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List of Polish monarchs

Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes and princes or by kings. During the latter period, a tradition of free election of monarchs made it a uniquely electable position in Europe; the first known Polish ruler is Duke Mieszko I who adopted Christianity under the authority of Rome in the year 966. He was succeeded by his son, Bolesław I the Brave, who expanded the boundaries of the Polish state and ruled as the first king in 1025; the following centuries gave rise to the mighty Piast dynasty, consisting of both kings such as Mieszko II Lambert, Przemysł II or Władysław I the Elbow-high and dukes like Bolesław III Wrymouth. The dynasty ceased to exist with the death of Casimir III the Great in 1370. In the same year, the Capetian House of Anjou became the ruling house with Louis I as king of both Poland and Hungary, his daughter, Jadwiga married Jogaila, the pagan Grand Duke of Lithuania, who in 1386 was baptized and crowned as Władysław II Jagiełło, thus creating the Jagiellonian dynasty and a personal union between Poland and Lithuania.

During the reign of Casimir IV Jagiellon and Sigismund I the Old, culture flourished and cities developed. This era of progress known as the Polish Renaissance, continued until the Union of Lublin under Sigismund II Augustus, which unofficially marked the end of the Polish Golden Age. After the death of last Jagiellonian king, the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth became an elective monarchy with foreigners elected as monarchs such as Henry III of France, who witnessed the introduction of Golden Liberty and Stephen Báthory, a great military commander who strengthened the nation; the meaningful rule of the Vasa dynasty expanded the Commonwealth, developing the arts and crafts, as well as trade and commerce. King Sigismund III Vasa, a talented but somewhat despotic ruler, involved the country in many wars, which subsequently resulted in the successful capture of Moscow and loss of Livonia to Sweden, his son, Władysław IV Vasa, fiercely defended the Commonwealth's borders and continued the policy of his father until death, unlike John II Casimir whose tragic rule forced his abdication.

The election of John III Sobieski to the Polish throne was a great success. His brilliant military tactics led to the victory at Vienna in 1683 and partial recapture of land from the Ottoman Empire. However, the years that followed were not as successful. Additional feuds with rebelled nobility and most notably Stanisław I Leszczyński and France diminished the influence of Poland-Lithuania in the region; this led to the partitions that occurred under King Stanisław II Augustus, yet another enlightened, but ineffective monarch. The last sovereign was Frederick Augustus I as Duke of Warsaw, who throughout his political career attempted at rehabilitating the Polish state. After Poland declared independence in 1918, the monarchy was abolished and a parliamentary republican authority was established. See: Poland in the Early Middle Ages Most of these rulers appear for the first time in chronicles from the 13th century Several historians tend to believe that three legendary rulers of early Poland before Mieszko I might be historical persons.

They appear in Gesta principum Polonorum from the early 12th century. Vratislaus II of Bohemia Rudolf I of Bohemia Henry of Bohemia John of Bohemia Maxmilian II Habsburg, See: 1576 Free election Maxmilian III Habsburg, See: 1587 Free election François Louis de Bourbon, See: 1697 Free election Kings of Poland family tree Coronations in Poland Princely Houses of Poland Dukes of Greater Poland Dukes of Masovia Dukes of Pomerania Dukes of Sieradz-Łęczyca Dukes of Silesia List of rulers of Partitioned Poland List of Galician rulers List of heads of state of Poland List of Prime Ministers of Poland List of Poles List of Polish consorts Duczmal M. Jagiellonowie. Leksykon biograficzny, Kraków 1996. Dybkowska A. Żaryn J. Żaryn M. Polskie dzieje. Od czasów najdawniejszych po współczesność, wyd. 2, Warszawa 1995. ISBN 83-01-11870-9 Gierowski J. A. Rzeczpospolita w dobie złotej wolności, Kraków 2001. ISBN 83-85719-56-3 Grodziski S. Polska w czasach przełomu, Kraków 2001. ISBN 83-85719-45-8 Grodziski S. Porównawcza historia ustrojów państwowych, Kraków 1998.

ISBN 83-7052-840-6 Grzybowski S. Dzieje Polski i Litwy, Kraków 2000. ISBN 83-85719-48-2 Morby J. E. Dynastie świata. Przewodnik chronologiczny i genealogiczny, Kraków 1995, s. 261-263. ISBN 83-7006-263-6 Wyrozumski J. Dzieje Polski piastowskiej, Kraków 1999. ISBN 83-85719-38-5 Zientara B. Henryk Brodaty i jego czasy, wyd. 2, Warszawa 1997. Górczyk, Wojciech, "Półksiężyc, orzeł, lew. Uwagi o godłach napieczętnych Piastów" June 14, 2009

Kathleen Gilje

Kathleen Gilje is an American art restorer and artist. She is best known for her appropriations of Old Master Paintings which combine their historical provenance with contemporary ideas and perspective. Gilje was born in Brooklyn, she received her BFA from the City College of New York and trained as a conservator from 1967 to 1971 at the Museo di Capodimonte in Naples, Italy. Gilje apprenticed in Rome with the restorer of antique paintings, Antonio deMata, from 1966 to 1968. Gilje continued her apprenticeship from 1968 to 1972 at the Museum of Capodimonte in Naples. In 1973, she returned to New York and worked in the conservation studio of Marco Grassi, where she restored Old Master paintings for private and museum clients, including Stanley Moss, E. V. Thaw, Robert Dance, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the Norton Simon Collection in Pasadena, the Thyssen Bornemizsa Collection. In 1976, she opened her own studio. During this period, she created artistic works relief sculpture and painting, exhibited in various SoHo galleries.

Gilje began to combine her knowledge of conservation with her own paintings in the early 1990s. In her paintings and installations, Gilje applies an art historical analysis and uses methodologies of conservation to create altered versions of familiar paintings which suggest alternative interpretations of the original artworks. In this way, she encourages her audience to think about a work of art on several levels: its material and historical narrative. An example of this is Rembrandt's Danaë defaced by a vandal with acid in the Hermitage, its contemporary symbolism translated into up-to-date equivalents. Many of her paintings engage with feminist issues. In Susanna and the Elders, Restored, 1998, Gilje exhibits a recreation of Artemisia Gentileschi's Susanna and the Elders hanging next to an x-ray of the painting; when Gilje recreated Gentileschi's painting, she made an underpainting in lead white of Gentileschi's own rape by Agostino Tassi. In the x-ray we see Gentileschi's arm extended holding a knife in self-defense and her face contorted and screaming.

The image can faintly be seen in the pentimento as well. Her references are provocative as she addresses timely social and personal concerns. Gilje created a number of portraits in which her subjects were placed in the context of an historic painting of their choice. For example, art historian Linda Nochlin chose Édouard Manet's 1882 Bar at the Folies Bergère for Gilje's Linda Nochlin at the Bar at the Folies Bergere, 2006, art historian Robert Rosenblum chose Ingres’ 1823/26 Comte de Pastoret for his Gilje portrait of 2005. Over the course of the past twenty years, her work has been shown in various exhibitions throughout the United States and in Europe. Several critics and art historians have written about her work, including Robert Rosenblum, Linda Nochlin and John Yau. Gilje is represented by galleries in New York, her work is in the collection of several museums, including the Weatherspoon Museum, University of North Carolina, North Carolina, National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington, D.

C. Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, The National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. Musée Ingres, Louvre Museum, France, Bass Museum, Florida, the Williams College Museum of Art, Addison Gallery of American Art and Phillips Academy, Massachusetts. Lilly Wei. Review, ARTnews, November 2013. Martha Schwendener, “Masterpieces, Revised by a Playful Restorer,” New York Times, NY/Region, 6/30/2013. Peter Sutton et al. Revised and Restored: The Art of Kathleen Gilje. ISBN 0985940905 ISBN 978-0985940904 Women Artists: The Linda Nochlin Reader, edited by Maura Reilley. ISBN 0500239290 ISBN 9780500239292 Dimitri Salmon, "Qui Sont Les Ingristes d’Aujourd’hui?," Grande Galerie: Le Journal du Louvre, June 2009. Molly Birnbaum, "Sargent Takeoffs Take Ie," ARTnews, June 2009. Linda Nochlin, “Seeing Beneath the Surface,” Art in America: pp. 119–121. Mieke Bal, “Traumkunst, Restored,” Kulturanalyse (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Verlag 2002: pp 198–200. ISBN 3-518-58354-9 Stanley Fish, “Postmodern Warfare,” Harper’s Magazine, July 2002, p. 90.

Wendy Steiner, “Lost in Amazonia,” The Nation, May 15, 2000. Michael Kimmelman, “Kathleen Gilje at Bravin Post Lee," The New York Times, September 13, 1996. Gerald Silk, “Reframes and Refrains: Artists Rethink Art History,” Art Journal, Fall 1995, pp 10–19. Haden-Guest, Anthony, "Judging Yourself," Financial Times, New York, April 16, 2006. Salmon, Dimitri, "Qui sont les Ingristes d'jourd'hui," Le Journal du Louvre, June 2009. Kathleen Gilje website: Susanna and the Elders, Restored, 1998, Oil on canvas, 67” x 47” YouTube. Kathleen Gilje: 48 Portraits: Sargent's Women, Restored" (New York: Francis Naumann Fine Art. Revised and Restored: The Art of Kathleen Gilje. Bruce Museum, Greenwich, CT. YouTube. Kathleen Gilje: Portraits of Paintings, Flint Institute of Arts, 1120 East Kearsley Street, Flint, MI

Sate Lilit

Sate Lilit is a satay variant in Indonesia, originating from Balinese cuisine. This satay is made from minced pork, chicken, beef, or turtle meat, mixed with grated coconut, thick coconut milk, lemon juice and pepper; the spiced minced meat is wound around bamboo, sugar cane or lemongrass sticks, it is grilled on charcoal. Unlike skewers of other satay recipes, made narrow and sharp, the bamboo skewer of sate lilit is flat and wide; this wider surface allowed the minced meat to settle. The term lilit in Balinese and Indonesian means "to wrap around", which corresponds to its making method to wrapping around instead of skewering the meat; as a Hindu majority island, the Balinese authentic version prefer pork and fish over other meat, beef is seldom consumed in Bali. However to cater larger consumer that do not consume pork, such as Indonesian Muslim majority, in Balinese restaurant outside of Bali sate lilit used chicken or beef instead. In Balinese fishing towns, such as the village of Kusamba, which faces the Nusa Penida Strait, sate lilit made from minced fish is favoured.

Two of the favorite satay in Bali are sate lilit, sate ikan. Although there are fish sate lilit made with minced fish, sate ikan is using chunk of fish meat instead; the authentic Balinese sate lilit and sate ikan are rich in a mixture of spices and herbs. In Bali every dish is flavored with bumbu megenep — a mix of spices and herbs ranging from lime leaves, to coconut milk, shallots, blue galangal, lesser galangal and chili pepper. Food portal Sate Padang Sate kambing Nasi campur Lawar Fish Sate Lilit recipe from Tasty Indonesian Food Fish Sate Lilit recipe from New York Times

Ivanhoe, Minnesota

Ivanhoe is a city in Lincoln County, United States. The population was 559 at the 2010 census. Since 1902 it has been the county seat of Lincoln County and is now the least populous county seat in Minnesota. Ivanhoe was platted in 1901, it was named from the novel Ivanhoe by Sir Walter Scott. A post office has been in operation at Ivanhoe since 1901. Ivanhoe was named county seat in 1902. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.90 square miles, of which 0.88 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles is water. The Yellow Medicine River flows past Ivanhoe as an intermittent stream near its headwaters. U. S. Highway 75 and Minnesota State Highway 19 are two of the main routes in the city. Rather unusually for rural southwestern Minnesota, a high percentage of Ivanhoe's residents are of Polish ancestry; as of the census of 2010, there were 559 people, 268 households, 144 families residing in the city. The population density was 635.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 317 housing units at an average density of 360.2 per square mile.

The racial makeup of the city was 0.2 % from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.4% of the population. There were 268 households of which 21.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.0% were married couples living together, 7.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 46.3% were non-families. 42.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 23.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.99 and the average family size was 2.74. The median age in the city was 49.5 years. 18.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 55.1 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 679 people, 310 households, 172 families residing in the city; the population density was 745.2 people per square mile. There were 341 housing units at an average density of 374.3 per square mile. The racial make up of the city was 99.71% White. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.29% of the population.

There were 310 households out of which 26.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.2% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.2% were non-families. 41.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 25.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.05 and the average family size was 2.80. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.8% under the age of 18, 5.4% from 18 to 24, 22.5% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, 29.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,125, the median income for a family was $40,491. Males had a median income of $27,946 versus $21,389 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,775. About 4.6% of families and 8.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.0% of those under age 18 and 21.8% of those age 65 or over.

Media related to Ivanhoe, Minnesota at Wikimedia Commons City Website

Evan Maurice Wolfe

Evan Maurice Wolfe was a car dealer and political figure in British Columbia. He represented Vancouver Centre from 1966 to 1972 and Vancouver-Little Mountain from 1975 to 1983 in the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia as a Social Credit member, he was born in Edmonton, the son of Frank J. Wolfe, was educated at the University of Alberta, he served in the Royal Canadian Air Force during World War II. In 1945, Wolfe married Phyllis Jeanne, he was defeated when he ran for reelection to the assembly in 1972. Wolfe served in the provincial cabinet as Provincial Secretary, he died in 2009

Josep Palomero

Josep Palomero i Almela is a Valencian linguist and vice-president of the Valencian Language Academy. He has a degree in Spanish Philology in the Autonomous University of Barcelona. In 2016 be got his doctorate in the Jaume I University of Castelló with a doctoral dissertation whose title was “Estudi biogràfic I literary d’Artur Perucho Badia. Comunicació I societal en la Primera meitat del segle xx”, he has been a high school teacher of Spanish language and literature and of Valencian language and literature. He is member of the Valencian Language Academy, of the Association of Catalan-language writers, of the International Association of Catalan Language and Literature, of the PEN International, of the Spanish Society of Authors and Publishers and of the Spanish Center of Reprographic Rights. Palomero has combined the job of a teacher for high school students, his political career in his village, some positions during some time in the Education Department of the Generalitat Valenciana, with his literary tasks always in Catalan language.

He has gotten several literary awards. The following ones can be pointed out: Jordi de Sant Jordi award for poetry and Eduard Escalante for theater, Tirant lo Blanc award for teenagers literature, València award for Novel, Prize of the Critics of the Valencian Writers, Ciutat d'Alzira award for Novel. Guia didàctica d'Ausiàs. D’Eduard Escalante a Rodolf Sirera. Perspectiva del teatre valencià modern. Bengales en la fosca. Antologia de la poesia valenciana del segle xx. Accent greu, Llibre de llengua de nivell superior. El pardalet sabut i el rei descregut. La font d’en Galceran. Vuit contes i mig. La torre de la bruixa. Jaume Bru i Vidal i Home endins. Algunes observacions sobre les paraules de Raimon. L’aigua en les cançons de Raimon. Memòria de l’exposició Vicent Andrés Estellés, cronista de records i d’esperances. La producció literària en valencià de Lluís Guarner. Les lletres de les cançons de Raimon. L'etimologia del nom Borriana. Toponímia urbana de Borriana. Pell de taronja, mig segle d'arquitectura a Borriana.

Antroponímia popular de Borriana: els malnoms. La literatura popular a Borriana. Els jocs de carrer dels xiquets i xiquetes de Borriana. Cançons populars de Borriana. Borriana gràfica segle XX. Rafel Martí de Viciana, de Joan Rodríguez Condesa. Cítric desig. Toponímia costera i lèxic mariner de Borriana. Columbretes, de Ludwig Salvator. Del barco de vapor al ferrocarril in Viajeros franceses por la Valencia del siglo XIX. Una untada de mostaza. Innocents de pagana decadència. Crònica carnal. Quaderns de bitàcola. La rosa dels vents. El col·leccionista de botons. El pianista de jazz. Ball de màscares. Els secrets de Meissen. El tatuatge dels apàtrides. El secreto de la porcelana. Zona de lliure trànsit. Joanot Martorell's Tirant lo Blanc. Francesc Eiximenis' Regiment de la cosa pública. Les aventures de Tirant lo Blanch. Aingeru Epaltza's Caçadors de tigres. Vicente Muñoz Puelles' El tigre de Tasmània and El lleopard de les neus. Antoni Josep Cavanilles. El Marquès del Campo. Info about Josep Palomero in the website of the Associació d'Escriptors en Llengua Catalana.

Info about Josep Palomero in the website of the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua