. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 82
  72. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 275 (translated from French)
  73. ^ Benjamin, R., Orientalist Aesthetics: Art, Colonialism, and French North Africa, 1880-1930, University of California Press, 2003, p. 113
  74. ^ Brooks, S.R., The Photography of Lalla Essaydi: Critiquing and Contextualizing Orientalism, James Madison University, 2014
  75. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 141-42
  76. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 232-233
  77. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, p. 53
  78. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 96-97
  79. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 275
  80. ^ Hannavy, J.Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, 2013, pp 524-28
  81. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, p, 76, 84, 96
  82. ^ Davies, K., The Orientalists: Western artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia & India, Laynfaroh, 2005
  83. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 275
  84. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 282 (translated from French)
  85. ^ Hannavy, J.Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, 2013, p. 554
  86. ^ Hannavy, J.Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, 2013, pp 560-61
  87. ^ Williams, C., "The Visual Image of Nineteenth Century Cairo," in Abdullah, T., Serag, M., Jones, M. Sakkūt, H. and O'Kane, B. (eds), Arab and Islamic Studies, American University in Cairo Press, 1997, pp 48-50
  88. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, p.80
  89. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37-41 Online: (translated from Spanish)
  90. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 116 (translated from French)
  91. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 276
  92. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 117 (translated from French)
  93. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 116
  94. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 118 (translated from French)
  95. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, p. 69, 71
  96. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 222-229; 253-54; 275-77 and 286-89
  97. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 120
  98. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 90-93
  99. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 84-89
  100. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 282-283
  101. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 119
  102. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 276
  103. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 122
  104. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 126
  105. ^ Fabrés y su tiempo, 1854-1938 INBA, Museo de San Carlos, 1994, p. 52
  106. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 94-101
  107. ^ Hannavy, J.Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, 2013, p. 549 and 561
  108. ^ Hannavy, J.Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, 2013, pp 601-603
  109. ^ Behdad, A. and Gartlan, L., Photography's Orientalism: New Essays on Colonial Representation. Getty Publications, 2017, p. 14
  110. ^ Hannavy, J.Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, 2013, p.832
  111. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 102-103
  112. ^ Germaner, S. and İnankur, Z., Orientalism and Turkey, Turkish Cultural Service Foundation, 1989, p. 120
  113. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 216-217
  114. ^ Germaner, S. and İnankur, Z., Orientalism and Turkey, Turkish Cultural Service Foundation, 1989, p.41
  115. ^ Orientalist Painting, Online:
  116. ^ Shackelford, G.T.M., American Painters in the Age of Impressionism, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 1994, p. 24
  117. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR edition, 1994, pp 108-111
  118. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 128-132
  119. ^ The Charles and Emma Frye Art Museum: a handbook of the collection, Charles and Emma Frye Art Museum, 1989, p. 28
  120. ^ Mayr-Oehring, E. and Haja, M., Orient: Austrian painting between 1848 and 1914, Residenzgalerie Salzburg, Die Galerie, 1997,p. 291
  121. ^ Kuteinikova, I., "Russia’s Artistic Orientalist History," International Panorama, vol. 29, no.4, 2010, Online:
  122. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37-41 Online: (translated from Spanish)
  123. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 132
  124. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 133-35
  125. ^ Abykayeva-Tiesenhausen, A., Central Asia in Art: From Soviet Orientalism to the New Republics, I.B.Tauris, 2016, p.40
  126. ^ "Russia's Unknown Orient," Artworldwide, Online:
  127. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 112-119
  128. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 87-89
  129. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, p. 47
  130. ^ Thornton, L., The Orientalists: Painter-travellers, 1828-1908, Volume 1, ACR Édition, 1983, p. 242
  131. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37-41 Online: (translated from Spanish)
  132. ^ Atroschenko, O., Bulatov, V., Kouteinikova, I., Solovyeva, K. and Schimmelpenninck van der Oye, D., Russia's Unknown Orient: Orientalist Painting 1850-1920, Nai010 Publishers, 2010
  133. ^ Thornton, L., The Orientalists: Painter Travellers, [Edition en langue anglaise], Paris, ACR, 1994, p. 118
  134. ^ Benjamin, R., Orientalist Aesthetics: Art, Colonialism, and French North Africa: 1880-1930, University of California Press, 2003, p. 60
  135. ^ Hannavy, J.Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, 2013, p. 15
  136. ^ "John Frederick Lewis," [Biography], Tate Gallery, Online:
  137. ^ Roberts, M., Intimate Outsiders: The Harem in Ottoman and Orientalist Art and Travel, Duke University Press, 2007, pp 19-21
  138. ^ Yeazell, R.B., Harems of the Mind: Passages of Western Art and Literature, Yale University Press, 2000, Chapter 20
  139. ^ Starkey, P. and Starkey, J. (eds), Travellers in Egypt, I.B.Tauris, 2001, pp 148-50
  140. ^ Beaulieu, J. and Roberts, M., Orientalism’s Interlocutors: Painting, Architecture, Photography, Duke University Press, 2002, p. 179-80
  141. ^ Williams, C., "The Visual Image of Nineteenth Century Cairo," in Abdullah, T., Serag, M., Jones, M. Sakkūt, H. and O'Kane, B. (eds), Arab and Islamic Studies, American University in Cairo Press, 1997, pp 46-50
  142. ^ Mayr-Oehring, E. and Haja, M., Orient: Austrian painting between 1848 and 1914, Residenzgalerie Salzburg, Die Galerie, 1997,p. 367
  143. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37-41 Online: (translated from Spanish)
  144. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 120-122
  145. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 162
  146. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, p. 24
  147. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 165
  148. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 163-64
  149. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 170 (translated from French)
  150. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 168
  151. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 176-77
  152. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 278
  153. ^ Netton, I.R., Orientalism Revisited: Art, Land and Voyage, Routledge, 2013, p. 123
  154. ^ Germaner, S. and İnankur, Z., Orientalism and Turkey, Turkish Cultural Service Foundation, 1989, p.41
  155. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 278
  156. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 123-25
  157. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 126-129
  158. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 130-134
  159. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 135-139
  160. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 182-187
  161. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 14-43
  162. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 237-238; Netton, I.R., Orientalism Revisited: Art, Land and Voyage, Routledge, 2013, p. 123
  163. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 278
  164. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 188-193
  165. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 194
  166. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 278
  167. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 278
  168. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37-41 Online: (translated from Spanish)
  169. ^ Hannavy, J.Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, 2013, pp 990-91
  170. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 144-47
  171. ^ Atroschenko, O., Bulatov, V., Kouteinikova, I., Solovyeva, K. and Schimmelpenninck van der Oye, D., Russia's Unknown Orient: Orientalist Painting 1850-1920, Nai010 Publishers, 2010
  172. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 150-55
  173. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005
  174. ^ Thornton, L., Women as Portrayed in Orientalist Painting, ACR edition, 1994, p. 147
  175. ^ Behdad, A., Camera Orientalis: Reflections on Photography of the Middle East, University of Chicago Press, 2016, p. 2
  176. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 156-57
  177. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, p 105 and 243
  178. ^ Thornton, L., The Orientalists: Painter Travellers, [Edition en langue anglaise], Paris, ACR, 1994, p. 146
  179. ^ Thornton, L., The Orientalists: Painter Travellers, [Edition en langue anglaise], Paris, ACR, 1994, p. 146
  180. ^ Thornton, L., Women as Portrayed in Orientalist Painting, ACR edition, 1994, p. 155
  181. ^ Green, A., French Paintings of Childhood and Adolescence, 1848-1886, Routledge, 2017 [E-book edition], n.p.
  182. ^ "Russia's Unknown Orient," Artworldwide, Online:
  183. ^ Burford, T., Chile: The Bradt Travel Guide, Bradt, 2005, p. 44
  184. ^ Thornton, L., Women as Portrayed in Orientalist Painting, ACR edition, 1994, p. 44
  185. ^ Editors Hélène S. Sader, Thomas Scheffler, Angelika Neuwirth, Baalbek: Image and Monument, 1898-1998, Beiruter Texte und Studienvol. 69, In Kommission bei Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart, 1998, p. 210
  186. ^ Germaner, S. and İnankur, Z., Orientalism and Turkey, Turkish Cultural Service Foundation, 1989, p.57
  187. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 162-167
  188. ^ Williams, C., "The Visual Image of Nineteenth Century Cairo," in Abdullah, T., Serag, M., Jones, M. Sakkūt, H. and O'Kane, B. (eds), Arab and Islamic Studies, American University in Cairo Press, 1997, pp 42-46
  189. ^ Thornton, L., The Orientalists: Painter-travellers, 1828-1908, Volume 1, ACR Édition, 1983, p. 154
  190. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 272 (translated from French)
  191. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 212-14 (translated from French)
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  193. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 218-219 (translated from French)
  194. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 220-221; Shubert, A. and Junco, J.A., The History of Modern Spain: Chronologies, Themes, Individuals, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2017, p. 233
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  196. ^ Le Pichon, Y., The World of Henri Rousseau, Viking Press, 1982
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  201. ^ Anglés, E.A., "La Visión de Marruecos a Través de la Pintura Orientalista Española, in: Imágenes Coloniales de Marruecos en España, 2007, pp 37-41 Online: (translated from Spanish)
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  204. ^ Hannavy, J.Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, 2013, p. 1244
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  207. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 229-231 (translated from French)
  208. ^ "Russia's Unknown Orient," Artworldwide, Online:
  209. ^ Fride-Carrassat, P. and Marcadé, I., Movements in Painting, Chambers, 2005, p. 89
  210. ^ "Thomas Frederick Mason Sheard," [Biography], Heritage Auctions, Online:
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  213. ^ Roberts, M., Istanbul Exchanges: Ottomans, Orientalists, and Nineteenth-Century Visual Culture, University of California Press, 2015, p. 134
  214. ^ Thornton, L., Women as Portrayed in Orientalist Painting, ACR edition, 1994, p. 104
  215. ^ "Russia's Unknown Orient," Artworldwide, Online:
  216. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, p. 182
  217. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 196-201
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  219. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 202-03
  220. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 206-07
  221. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 208-15
  222. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 290-297
  223. ^ Boime, A., Art in an Age of Civil Struggle, 1848-1871, University of Chicago Press, 2008, p. 604
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  225. ^ Boone, M.E., Vistas de Espana,Yale University Press, 2007, p. 79
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  228. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 248-249 (translated from French)
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  237. ^ Beaulieu, J. and Roberts, M., Orientalism’s Interlocutors: Painting, Architecture, Photography, Duke University Press, 2002, p. 32 and 24
  238. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 143-167
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  240. ^ Claude Aguttes, Tableaux russes, tableaux des XIXe, XXe siècles, orientalists, tableaux impressionnistes et modernes, tableaux contemporains, Aguttes, 2006, p. 31
  241. ^ Johnston, W.R., The Nineteenth Century Paintings in the Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, Trustees of the Walters Art Gallery, 1982, p. 79
  242. ^ Pouillion, F. and Vatin, J-C., After Orientalism: Critical Perspectives on Western Agency and Eastern Re-appropriations, BRILL, 2014, p 228
  243. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, pp 253-56 (translated from French)
  244. ^ The Prado Museum,Museo del Prado, Fonds Mercator, 1996, p. 609
  245. ^ Caso, E.D., Les Orientalistes de l'école Espagnole, ACR edition, 1997, p. 284 (translated from French)
  246. ^ Thompson, J. and Scott, D.H.T., The East: Imagined, Experience, Remembered: Orientalist Nineteenth Century Painting, National Gallery of Ireland, 198, p. 68
  247. ^ New York Times Book Review and Magazine, [Compilation of reviews], The Times, 1968, p. 5
  248. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 230-31
  249. ^ Netton, I.R., Orientalism Revisited: Art, Land and Voyage, Routledge, 2013, p. 122; Thornton, L., The Orientalists: Painter-travellers, 1828-1908, Volume 1, ACR Édition, 1983, p. 136
  250. ^ Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005, pp 280-81; 184-85
  251. ^ Netton, I.R., Orientalism Revisited: Art, Land and Voyage, Routledge, 2013, p. 122
  252. ^ Netton, I.R., Orientalism Revisited: Art, Land and Voyage, Routledge, 2013, p. 122; Thornton, L., The Orientalists: Painter-travellers, 1828-1908, Volume 1, ACR Édition, 1983, p. 220; Husslein-Arco, A. and Grabner, S., Orient & Occident: Travelling 19th Century Austrian Painters, Belvedere, 2012, p. 43
  253. ^ Roberts, M., Istanbul Exchanges: Ottomans, Orientalists, and Nineteenth-Century Visual Culture, University of California Press, 2015, p. 132
  254. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. p. 283
  255. ^ Germaner, S. and İnankur, Z., Orientalism and Turkey, Turkish Cultural Service Foundation, 1989, p.85
  256. ^ Ackerman, G.M., American Orientalists, ACR, 1994. pp 266-69

Further reading[edit]

  • R. Aldrich, Vestiges of Colonial Empire in France, Springer, 2004, especially pp 206–217
  • Roger Benjamin, Orientalist Aesthetics: Art, Colonialism, and French North Africa: 1880-1930, University of California Press, 2003
  • Bloom, J.M. and Blair, S. (eds), Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture, Volumes 1- 3, Oxford University Press, 2009
  • Haideh Moghissi (ed.), Women and Islam: Images and Realities, Volume 1, Taylor and Francis, 2005