Picasso's Rose Period
Picasso's Rose Period represents an important epoch in the life and work of the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso and had a great impact on the developments of modern art. It began in 1904 at a time when Picasso settled in Montmartre at the Bateau-Lavoir among bohemian poets and writers. Following Picasso's Blue Period, depicting themes of poverty and despair in somber tones of daunting blues, Picasso's Rose Period represents more pleasant themes of clowns and carnival performers, depicted in cheerful vivid hues of red, orange and earth tones. Based on intuition rather than direct observation, Picasso's Rose Period marks the beginning of the artists' stylistic experiments with primitivism; this led to Picasso's African Period in 1907, culminating in the Proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, regarded as a masterpiece. The Rose Period lasted from 1904 to 1906. Picasso was happy in his relationship with Fernande Olivier whom he had met in 1904 and this has been suggested as one of the possible reasons he changed his style of painting.
Harlequins, circus performers and clowns appear in the Rose Period and populated Picasso's paintings at various stages throughout the rest of his long career. The harlequin, a comedic character depicted in checkered patterned clothing, became a personal symbol for Picasso; the Rose Period has been considered French influenced, while the Blue Period more Spanish influenced, although both styles emerged while Picasso was living in Paris. Picasso's Blue Period began in late 1901, following the death of his friend Carlos Casagemas and the onset of a bout of major depression, it lasted until 1904. The Rose Period is named after Picasso's heavy use of pink tones in his works from this period, from the French word for pink, rose. Picasso's third highest selling painting, Garçon à la pipe was painted during the Rose Period. Other significant Rose Period works include: Woman in a Chemise, The Actor, Lady with a Fan, Two Youths, Harlequin Family, Harlequin's Family With an Ape, La famille de saltimbanques, Boy with a Dog, Nude Boy, Boy Leading a Horse, The Girl with a Goat.
Picasso's Blue Period Proto-Cubism Wattenmaker, Richard J.. Great French Paintings from the Barnes Foundation. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-679-40963-7
Girl before a Mirror
Girl before a Mirror is a painting by Pablo Picasso, created in March 1932. Considered to be one of his masterpieces, the painting has elicited varied interpretations of this portrait of Picasso's lover and her reflection. Marie-Thérèse Walter, one of Picasso's muses and paramours, is the subject of the painting. During the 1930s, she became his favorite subject and in this painting he used colors and symbols to which suggest different ways to view her; the mirror and the reflected subject suggest one possibility for her own view of herself. The painting depicts a woman looking into a mirror, with a familiar yet contrasting mirror-image looking back at her. While the woman is painted with brighter colors and exhibits a more beautiful face, the figure in the mirror is darker and more grotesque. On top of this duality of imagery, the faces of both the woman and the reflection are bifurcated into different colorations, which suggests a duality of nature within both the girl and her reflected image.
The painting features a colorful palette, with bright pinks and greens contrasting with vibrant reds and dark blacks. The skin and face of the girl is delicately beautiful in contrast with the rest of the painting, is unlike many of Picasso's other Cubist faces of the time period. In contrast, the reflected face is much more grotesque and darkly colored, the features are much less traditionally beautiful. Pablo Picasso presents a divergent view of his subject, with a brighter figure standing before a mirror which reflects a darker mirror image. While the face of the woman herself is split into both yellow and more naturalistic colors, they contrast in their application of make-up or natural skin, suggesting a two-fold nature of beauty; the reflection in the mirror is distorted and discolored representing the womans' dislike for herself. The colors used here are dark and make her look old. Instead of the happiness reflected in the real girl, the reflected girl seems distraught
Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, inspired related movements in music and architecture. Cubism has been considered the most influential art movement of the 20th century; the term is broadly used in association with a wide variety of art produced in Paris during the 1910s and throughout the 1920s. The movement was pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, joined by Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Henri Le Fauconnier, Fernand Léger. One primary influence that led to Cubism was the representation of three-dimensional form in the late works of Paul Cézanne. A retrospective of Cézanne's paintings had been held at the Salon d'Automne of 1904, current works were displayed at the 1905 and 1906 Salon d'Automne, followed by two commemorative retrospectives after his death in 1907. In Cubist artwork, objects are analyzed, broken up and reassembled in an abstracted form—instead of depicting objects from a single viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context.
In France, offshoots of Cubism developed, including Orphism, Abstract art and Purism. The impact of Cubism was wide-ranging. In other countries Futurism, Dada, Constructivism, De Stijl and Art Deco developed in response to Cubism. Early Futurist paintings hold in common with Cubism the fusing of the past and the present, the representation of different views of the subject pictured at the same time called multiple perspective, simultaneity or multiplicity, while Constructivism was influenced by Picasso's technique of constructing sculpture from separate elements. Other common threads between these disparate movements include the faceting or simplification of geometric forms, the association of mechanization and modern life. Historians have divided the history of Cubism into phases. In one scheme, the first phase of Cubism, known as Analytic Cubism, a phrase coined by Juan Gris a posteriori, was both radical and influential as a short but significant art movement between 1910 and 1912 in France.
A second phase, Synthetic Cubism, remained vital until around 1919, when the Surrealist movement gained popularity. English art historian Douglas Cooper proposed another scheme, describing three phases of Cubism in his book, The Cubist Epoch. According to Cooper there was "Early Cubism", when the movement was developed in the studios of Picasso and Braque. Douglas Cooper's restrictive use of these terms to distinguish the work of Braque, Gris and Léger implied an intentional value judgement. Cubism burgeoned between 1907 and 1911. Pablo Picasso's 1907 painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon has been considered a proto-Cubist work. In 1908, in his review of Georges Braque's exhibition at Kahnweiler's gallery, the critic Louis Vauxcelles called Braque a daring man who despises form, "reducing everything, places and a figures and houses, to geometric schemas, to cubes". Vauxcelles recounted how Matisse told him at the time, "Braque has just sent in a painting made of little cubes"; the critic Charles Morice spoke of Braque's little cubes.
The motif of the viaduct at l'Estaque had inspired Braque to produce three paintings marked by the simplification of form and deconstruction of perspective. Georges Braque's 1908 Houses at L’Estaque prompted Vauxcelles, in Gil Blas, 25 March 1909, to refer to bizarreries cubiques. Gertrude Stein referred to landscapes made by Picasso in 1909, such as Reservoir at Horta de Ebro, as the first Cubist paintings; the first organized group exhibition by Cubists took place at the Salon des Indépendants in Paris during the spring of 1911 in a room called'Salle 41'. By 1911 Picasso was recognized as the inventor of Cubism, while Braque's importance and precedence was argued with respect to his treatment of space and mass in the L’Estaque landscapes, but "this view of Cubism is associated with a distinctly restrictive definition of which artists are properly to be called Cubists," wrote the art historian Christopher Green: "Marginalizing the contribution of the artists who exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants in 1911 "The assertion that the Cubist depiction of space, mass and volume supports the flatness of the canvas was made by Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler as early as 1920, but it was subject to criticism in the 1950s and 1960s by Clement Greenberg.
Contemporary views of Cubism are complex, formed to some extent in response to the "Salle 41" Cubists, whose methods were too distinct from those of Picasso and Braque to be considered secondary to them. Alternative interpretations of Cubism have therefore developed. Wider views of Cubism include artists who were associated with the "Salle 41" artists, e.g. Francis Picabia.
Tate is an institution that houses, in a network of four art museums, the United Kingdom's national collection of British art, international modern and contemporary art. It is not a government institution, but its main sponsor is the UK Department for Digital, Culture and Sport; the name "Tate" is used as the operating name for the corporate body, established by the Museums and Galleries Act 1992 as "The Board of Trustees of the Tate Gallery". The gallery was founded as the National Gallery of British Art; when its role was changed to include the national collection of modern art as well as the national collection of British art, in 1932, it was renamed the Tate Gallery after sugar magnate Henry Tate of Tate & Lyle, who had laid the foundations for the collection. The Tate Gallery was housed in the current building occupied by Tate Britain, situated in Millbank, London. In 2000, the Tate Gallery transformed itself into the current-day Tate, which consists of a network of four museums: Tate Britain, which displays the collection of British art from 1500 to the present day.
All four museums share the Tate Collection. One of the Tate's most publicised art events is the awarding of the annual Turner Prize, which takes place at Tate Britain; the original Tate was called the National Gallery of British Art, situated on Millbank, London at the site of the former Millbank Prison. The idea of a National Gallery of British Art was first proposed in the 1820s by Sir John Leicester, Baron de Tabley, it took a step nearer when Robert Vernon gave his collection to the National Gallery in 1847. A decade John Sheepshanks gave his collection to the South Kensington Museum, known for years as the National Gallery of Art. Forty years Sir Henry Tate, a sugar magnate and a major collector of Victorian art, offered to fund the building of the gallery to house British Art on the condition that the State pay for the site and revenue costs. Henry Tate donated his own collection to the gallery, it was a collection of modern British art, concentrating on the works of modern—that is Victorian era—painters.
It was controlled by the National Gallery until 1954. In 1915, Sir Hugh Lane bequeathed his collection of European modern art to Dublin, but controversially this went to the Tate, which expanded its collection to include foreign art and continued to acquire contemporary art. In 1926 and 1937, the art dealer and patron Joseph Duveen paid for two major expansions of the gallery building, his father had earlier paid for an extension to house the major part of the Turner Bequest, which in 1987 was transferred to a wing paid for by Sir Charles Clore. Henry Courtauld endowed Tate with a purchase fund. By the mid 20th century, it was fulfilling a dual function of showing the history of British art as well as international modern art. In 1954, the Tate Gallery was separated from the National Gallery. During the 1950s and 1960s, the visual arts department of the Arts Council of Great Britain funded and organised temporary exhibitions at the Tate Gallery including, in 1966, a retrospective of Marcel Duchamp.
The Tate began organising its own temporary exhibition programme. In 1979 with funding from a Japanese bank a large modern extension was opened that would house larger income generating exhibitions. In 1987, the Clore Wing opened to house the major part of the Turner bequest and provided a 200-seat auditorium. In 1988, an outpost in north west England opened as Tate Liverpool; this shows various works of modern art from the Tate collection as well as mounting its own temporary exhibitions. In 2007, Tate Liverpool hosted the first time this has been held outside London; this was an overture to Liverpool's being the European Capital of Culture 2008. In 1993, another offshoot opened, Tate St Ives, it exhibits work by modern British artists those of the St Ives School. Additionally the Tate manages the Barbara Hepworth Museum and Sculpture Garden, which opened in 1980. Neither of these two new Tates had a significant effect on the functioning of the original London Tate Gallery, whose size was proving a constraint as the collection grew.
It was a logical step to separate the "British" and "Modern" aspects of the collection, they are now housed in separate buildings in London. The original gallery is now called Tate Britain and is the national gallery for British art from 1500 to the present day, as well as some modern British art. Tate Modern, in Bankside Power Station on the south side of the Thames, opened in 2000 and now exhibits the national collection of modern art from 1900 to the present day, including some modern British art. In its first year, the Tate Modern was the most popular museum in the world, with 5,250,000 visitors. In the late 2000s, the Tate announced a new development project to the south of the existing building. According to the museum this new development would "transform Tate Modern. An iconic new building will be added at the south of the existing gallery, it will create more spaces for displaying the collection and installation art and learning, all allowing visitors to engage more with art, as well as creating more social spaces for visitors to unwind and
Au Lapin Agile
Au Lapin Agile is a 1905 painting by Pablo Picasso. The harlequin is a self-portrait of the artist; the woman represents his lover Germaine Pichot the obsession of Carlos Casagemas, a friend of Picasso who committed suicide in 1901 because of an unreturned love for Pichot. In 1907 Pichot appeared as one of the models in Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. Frédéric Gérard commissioned the painting and exhibited it at its namesake Montmartre cabaret, the Au Lapin Agile, from 1905 to 1912. On November 27, 1989, Walter H. Annenberg bought the painting at auction from the Joan Whitney Payson family for $40.7 million. He gave the painting to the Metropolitan Museum of Art. List of most expensive paintings
Garçon à la pipe
Garçon à la Pipe is a painting by Pablo Picasso. It was painted in 1905 when Picasso was 24 years old, during his Rose Period, soon after he settled in the Montmartre section of Paris, France; the oil on canvas painting depicts a Parisian boy holding a pipe in his left hand and wearing a garland or wreath of flowers. The painting was famously sold at a 2004 auction for $104 million, a price many art critics consider incongruous with the painting's actual artistic merit. Early preparations of this work involved positioning the boy in all types of poses that involved standing, sitting or leaning against the wall. After much repositioning of the model, Picasso decided to go with the boy sitting down. Next was how to position the arm, where much time was spent on the height and angle. Early works do not show any objects other than a pipe being used. Although Picasso started to paint this picture, he gave it a rest period for about a month. During this time, Picasso decided to finish it off by placing a garland of flowers on the boy's head.
Le Bateau-Lavoir in Montmartre is. Some of the local people made a living in the entertainment industry, such as being clowns or acrobats. Picasso used many local people in his pictures. What appears to be fact from comments made from a variety of sources is that the boy was a model in his teen years who hung around Picasso's studio and volunteered to pose for the oil work. Picasso's own comments about the boy were that he was one of the: From this comment, suppositions can be made; the first is that Picasso did not want people to know who the boy is, the second is Picasso did not know the boy. However, many reports have been made that say the boy is “p’tit Louis”, or "Little Louis"; the painting was first bought by John Hay Whitney in 1950 for US$30,000. On May 5, 2004 the painting was sold for US$104,168,000 at Sotheby's auction in New York City. Sotheby’s did not name the buyer though sources say that it was Guido Barilla, co-owner of the Barilla Group. At the time, it broke the record for the amount paid for an auctioned painting.
The amount, US$104 million, includes the auction price of US$93 million plus the auction house’s commission of about US$11 million. The painting was given a pre-sale estimate of US$70 million by the auction house. Many art critics have stated that the painting's high sale price has much more to do with the artist's name than with the merit or historical importance of the painting; the Washington Post's article on the sale contained the following characterisation of the reaction: List of most expensive paintings BBC News - Who buys paintings for $104m
The Museu Picasso, located in Barcelona, Spain, houses one of the most extensive collections of artworks by the 20th-century Spanish artist Pablo Picasso. With 4,251 works exhibited by the painter, the museum has one of the most complete permanent collections of works; the museum is housed in five adjoining medieval palaces in Barcelona's La Ribera and is located on Montcada Street in the of Barcelona. It opened to the public on 9 March 1963, becoming the first museum dedicated to Picasso's work and the only one created during the artist's life, it has since been declared a museum of national interest by the Government of Catalonia. Highlights of the collection include two of his first major works, The First Communion, Science and Charity. In particular, the Museu Picasso reveals Picasso's relationship with the city of Barcelona, a relationship, shaped in his youth and adolescence and continued until his death; the original idea for the museum came from Picasso’s lifelong friend and secretary, Jaume Sabartés, whom Picasso had given many paintings and prints since meeting in 1899.
Sabartés intended to found the museum in Málaga, Picasso’s birthplace. It was Picasso himself who suggested that Barcelona would be more appropriate, given his long standing connections with the city. On 27 July 1960, Sabartés signed an agreement with the city of Barcelona to found the museum; the museum opened in 1963, with the collection established through Sabartés' donation of 574 works from his personal collection. Other items included works that Picasso had given to the city of Barcelona, such as Harlequin, works in the possession of the city’s museum of modern art, other gifts from Picasso’s friends and collectors; the museum opened under the name of the Sabartés Collection, because of Picasso’s strong opposition to Franco’s regime. In the end, Barcelona mayor Josep Porcioles went against the wishes of the central government in order to open the museum; when it opened, the museum was located in Palau Aguilar on Montcada Street. In this era, the collection consisted of the personal collection Sabartés, some lithographs, posters.
Other donations during the museum's first year included a book of engravings made by Picasso of Ovid's Metamorphoses, donated by Salvador Dalí, as well as a collage given by Gala Dalí, titled No, 1913. In subsequent years, the collection was expanded with donations, including 7-drawings dated between 1899 and 1904 given by Junyer Sebastian Vidal. After Sabartés death in 1968, in 1970 Picasso made his last personal donation to the museum; the donation was made up of 920 varied works, including items from his early work that his family had been keeping for him since the time he first settled in France. These included school books, academic paintings from Picasso's Blue Period. Sabartés himself bequested a number of works upon his death, including a series of 58 paintings on Las Meninas. In December 1970, the museum underwent its first expansion, adding the Palau del Baró de Castellet, attached to the original museum building, Palau Aguilar; as years passed, the museum grew in importance. During the early 1980s the collection was expanded with several donations from individuals and various art galleries, as well as through acquisitions.
In 1982, Picasso's widow Jacqueline Roque gave 41 pieces to the museum. The Louise Leiris Gallery made a donation of 117 engravings; some notable donations include those from Carles Domingo and the Editorial Gustavo Gili, among others. In 1985, the museum's physical space expanded again with the addition of Palau Meca. During the 1990s donations included; the museum acquired works such as Portrait of Jacqueline with tape, among others. In the late 1990s the museum expanded yet again with the acquisition of Casa Mauri and Palau Windows, both on the same street and adjacent to the museum. Opened in 1999, this new extension added 3,400 square meters to the museum, serving as a space for temporary exhibitions, an auditorium, additional services; the extension was opened with the temporary exhibition Picasso: Interior and Exterior Landscape, with more than 200 works by the artist created between 1917 and 1970. In 2003, the museum's interior was remodeled and the artworks rearranged. Two years The Government of Catalonia declared the institution a museum of national interest.
In 2006, Maite Ocaña, the museum's director since 1983, resigned in order to direct the National Art Museum of Catalonia. Pepe Serra was appointed director of the Picasso in the same year. In 2008, the Museu Picasso rearranged the permanent collection and opened new rooms dedicated to engraving, including one dedicated to Sabartés. Serra has since established a network of organizations associated with Picasso, including the City of Gósol, the Centre Picasso of Horta de Sant Joan and Palau Foundation in Caldes d'Estrac, with the central aim of promoting the position of the artist by the Catalan territory. In 2009, the museum was listed as one of the 40 most visited art museums in the world by The Art Newspaper. In 2010 the museum began a project to improve its active presence in social networks such as Twitter and Facebook; the museum's efforts resulted in the Web 2010 Best of the Web award for social media. The museum's social media projects promote participatory discussion around the institution's research and knowledge.
More the museum has built a new building in Sabartés square, behind Montcada Street. This expansion helped alleviate the overcrowding at the entry of the museum; the building was designed by the architect Jordi Garcés, who had completed the previous expansion of