House of Braganza
The house came to rule the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves following the successful deposition of the Philippine Dynasty by John IV of Portugal, in 1640. The Braganzas were deposed from their thrones at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries, when Emperor Pedro II was deposed in Brazil, in 1889, and when King Manuel II was deposed in Portugal, in 1910. The Constitutional branch died out with the death of King Manuel II in 1932, passing its claim to the Portuguese throne to the Miguelist Branch, by way of Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza. The House of Braganza originated with Afonso I, an son of King John I of Portugal, founder of the House of Aviz. With his newly consolidated place in the nobility of Portugal, Afonso commenced what would be a successful political and social career. In 1415 he took part in the Conquest of Ceuta, alongside his father, his brothers, by the time of his fathers death in 1433, Afonso had won favour with his brother, King Duarte I and the rest of high Portuguese society.
The Duke of Coimbras regency, soon proved unpopular, afonsos elevation to the dukedom, the highest level of nobility, marked the foundation of the House of Braganza, which was to become a key family in Portuguese history. As a result of the work and success of Afonso I, his children all secured successful positions. He was a diplomat, and served as the kings representative at the Council of Basel in 1436. In 1451, the Count of Ourém was made Marquis of Valença and escorted Infanta Leonor of Portugal to her husband Frederick III, later, in 1458, he participated in the capture and conquest of Alcácer-Ceguer. The Marquis of Valença, died in 1460, one year before his father, Afonso Is first daughter, Isabel of Braganza, married Infante João, Lord of Reguengos de Monsaraz, thus relinking the House of Braganza to the Royal House of Portugal. Isabels strategic marriage proved successful, and produced four children, whose descendants would be some of the most important in Iberian history, Afonso Is last child and successor, Fernando I, Duke of Braganza, continued his legacy of prominence in the military and society.
When Fernando I was born, in 1403, his grandfather, Nuno Álvares Pereira, Fernando became an accomplished military man, participating in various Portuguese imperial campaigns. Fernando Is children, by his wife, Joana de Castro, Lady of Cadaval, of his nine children, all six who survived to adulthood established themselves either through positions or marriages, though the actions of King João II would seek to weaken their influence. Fernando Is first son and successor, Fernando II, was initially a bright and popular nobleman, but his conflict with King João II would see his and the Houses downfall. His second son, João of Braganza, 1st Marquis of Montemor-o-Novo, was a military man and was made Constable of Portugal. Fernandos third son, Afonso of Braganza, became a nobleman of society and was made 1st Count of Faro. The Dukes fourth son, Álvaro of Braganza, inherited the fiefs of his mother, becoming the 5th Lord of Ferreira, 4th Lord of Cadaval, fernandos eldest surviving daughter, Beatriz of Braganza, married Pedro de Meneses, 1st Marquis of Vila Real
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country on the Iberian Peninsula in Southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, to the west and south it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and to the east and north by Spain. The Portugal–Spain border is 1,214 kilometres long and considered the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union, the republic includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The territory of modern Portugal has been settled, invaded. The Pre-Celts, Celts and the Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigothic, in 711 the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by the Moors, making Portugal part of Muslim Al Andalus. Portugal was born as result of the Christian Reconquista, and in 1139, Afonso Henriques was proclaimed King of Portugal, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the worlds major economic and military powers.
Portugal monopolized the trade during this time, and the Portuguese Empire expanded with military campaigns led in Asia. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, democracy was restored after the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories, Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe and a legacy of over 250 million Portuguese speakers today. Portugal is a country with a high-income advanced economy and a high living standard. It is the 5th most peaceful country in the world, maintaining a unitary semi-presidential republican form of government and it has the 18th highest Social Progress in the world, putting it ahead of other Western European countries like France and Italy. Portugal is a pioneer when it comes to drug decriminalization, as the nation decriminalized the possession of all drugs for use in 2001.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe, the name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale. Other influences include some 5th-century vestiges of Alan settlements, which were found in Alenquer, the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula. These were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing. Chief among these tribes were the Calaicians or Gallaeci of Northern Portugal, the Lusitanians of central Portugal, the Celtici of Alentejo, a few small, semi-permanent, commercial coastal settlements were founded in the Algarve region by Phoenicians-Carthaginians. Romans first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 219 BC, during the last days of Julius Caesar, almost the entire peninsula had been annexed to the Roman Republic.
The Carthaginians, Romes adversary in the Punic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies and it suffered a severe setback in 150 BC, when a rebellion began in the north
Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza
Dom Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza is the pretender to the former Portuguese throne, as the head of the House of Braganza. The Miguelist Braganzas, to whom Duarte Pio belongs as great-grandson of King Miguel I, is a branch of the House of Braganza. Duarte Pio is a figure within the European network of royal houses, despite his support for a monarchical government and widespread recognition as heir to the throne, there are no serious movements or parties that support restoration of the monarchy. In 1995, the Duke married Isabel Inês de Castro Curvelo de Herédia, the Duke and Duchess have three children, thus continuing the line of the Braganzas, as neither of the Dukes brothers have married nor had children. Duarte Pio João Miguel Gabriel Rafael was born on 15 May 1945 in Bern and his father was the grandson of King Miguel I, while his mother was a great-granddaughter of King Pedro IV, who was King Miguel Is older brother. Through his father, he is a member of the Miguelist branch of the House of Braganza, Duarte Pios godparents were Pope Pius XII, Queen Amélie and his great-aunt Infanta Adelgundes, Duchess of Guimarães.
From his birth, Duarte Pio has held the honorific styling of Dom, the Duke is regarded as a Portuguese national by descent, since his father was Portuguese. At the time of his birth, Duarte Pio and the rest of the Miguelist Braganzas were banned from entering Portugal, in 1951, Dom Duarte visited Portugal for the first time, accompanied by his aunt, Infanta Filipa. In 1952, he moved to Portugal permanently with his parents, from 1957 to 1959, Duarte was enrolled in the Colégio NunÁlvres in Santo Tirso. In 1960, he entered the Colégio Militar in Lisbon and he attended the Instituto Superior de Agronomia and the Graduate Institute of Development Studies of the University of Geneva. From 1968 to 1971, Dom Duarte fulfilled his service as a helicopter pilot in the Portuguese Air Force in Portuguese Angola at the time of the Portuguese Colonial War. In 1972, he participated with a multi-ethnic Angolan group in the organization of an independent list of candidates to the National Assembly and this resulted in his expulsion from Angola by order of the Prime Minister Marcelo Caetano.
Duarte Pio claims the throne as the heir of King Manuel II according to the Constitutional Charter of 1826, a small number of Portuguese monarchists do not recognise Duarte Pio as pretender to the throne or as Duke of Braganza. The dispute dates back to 1828 when Duarte Pios great-grandfather usurped the throne as King Miguel I, Miguel I was eventually exiled and his niece, Queen Maria II, was restored to her throne. According to the law of banishment of 1834 and the Constitution of 1838, Miguel I, the Constitutional Charter of 1826 was reinstated in 1842, this constitution did not bar Miguels descendants from ascending the throne. In 1912 and 1922, Duarte Pios grandfather, Duke of Braganza, reconciled with King Manuel II, one monarchist group in Portugal that did support Miguel, Duke of Braganza, instead of the deposed King Manuel II was the Integralismo Lusitano. In May 2006, the Portuguese Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a statement where it referred to Duarte Pio as Duke of Braganza, in its official response on 11 July 2006, the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs restated the fact that the Portuguese constitution guarantees the republican regime.
The Duke often interacts with national and international political and cultural institutions, by which he represents the Portuguese people
Henry, Count of Portugal
Henry, Count of Portugal, was the first member of the Capetian House of Burgundy to rule Portugal and the father of the countrys first king, Afonso I. Born in 1066 in Dijon, Duchy of Burgundy, Count Henry was the youngest son of Henry and his two older brothers, Hugh I and Odo, inherited the duchy. No contemporary record of his mother has survived, richard suggested that she might instead have been called Clémence. It has been suggested that Henrys mother may have been the daughter of Reginald I, Count Henry’s family was very powerful and governed many cities in France such as Chalon, Autun, Dijon, Mâcon and Semur. The birth of King Alfonsos only son, Sancho Alfónsez, was perceived as a threat by the two cousins. They agreed to power, the royal treasury, and to support each other. If he could not deliver Toledo, he would give him Galicia, Henry, in turn, promised to help Raymond obtain all the dominions of King Alfonso and two–thirds of the royal treasury. It seems that news of this reached the king who.
Until then, this region had been governed by count Raymond who saw his power limited to just Galicia. Accordingly, both cousins instead of being allies, became rivals with conflicting interests, the succession pact went up in smoke and, after Raymonds death, Queen Urraca married Alfonso I of Aragon for political and strategic reasons. Henry took advantage of the conflicts and political unrest and declared the independence of the County of Portugal. Caught under siege in Astorga by the King of Aragon, at war with Urraca, Henry died on 22 May 1112, from wounds received during the siege. His remains were transferred, following his previous orders, to Braga where he was buried in a chapel at Braga Cathedral the building of which he had promoted, after his death, his widow governed the county since their son Afonso was only three years old at that time. They occupied relevant ecclesiastical and political positions which provoked a backlash during the last years of the reign of King Alfonso VI. He married Teresa of León around 1095, sancha Henriques, married the nobleman Sancho Nunes de Celanova.
One of their daughters, María, was the abbess at the Monastery of San Salvador de Sobrado de Trives and they were the parents of count Velasco, Gil and Teresa Sánchez. After becoming a widow, she married Fernando Méndez de Braganza and he was named after his maternal grandfather, King Alfonso VI, perhaps as a way of remembering that the blood of the Emperor of all Hispania ran through his veins. Afonso became Count of Portugal in 1112 and King of Portugal in 1139, abbot at the Monastery of Alcobaça where he was buried
John I of Castile
John I was King of the Crown of Castile from 1379 until 1390. He was the son of Henry II and of his wife Juana Manuel of Castile and he was the last monarch of Castile to receive a formal coronation. His first marriage, to Eleanor of Aragon on 18 June 1375, produced his only issue, Henry. Ferdinand, became King of Aragon in 1412, in 1379, John I formed the short lived military order of the Order of the Pigeon, known for its large feasts which included eating the organizations namesake, the pigeon. On the death of his father-in-law, John endeavoured to enforce the claims of his wife, Ferdinands only child, the 1383-1385 Crisis, a period of civil unrest and anarchy in Portugal, followed. He was resisted by supporters of his rival for the throne, John I of Portugal, and was utterly defeated at the battle of Aljubarrota, on 14 August 1385. He had to contend with the hostility of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, who claimed the crown of Castile by right of his wife Constance, at the beginning of 1383, the political situation in Portugal was volatile.
Beatrice was the child of King Ferdinand I of Portugal. Her marriage was the issue of the day, and inside the palace. Ferdinand arranged and canceled his daughters wedding several times before settling for his wifes first choice, John had lost his wife, Infanta Eleanor of Aragon the year before, and was happy to wed the Portuguese heiress. The wedding took place on 17 May at the Cathedral of Badajoz, Beatrice was only ten years old. King Ferdinand died soon thereafter, on 22 October 1383, according to the treaty between Castile and Portugal, the Queen Mother, Leonor Telles de Menezes, declared herself Regent in the name of her daughter and son-in-law. This was ordered first in Lisbon, Santarém and other important places, the national rebellion led by the Master of the Order of Aviz, the future John I, began immediately, leading to the 1383-1385 Crisis. King John of Castile invaded Portugal in the end of December 1383, the consequent war was effectively ended in 1385, with the defeat of Castile in the Battle of Aljubarrota on 14 August.
In the aftermath of battle, John of Aviz became the uncontested King of Portugal. John of Castile and Beatrice no longer had a claim to the throne of Portugal. King Ferdinand I of Portugal had died on 22 October 1383 and his widow, Leonor Telles de Menezes, under the Treaty of Salvaterra de Magos and by the previous testament of the deceased king, declared herself Regent in the name of her daughter and son-in-law. The news of the death of Ferdinand came to John I and Beatrice in Torrijos, the Master of Aviz wrote John, urging him to seize the Portuguese crown by right of his wife, and the Master himself would assume the regency
Kingdom of Galicia
The Kingdom of Galicia was a political entity located in southwestern Europe, which at its territorial zenith occupied the entire northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Founded by Suebic king Hermeric in 409, the Galician capital was established in Braga, being the first kingdom which adopted Catholicism officially and it was part of the Kingdom of the Spanish Visigothic monarchs from 585 to 711. Compostela became capital of Galicia in the 11th century, while the independence of Portugal determined its southern boundary, the representative assembly of the Kingdom was the Junta or Cortes of the Kingdom of Galicia, which briefly declared itself sovereign when Galicia alone remained free of Napoleonic occupation. The kingdom and its Junta were dissolved by Maria Cristina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, the origin of the kingdom lies in the 5th century, when the Suebi settled permanently in the former Roman province of Gallaecia. Their king, probably signed a foedus, or pact, with the Roman Emperor Honorius, the Suebi set their capital in the former Bracara Augusta, setting the foundations of a kingdom which was first acknowledged as Regnum Suevorum, but as Regnum Galliciense.
The independent Suebic kingdom of Galicia lasted from 410 to 585, in 410 Gallaecia was divided, ad habitandum, among two Germanic people, the Hasdingi Vandals, who settled the eastern lands, and the Suebi, who established themselves in the coastal areas. As with most Germanic invasions, the number of the original Suebi is estimated to be low, generally fewer than 100,000. They settled mainly in the regions around modern northern Portugal and Western Galicia, in the towns of Braga and Porto, in 419 a war broke out between the Vandal king Gunderic and the Suebis Hermeric. After a blockade alongside the Nervasian Mountains, the Suebi obtained Roman help, in the absence of competitors, the Suebi began a period of expansion, first inside Gallaecia, and into other Roman provinces. In 438 Hermeric ratified a treaty with the Gallaeci, the native. In 448 Rechila died, leaving the state to his son Rechiar. Rechiar married a Visigothic princess, and was the first Germanic king to mint coins in ancient Roman territories, Rechiar led further expansions to the east, marauding through the Provincia Tarraconensis, which was still held by Rome.
The Roman emperor Avitus sent an army of foederates, under the direction of the Visigoth Theoderic II. Rechiar fled, but he was pursued and captured, executed in 457, in the aftermath of Rechiars death, multiple candidates for the throne appeared, finally grouping into two allegiances. By 465 Remismund, who established a policy of friendship with the Goths, five of the attendant bishops used Germanic names, showing the integration of the different communities of the country. After clashing in frontier lands and Leovigild agreed upon a temporary peace, the Suebi maintained their independence until 585, when Leovigild, on the pretext of conflict over the succession, invaded the Suebic kingdom and finally defeated it. Audeca, the last king of the Suebi, who had deposed his brother-in-law Eboric and this same year a nobleman named Malaric rebelled against the Goths, but he was defeated. As with the Visigothic language, there are traces of the Suebi tongue remaining
Imperator totius Hispaniae
Imperator totius Hispaniae is a Latin title meaning Emperor of all Spain. In Spain in the Middle Ages, the emperor was used under a variety of circumstances from the ninth century onwards. It was primarily used by the Kings of León and Castile, the use of the imperial title received scant recognition outside of Spain and it had become largely forgotten by the thirteenth century. The analogous feminine title, was frequently used for the consorts of the emperors. Only one reigning queen, had occasion to use it, a surviving charter of 863 refers to Ordoño I as our lord, residing in the Asturias, qualifying him as a commanding prince. This residential form of title was preferred because the Asturian kingdom at this stage was not ethnically unified or well-defined. The first document, dated to 866 or 867, confirmed by Alfonso, who signs as I, Alfonso, of all Spain emperor, the other refers to him simply as Alfonso, Emperor of Spain. The forger may have borrowed these exalted titles from the chancery of Alfonso VI, the subscription lists of both these charters are compatible with the dates, and it has been suggested that the clauses referring to Alfonso as emperor are derived from authentic charters.
A similarly grandiose title is given to Alfonso in the contemporary Chronica Prophetica, the authenticity of the letter is still debated. Besides the apocryphal charters, there are genuine, posthumous documents referring to Alfonso as emperor, in one that dates from 917, in the reign of his son Ordoño II of León, the king confirms as Ordoño, son of the Emperor Alfonso the Great. A document from 950 can be cited that refers to Alfonso with the imperial title, the pertinent passage reads, They put in place a border with Gonzalo, son of our lord emperor Prince Alfonso. A royal diploma of 922, where Ordoño II refers to himself as emperor, is the first recorded instance of a Leonese king doing so, the charter reads, I, the most serene emperor Ordoño. Although he apparently avoided the imperial style himself, his subjects, private documents of his reign commonly refer to him as the great king, as in a document of 930. Contemporary documents of the reign of Ramiro III of León use the magnified titles basileus and magnus rex, the former is a Latinisation of the Greek for king and was the title employed by the Byzantine Emperors.
To western European ears it had an imperial inflection, during the regency of Ramiros aunt, the nun Elvira Ramírez, the king confirmed a document of 1 May 974 as Flavius Ramiro, anointed great basileus in the kingdom. I confirm with my own hand, basilea, paternal aunt of the king. Its use in a document of the tenth century harkens back to Visigothic rule, a judicial document that emanated from the royal court in 976 refers to a certain royal servant as in the palace of the most lordly king–emperor. in obedient service to his most lordly emperor. In the first decades of the century, the Catalan Abbot Oliba referred to the kings of León, Alfonso V and Bermudo III
The Visigothic Kingdom or Kingdom of the Visigoths was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula from the 5th to the 8th centuries. The Kingdom maintained independence from the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, the kingdom of the 6th and 7th centuries is sometimes called the regnum Toletanum after the new capital of Toledo. The ethnic distinction between the indigenous Hispano-Roman population and the Visigoths had largely disappeared by this time, Liber Iudiciorum abolished the old tradition of having different laws for Romans and for Visigoths. Most of the Visigothic Kingdom was conquered by Arab Umayyad troops from North Africa in 711 AD and these gave birth to the medieval Kingdom of Asturias when a local landlord called Pelayo, most likely of Gothic origin, was elected Princeps by the Astures. The Visigoths developed the influential law code known in Western Europe as the Liber Iudiciorum. From 407 to 409 AD, the Germanic Vandals, with the allied Alans and Suebi, crossed the frozen Rhine, for their part, the Visigoths under Alaric famously sacked Rome in 410, capturing Galla Placidia, the sister of Western Roman emperor Honorius.
After he married Placidia, the Emperor Honorius enlisted him to provide Visigothic assistance in regaining nominal Roman control of Hispania from the Vandals and Suevi. In 418, Honorius rewarded his Visigothic federates under King Wallia by giving land in the Garonne valley of Gallia Aquitania on which to settle. This probably took place under hospitalitas, the rules for billeting army soldiers, the Visigoths with their capital at Toulouse, remained de facto independent, and soon began expanding into Roman territory at the expense of the feeble Western empire. Under Theodoric I, the Visigoths attacked Arles and Narbonne, but were checked by Flavius Aetius using Hunnic mercenaries, by 451, the situation had reversed and the Huns had invaded Gaul, now Theodoric fought under Aetius against Attila the Hun in the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains. Attila was driven back, but Theodoric was killed in the battle, the Vandals completed the conquest of North Africa when they took Carthage on October 19,439 and the Suevi had taken most of Hispania.
The Roman emperor Avitus now sent the Visigoths into Hispania, Theodoric II invaded and defeated the King of the Suevi, Rechiarius, at the battle on the river Orbigo in 456 near Asturica Augusta and sacked Bracara Augusta the Suevi capital. The Goths sacked the cities in Spain quite brutally, they massacred a portion of the population and even attacked some holy places, theoderic took control over Hispania Baetica and southern Lusitania. In 461, the Goths received the city of Narbonne from the emperor Libius Severus in exchange for their support. This led to a revolt by the army and by Gallo-Romans under Aegidius, as a result, Romans under Severus and the Visigoths fought other Roman troops, in 466, who was the youngest son of Theodoric I, came to the Visigothic throne. He is infamous for murdering his elder brother Theodoric II who had become king by murdering his elder brother Thorismund. Under Euric, the Visigoths began expanding in Gaul and consolidating their presence in the Iberian peninsula, Euric fought a series of wars with the Suebi who retained some influence in Lusitania, and brought most of this region under Visigothic power, taking Emerita Augusta in 469.
Euric attacked the Western Roman Empire, capturing Hispania Tarraconensis in 472, by 476, he had extended his rule to the Rhone and the Loire rivers which comprised most of southern Gaul
Beatrice of Portugal
Beatrice, was the only surviving child of King Ferdinand I of Portugal and his wife, Leonor Teles. During her first years of life, Beatrice was a pawn in the politics of alliances of her father. Finally, the master of Avís was proclaimed King of Portugal, but the dynastic cause that incarnated still continued in force and difficult the normalization of the relations between Castile and Portugal. From the second decade of the 15th century onwards, her documentary trail became scarce until completely disappears about 1420, Beatrice was born in Coimbra, during the brief siege that the Castilian troops imposed to the city during the second Fernandine War. The siege was lifted and King Henry II of Castile continued on his way to Santarém, during the siege of Lisbon, Cardinal legate Guido of Bologna obtained the agreement between the Kings of Castile and Portugal in the Peace of Santarém. The Cortes de Leiria of 1376 swore Beatrice as heiress of the throne, the betrothal was solemnized in Leiria on 24 November 1376, and on 3 January 1377 was accepted by King Henry II.
Although John obtained the pardon, he opted to flee to Castile fearful of the Telles family. In May 1379 King Henry II of Castile died and his son John I succeeded him, in this way the succession to the throne again was vetoed to the children of Inés de Castro. The marriage agreement was approved in the Cortes de Soria in August 1380, to negotiate this alliance came to Portugal an exile petrist, Juan Fernández de Andeiro, Count of Ourém, who would have a prominent influence in the Portuguese court. Fernão Lopes states that the court dressed in mourning only for protocol, in addition, Portugal returned to the obedience of Antipope Clement VII, in a Kingdom religiously divided by the Western Schism. But John I of Castile widowed in 1382, and the Count of Ourém, favorite of Queen Leonor Teles, negotiated a new betrothal for Beatrice, the marriage contract was signed on 2 April 1383 in Salvaterra de Magos. Once the wedding place, she went to live in Castile with her husband. The marriage contract was taken to the Cortes de Santarém of August and September to swear Beatrice and John I of Castile as heirs of Portugal, although the acts have not been conserved.
For her part, Queen Leonor Teles gave birth on 27 September a daughter who lived only a few days, King Ferdinand I of Portugal died on 22 October 1383. Leonor Teles, his widow, according to the Treaty of Salvaterra, the regent maintained her clique of Castilian petrists, which formed an opposition that asked that the Council of the regent counted only with councilors of Portuguese origin. The news of the death of the Portuguese King came to John I of Castile and Beatrice in Torrijos, once closed the Cortes in Segovia. The master of Aviz wrote to the Castilian monarch urging him to take the Portuguese crown that belonged to him through his wife and that the own master could assumed the regency on their behalf. Later, he convened the Royal Council in Montalbán and sent Alfonso López de Tejeda to Portugal with instructions to the regent to proceeded to proclaim him and his wife as King and Queen of Portugal
Afonso I of Portugal
Afonso I, nicknamed the Conqueror, the Founder or the Great by the Portuguese, and El-Bortukali and Ibn-Arrink by the Moors whom he fought, was the first King of Portugal. Afonso I was born in Coimbra, Guimarães or Viseu and he was the son of Henry of Burgundy and Theresa, the natural daughter of King Alfonso VI of León and Castile. The pair reigned jointly as Count and Countess of Portugal until Henrys death, Afonso was slightly more than two years old when his father, Count Henry, died on 22 May 1112 during the siege of Astorga. In an effort to pursue a share in the Leonese inheritance, his mother Theresa joined forces with Fernando Pérez de Trava. The Portuguese nobility disliked the alliance between Galicia and Portugal and rallied around the infant Afonso, in 1122, Afonso turned fourteen, the adult age in the 12th century. He made himself a knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora, raised an army, in 1128, near Guimarães, at the Battle of São Mamede Afonso and his supporters overcame troops under his Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia.
Afonso exiled his mother to Galicia, and took rule of the County of Portugal. He vanquished his mothers nephew, Alfonso VII of León, who came to her rescue, on 6 April 1129, Afonso Henriques dictated the writ in which he proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal. Afonso turned his arms against the persistent problem of the Moors in the south, the first assembly of the Portuguese Cortes convened at Lamego is a 17th-century embellishment of Portuguese history. Independence from Alfonso VII of Leóns suzerainty, was not a thing he just could achieve militarily, the County of Portugal still had to be acknowledged diplomatically by the neighboring lands as a kingdom and, most importantly, by the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope. Afonso wed Mafalda of Savoy, daughter of Amadeus III, Count of Savoy and he succeeded in renouncing the suzerainty of his cousin, Alfonso VII of León, becoming instead a vassal of the papacy, as the kings of Sicily and Aragon had done before him. In 1179 the bull Manifestis Probatum accepted the new king as vassal to the pope exclusively, in Portugal he built several monasteries and convents and bestowed important privileges to religious orders.
He is notably the builder of Alcobaça Monastery, to which he called the Cistercian Order of his uncle Bernard of Clairvaux of Burgundy. In 1143, he wrote to Pope Innocent II to declare himself, bypassing any king of León, Afonso declared himself the direct liege man of the papacy. Afonso continued to distinguish himself by his exploits against the Moors, from whom he wrested Santarém and he conquered an important part of the land south of the Tagus River, although this was lost again to the Moors in the following years. Meanwhile, King Alfonso VII of León regarded the independent ruler of Portugal as nothing, conflict between the two was constant and bitter in the following years. Afonso became involved in a war, taking the side of the Aragonese king, to ensure the alliance, his son Sancho was engaged to Dulce, sister of the Count of Barcelona and Infanta of Aragon. Finally after winning the Battle of Valdevez, the Treaty of Zamora established peace between the cousins and the recognition by the Kingdom of León that Portugal was a sovereign kingdom