Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United Football Club is a professional football club based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. Nicknamed the Red Devils, the club was founded as Newton Heath LYR Football Club in 1878, changed its name to Manchester United in 1902 and moved to its current stadium, Old Trafford, in 1910. Manchester United have won a record 20 League Titles, a joint-record 12 FA Cups,5 League Cups, the club has also won three European Cups, one UEFA Cup Winners Cup, one UEFA Super Cup, one Intercontinental Cup and one FIFA Club World Cup. In 1998–99, the became the first in the history of English football to achieve the treble of the Premier League, the FA Cup. The 1958 Munich air disaster claimed the lives of eight players, in 1968, under the management of Matt Busby, Manchester United became the first English football club to win the European Cup. Alex Ferguson won 38 trophies, including 13 Premier League titles,5 FA Cups and 2 UEFA Champions Leagues, José Mourinho is the clubs current manager, having been appointed on 27 May 2016. As of June 2015, it is the worlds most valuable football brand and it is one of the most widely supported football teams in the world. In August 2012, Manchester United made a public offering on the New York Stock Exchange. The club holds several rivalries, most notably with Liverpool, Manchester City and Leeds United, Manchester United was formed in 1878 as Newton Heath LYR Football Club by the Carriage and Wagon department of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway depot at Newton Heath. By 1888, the club had become a member of The Combination. Following the leagues dissolution after only one season, Newton Heath joined the newly formed Football Alliance and this resulted in the club starting the 1892–93 season in the First Division, by which time it had become independent of the railway company and dropped the LYR from its name. After two seasons, the club was relegated to the Second Division, in January 1902, with debts of £2,670 – equivalent to £260,000 in 2017 – the club was served with a winding-up order. The following season began with victory in the first ever Charity Shield, Manchester United won the First Division for the second time in 1911, but at the end of the following season, Mangnall left the club to join Manchester City. In 1922, three years after the resumption of football following the First World War, the club was relegated to the Second Division, relegated again in 1931, Manchester United became a yo-yo club, achieving its all-time lowest position of 20th place in the Second Division in 1934. Gibson, who, in December 1931, invested £2,000, in the 1938–39 season, the last year of football before the Second World War, the club finished 14th in the First Division. Busby led the team to second-place league finishes in 1947,1948 and 1949, in 1952, the club won the First Division, its first league title for 41 years. With an average age of 22, the title winning side of 1956 were labelled the Busby Babes by the media. In 1957, Manchester United became the first English team to compete in the European Cup, despite objections from The Football League, who had denied Chelsea the same opportunity the previous season
Sir Alexander Chapman Ferguson, CBE is a former Scottish football manager and player who managed Manchester United from 1986 to 2013. He is regarded by players, managers and analysts to be the greatest and most successful manager of all time. Ferguson played as a forward for several Scottish clubs, including Dunfermline Athletic, while playing for Dunfermline, he was the top goalscorer in the Scottish league in the 1965–66 season. Towards the end of his career he also worked as a coach, then started his managerial career with East Stirlingshire. Ferguson then enjoyed a successful period as manager of Aberdeen. He briefly managed Scotland following the death of Jock Stein, taking the team to the 1986 World Cup. Ferguson was appointed manager of Manchester United in November 1986. During his 26 years with Manchester United he won 38 trophies, including 13 Premier League titles, five FA Cups and he was knighted in the 1999 Queens Birthday Honours list, for his services to the game. Ferguson is the longest serving manager of Manchester United, having overtaken Sir Matt Busbys record on 19 December 2010 and he retired from management at the end of the 2012–13 season, having won the Premier League in his final season. He attended Broomloan Road Primary School and later Govan High School, Fergusons playing career began as an amateur with Queens Park, where he made his debut as a striker aged 16. He described his first match as a nightmare, but scored Queens Parks goal in a 2–1 defeat against Stranraer. Perhaps his most notable game for Queens Park was the 7–1 defeat away to Queen of the South on Boxing Day 1959 when ex-England international Ivor Broadis scored four of the Queen of the South goals, Ferguson was the solitary Queens Park goalscorer. Despite scoring 20 goals in his 31 games for Queens Park, he could not command a regular place in the side, although he continued to score regularly at St Johnstone, he was still unable to command a regular place and regularly requested transfers. Dunfermline signed him the summer, and Ferguson became a full-time professional footballer. Dunfermline lost the final 3–2 to Celtic, then failed to win the League by one point, the 1965–66 season saw Ferguson notch up 45 goals in 51 games for Dunfermline. Along with Joe McBride of Celtic, he was the top goalscorer in the Scottish League with 31 goals and he then joined Rangers for £65,000, then a record fee for a transfer between two Scottish clubs. According to his brother, Ferguson was so upset by the experience that he threw his losers medal away, the following October, Nottingham Forest wanted to sign Ferguson, but his wife was not keen on moving to England at that time so he went to Falkirk instead. Fergusons time at Falkirk was soured by this and he responded by requesting a transfer and moved to Ayr United, in June 1974, Ferguson was appointed manager of East Stirlingshire, at the comparatively young age of 32. It was a job that paid £40 per week
Samuel Allardyce, known as Big Sam, is an English football manager and former professional player, who is the current manager of Crystal Palace. Allardyce made 578 league and cup appearances in a 21-year career spent mostly in the Football League, a strong central defender, he had good awareness, heading skills and anticipation. He was signed by Bolton Wanderers from Dudley Town in 1969 and spent nine years at Bolton, helping the club to win the Second Division title in 1977–78. He spent the 1980s as a player, spending time with Sunderland, Millwall, Tampa Bay Rowdies, Coventry City, Huddersfield Town, Bolton Wanderers, Preston North End. During this time he helped Preston to win out of the Fourth Division in 1986–87. Moving into management, he took charge of Irish club Limerick in 1991 and he returned to England to coach at Preston North End, also serving briefly as caretaker-manager. He took up his first permanent management role in England at Blackpool in July 1994 and he spent January 1997 to October 1999 in charge at Notts County, taking them to the Third Division title in 1997–98. He then returned to Bolton Wanderers as manager, leading the club to promotion out of the First Division via the play-offs in 2001, as well as a League Cup final and UEFA Cup qualification. Following a spell at Newcastle United from May 2007 to January 2008 and he was appointed Sunderland manager in October 2015 and saved the club from relegation. He was appointed as manager of the English national team for a spell in July 2016. Allardyce has been labelled as a long ball manager by some analysts and he takes a modern, technology and statistics centred approach to tactics and coaching, and has been praised for his organisational and man-management skills. Allardyce has been criticised for alleged corruption and has twice been the subject of undercover investigations, in September 2006, he and his son, Craig, were implicated in a BBC Panorama documentary for taking bungs, allegations which they denied. Following the Daily Telegraph investigation, Allardyce resigned as England manager in a agreement with the Football Association on 27 September. Samuel Allardyce was born in October 1954 in a house on the Old Park Farm Estate, Dudley. His father was a police sergeant, both parents originated from Scotland with his father from Nairn and his mother from Dumfries. He has a sister, Mary, born in Scotland in 1939. Allardyce was educated at Sycamore Green Primary School and later at Mons Hill School and he discovered in later life that he suffers from dyslexia. As a child, he supported Wolverhampton Wanderers and dreamed that one day he would play at, Allardyce spent his youth with semi-professional side Dudley Town, making his debut at the age of 14 he quickly learned how to play centre-half in the highly physical West Midlands League
Everton F. C. /ˈɛvərtən/ is a football club in Liverpool, England, that currently competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. The club have competed in the top division for a record 114 seasons and won the League Championship nine times, formed in 1878, Everton were founding members of The Football League in 1888 and won their first League Championship two seasons later. The mid-1980s represented their most recent period of sustained success, with two League Championships, an FA Cup, and the 1985 European Cup Winners Cup, the clubs most recent major trophy was the 1995 FA Cup. The clubs supporters are known as Evertonians, Everton have a rivalry with neighbours Liverpool, and the two sides contest the Merseyside derby. The club have been based at Goodison Park in Walton, Liverpool, since 1892, the clubs home colours are royal blue shirts with white shorts and socks. Everton were founded as St Domingos in 1878 so that people from the parish of St Domingos Methodist Church Everton could play year round — cricket was played in summer. The clubs first game was a 1–0 victory over Everton Church Club, the club was renamed Everton in November 1879 after the local area, as people outside the parish wished to participate. The club was a member of the Football League in 1888–89. Everton won the FA Cup for the first time in 1906, the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 interrupted the football programme while Everton were champions, which was something that would again occur in 1939. It was not until 1927 that Evertons first sustained period of success began, in 1925 the club signed Dixie Dean from Tranmere Rovers. In 1927–28, Dean set the record for league goals in a single season with 60 goals in 39 league games. He helped Everton win their third League Championship that season, however, Everton were relegated to the Second Division two years later during internal turmoil at the club. The club quickly rebounded and was promoted at the first attempt, on return to the top flight in 1931–32, Everton wasted no time in reaffirming their status and won a fourth League Championship at the first opportunity. Everton also won their second FA Cup in 1933 with a 3–0 win against Manchester City in the final, the era ended in 1938–39 with a fifth League Championship. Everton were relegated for the time in 1950–51 and did not earn promotion until 1953–54. The club have been a top-flight presence ever since, Evertons second successful era started when Harry Catterick was made manager in 1961. In 1962–63, his season in charge, Everton won the League Championship. In 1966 the club won the FA Cup with a 3–2 win over Sheffield Wednesday, Everton again reached the final in 1968, but this time were unable to overcome West Bromwich Albion at Wembley
Crystal Palace F.C.
Crystal Palace Football Club is a professional football club based in South Norwood, London, that plays in the Premier League, the top tier of English football. The club was founded in 1905 at the famous Crystal Palace Exhibition building by the owners of the FA Cup Final stadium which was situated inside the historic Palace grounds. The club played their games at the Cup Final venue until 1915, but then the First World War forced them to move out and play at Herne Hill Velodrome. In 1924, the moved to their current home at Selhurst Park. Palace have been FA Cup finalists twice, in 1990 and 2016, the club were denied a place in Europe at the end of that season due to the partial UEFA ban on English clubs caused by the Heysel Stadium disaster. Palace were one of the founding members of the Premier League. The club were winners of the Full Members Cup in 1991 when they beat Everton in the Wembley final, Palace have been second tier champions twice and hold the record for the most play-off wins for promotion to the top flight, winning the final four times. In 1973, the changed its original nickname from The Glaziers to The Eagles. The club had played in claret and blue colours. Palace have rivalries with Brighton & Hove Albion, with whom they contest the M23 derby, in 1895, the Football Association had found a new permanent home for the FA Cup Final at the site of the famous Crystal Palace Exhibition building. There had been an amateur Crystal Palace team as early as 1861, the owners of the venue wanted a professional club to play there and tap into the vast crowd potential of the area. Crystal Palace Football Club, originally nicknamed The Glaziers, was formed on 10 September 1905 under the guidance of Aston Villa assistant secretary Edmund Goodman, the club applied to enter the Football League alongside Chelsea and Southampton, but was the only unsuccessful team of the three. The club instead found itself in the Southern League Second Division for the 1905–06 season, the club was successful in its inaugural season and was promoted to the First Division, crowned as champions. Palace remained in the Southern League up until 1914, their one highlight the 1907 shock First Round victory over Newcastle United in the FA Cup. The outbreak of the First World War led to the Admiralty requisitioning the Crystal Palace, Three years later the club moved again to the Nest due to the folding of Croydon Common F. C. The club joined the Football League Third Division in the 1920–21 season, finishing as champions, during this period, Palace also won the London Challenge Cup three times in 1913,1914, and 1921. Palace moved to the purpose-built stadium Selhurst Park in 1924, the ground the club plays at today, the opening fixture at Selhurst Park was against Sheffield Wednesday, Palace losing 0–1 in front of a crowd of 25,000. Finishing in twenty-first position, the club was relegated to the Third Division South, before the Second World War Palace made good efforts at promotion, never finishing outside the top half of the table and finishing second on three occasions
Sunderland Association Football Club is a professional football club based in the North East city of Sunderland in the larger metropolitan area of Tyne and Wear. The club is playing in the Premier League, the top league of English football. Since its formation in 1879, the club has won six top-flight First Division titles, a total bettered by five other clubs. The club has won the FA Cup twice and been runners-up twice, as well as winning the FA Community Shield in 1936. Sunderland have also been Football League Cup finalists in 1985 and 2014, Sunderland won their first FA Cup in 1937 with a 3–1 victory over Preston North End, and remained in the top league for 68 successive seasons until they were relegated for the first time in 1958. Sunderlands most notable trophy after the Second World War was their second FA Cup in 1973, the team has won the second tier title five times in that period and the third tier title once. Sunderland play their games at the 49, 000-capacity all-seater Stadium of Light having moved from Roker Park in 1997. The original ground capacity was 42,000 which was increased to 49,000 following expansion in 2000, Sunderland have a long-standing rivalry with their neighbouring club Newcastle United, with whom they have contested the Tyne–Wear derby since 1898. Founded 17 October 1879 as Sunderland and District Teachers A. F. C. by schoolmaster James Allan and they replaced Stoke, who had failed to be re-elected, becoming the first new club to join the league since its inauguration in 1888. During the late 19th century, they were declared the Team of All Talents by William McGregor, Sunderland won the league championship in the 1891–92 season, one season after joining The Football League. The clubs 42 points were five clear of nearest rivals Preston North End, Sunderland successfully defended the title the following season, aided by centre forward Johnny Campbell, who broke the 30-goal mark for the second time in consecutive seasons. In the process, they became the first team to score 100 goals in a season, a feat not matched until 1919–20, Sunderland came close to winning a third successive league championship in the 1893–94 season, finishing second behind Aston Villa. However, they regained the title in the 1894–95 season, ending the five points ahead of Everton. After winning the English League Championship, Sunderland played against Heart of Midlothian, Sunderland won the game 5–3 and were announced Champions of the world. Sunderland came close to winning another title in the 1897–98 season. That season was their last at Newcastle Road, as moved to Roker Park the following season. After coming second in 1900–01, the club won their league title in the 1901–02 season. In 1904, Sunderlands management was embroiled in a payment scandal involving player Andrew McCombie, the club was said to have given the player £100 to help him start his own business, on the understanding that he would repay the money after his benefit game
West Ham United F.C.
West Ham United Football Club is a professional football club based in Stratford, East London, England. They compete in the Premier League, the top tier of English football, in 2016 the club re-located to the London Stadium. The club was founded in 1895 as Thames Ironworks and reformed in 1900 as West Ham United and they moved to the Boleyn Ground in 1904, which remained their home ground for more than a century. The team initially competed in the Southern League and Western League before joining the Football League in 1919 and they were promoted to the top flight in 1923, when they also losing finalists in the first FA Cup Final held at Wembley. In 1940, the won the inaugural Football League War Cup. West Ham have been winners of the FA Cup three times, in 1964,1975, and 1980, and have also been runners-up twice, in 1923, and 2006. The club have reached two major European finals, winning the European Cup Winners Cup in 1965 and finishing runners up in the competition in 1976. West Ham also won the Intertoto Cup in 1999 and they are one of eight clubs never to have fallen below the second tier of English football, spending 59 of 91 league seasons in the top flight, up to and including the 2016–17 season. The clubs highest league position to date came in 1985–86 when they achieved third place in the then First Division, three West Ham players were members of the 1966 World Cup final-winning England team, captain Bobby Moore and goalscorers Geoff Hurst and Martin Peters. The club, Thames Ironworks were the first ever winners of the West Ham Charity Cup in 1895 contested by clubs in the West Ham locality and they turned professional in 1898 upon entering the Southern League Second Division, and were promoted to the First Division at the first attempt. The following year they came second from bottom, but had established themselves as a fully fledged competitive team and they comfortably fended off the challenge of local rivals Fulham in a relegation play-off, 5–1 in late April 1900 and retained their First Division status. In 1899, they acquired their now-traditional home kit combination of claret shirts and sky blue sleeves in a wager involving Aston Villa players, because of the original works team roots and links, they are still known as the Irons or the Hammers amongst fans and the media. West Ham Utd joined the Western League for the 1901 season while continuing to play in the Southern Division 1. In 1907, West Ham were crowned the Western League Division 1B Champions, the reborn club continued to play their games at the Memorial Grounds in Plaistow but moved to a pitch in the Upton Park area in the guise of the Boleyn Ground stadium in 1904. The Cup Final match itself ended 2–0 to Bolton, the team enjoyed mixed success in Division 1 but retained their status for ten years and reached the FA Cup semi-final in 1933. In 1932, the club was relegated to Division Two and long term custodian Syd King was sacked after serving the club in the role of manager for 32 years, following relegation, King had mental health problems. He appeared drunk at a meeting and soon after committed suicide. The club spent most of the next 30 years in division, first under Paynter
Blackburn Rovers F.C.
The club was established in 1875, becoming a founding member of The Football League in 1888. It is one of three clubs to have been both a founder member of the Football League and the Premier League. In 1890, Rovers moved to Ewood Park, Blackburn Rovers have been English champions three times, and have won six FA Cups and one Football League Cup. Blackburn are the only extant club to have won three consecutive FA Cups, the club has spent the majority of its existence in the top flight of English football. In 1992, Rovers gained promotion to the new Premier League a year after being taken over by local entrepreneur Jack Walker, in 1995, Rovers became Premier League champions. In the 1998–99 season, the club was relegated and it was promoted back to the Premier League two years later, in the 2000–01 season. It has qualified for the UEFA Cup four times, once as League Cup winners, twice as the Premier Leagues sixth-placed team, the 2011–12 season marked the clubs 72nd, non-consecutive, year in the top flight. Rovers are currently one of six clubs to have won the Premier League, along with Arsenal, Chelsea, Manchester United, Manchester City. The clubs motto is Arte et Labore, By Skill and Hard Work in Latin, the club was founded following a meeting, at the Leger Hotel, Blackburn, on 5 November 1875. The meeting was organised by two men, namely John Lewis and Arthur Constantine. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the possibility of forming a club to play under Association rules. The first match played by Blackburn Rovers took place in Church, on 28 September 1878, Blackburn Rovers became one of 23 clubs to form the Lancashire Football Association. On 1 November 1879 the club played in the F. A, Cup for the first time, beating the Tyne Association Football Club 5–1. Rovers were eventually put out of the competition in the round after suffering a heavy 6–0 defeat by Nottingham Forest. On 25 March 1882 the club won through to the final of the F. A, Blackburn Rovers was the first provincial team to reach the final, but the result was a 1–0 defeat by the Old Etonians. Cup on 29 March 1884 with a 2–1 victory over the Scottish team Queens Park, the same teams played the F. A. Cup final again the season, with Blackburn Rovers again emerging victorious. Rovers repeated this success yet again the season, winning the final replay 2–0 against West Bromwich Albion
Newcastle United F.C.
Newcastle United Football Club is an English professional association football club based in Newcastle upon Tyne. Following the clubs most recent relegation from the top-flight during the 2015–16 season, Newcastle returned to the Football Leagues 2nd tier, the Championship, for the 2016–17 campaign. Newcastle United was founded in 1892 by the merger of Newcastle East End and Newcastle West End, the ground was developed into an all-seater stadium in the mid-1990s and now has a capacity of 52,354. They have won four League Championship titles, six FA Cups and a Charity Shield, as well as the 1969 Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, Newcastle United has the ninth highest total of trophies won by an English club. The clubs most successful period was between 1904 and 1910, when they won an FA Cup and three of their First Division titles. The club were successful in the Premier League in the 1990s and early 2000s, but have been mostly struggling since the 2006–07 season. Newcastle has a local rivalry with Sunderland, and the two clubs have engaged in the Tyne–Wear derby since 1898. The clubs traditional kit colours are black and white striped shirts, black shorts and their traditional crest takes elements of the city coat of arms, which features two grey seahorses. The club has been owned by Mike Ashley since 2007, succeeding long term chairman, the club is the seventeenth highest revenue producing club in the world in terms of annual revenue, generating €169. 3m in 2015. Historically, Newcastles highest placing was in 1999 when they were the fifth highest revenue producing club in the world. The first record of football being played on Tyneside dates from 3 March 1877 at Elswick Rugby Club, later that year, Newcastles first football club, Tyne Association, was formed. The origins of Newcastle United Football Club itself can be traced back to the formation of a club by the Stanley Cricket Club of Byker in November 1881. This team was renamed Newcastle East End F. C. in October 1882, to avoid confusion with the club in Stanley. Rosewood F. C. of Byker merged with Newcastle East End a short time later, in 1886, Newcastle East End moved from Byker to Heaton. In August 1882, Newcastle West End F. C. formed from West End Cricket Club, and in May 1886, the two clubs became rivals in the Northern League. In 1889, Newcastle East End became a team, before becoming a limited company the following March. However, on the hand, Newcastle West End were in serious financial trouble. With only one club in the city for fans to support
Bolton Wanderers F.C.
Bolton Wanderers Football Club is a professional association football club based in Bolton, Greater Manchester. The club currently competes in League One, the tier of the English football league system. The club was formed as Christ Church Football Club in 1874, founder members of the Football League in 1888, Bolton have spent the highest number of seasons of any club in the top flight without winning the title. The closest they have come to the title is third in the First Division on three occasions, as of 2015, the club has spent more seasons in the top division than any other club outside the current Premier League. Bolton were a successful cup side in the 1920s, winning the FA Cup three times, the club won the cup a fourth time in 1958. A leaner spell followed, reaching a nadir in 1987 when the club spent a season in the Fourth Division, the club regained top-flight status in 1995 after a 15-year absence. In a period of success, the club qualified for the UEFA Cup twice, reaching the last 32 in 2005–06. The club played at Burnden Park for 102 years from 1895, on 9 March 1946, The Burnden Park disaster occurred, which was a human crush in which 33 Bolton fans lost their lives. In 1997 it moved out of town to the Reebok Stadium, the stadium was renamed the Macron Stadium in July 2014, to reflect the clubs new deal with Italian sportswear company Macron. The club was founded by the Reverend Joseph Farrall Wright, Perpetual curate of Christ Church Bolton and Thomas Ogden, the schoolmaster at the adjacent church school in 1874 as Christ Church F. C. It was initially run from the church of the name on Deane Road. The club left the following a dispute with the vicar. The name was chosen as the club initially had a lot of difficulty finding a permanent ground to play on, Bolton were one of the 12 founder members of the Football League, which formed in 1888. At the time Lancashire was one of the strongest footballing regions in the country, having remained in the Football League since its formation, Bolton have spent more time in the top flight than out of it. In 1894 Bolton reached the final of the FA Cup for the first time, a decade later they were runners-up a second time, losing 1–0 to local rivals Manchester City at Crystal Palace on 23 April 1904. In this period Bolton equalled their record finish of third twice, in 1920–21 and 1924–25, on 28 April 1923, Bolton won their first major trophy in their third final, beating West Ham United 2–0 in the first ever Wembley FA Cup final. The match, famously known as The White Horse Final was played in front of over 127,000 supporters, boltons centre-forward, David Jack scored the first ever goal at Wembley Stadium. Driven by long-term players Joe Smith in attack, Ted Vizard and Billy Butler on the wings, in 1928 the club faced financial difficulties and so was forced to sell David Jack to Arsenal to raise funds
The Premier League is an English professional league for mens association football clubs. At the top of the English football league system, it is the primary football competition. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the English Football League, Welsh clubs that compete in the English football league system can also qualify. The Premier League is a corporation in which the 20 member clubs act as shareholders, seasons run from August to May. Teams play 38 matches each, totalling 380 matches in the season, most games are played on Saturday and Sunday afternoons, others during weekday evenings. It is colloquially known as the Premiership and outside the UK it is referred to as the English Premier League. The deal was worth £1 billion a year domestically as of 2013–14, with BSkyB, the league generates €2.2 billion per year in domestic and international television rights. In 2014/15, teams were apportioned revenues of £1.6 billion, the Premier League is the most-watched sports league in the world, broadcast in 212 territories to 643 million homes and a potential TV audience of 4.7 billion people. In the 2014–15 season, the average Premier League match attendance exceeded 36,000, most stadium occupancies are near capacity. The Premier League ranks third in the UEFA coefficients of leagues based on performances in European competitions over the past five seasons. While 47 clubs have competed since the inception of the Premier League in 1992, only six have won the title, Manchester United, Chelsea, Arsenal, Manchester City, Blackburn Rovers, the current champions are Leicester City, who won the title in 2015–16. Despite significant European success in the 1970s and early 1980s, the late 80s marked a low point for English football, the 1988 negotiations were the first signs of a breakaway league, ten clubs threatened to leave and form a super league, but were eventually persuaded to stay. As stadiums improved and match attendance and revenues rose, the top teams again considered leaving the Football League in order to capitalise on the influx of money into the sport. At the close of the 1991 season, a proposal was tabled for the establishment of a new league that would bring money into the game overall. The Founder Members Agreement, signed on 17 July 1991 by the games top-flight clubs, the argument given at the time was that the extra income would allow English clubs to compete with teams across Europe. The managing director of London Weekend Television, Greg Dyke, met with the representatives of the big five clubs in England in 1990. The meeting was to pave the way for an away from The Football League. The FA did not enjoy a relationship with the Football League at the time
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
English football league system
There are more than 140 individual leagues, containing more than 480 divisions. As there are no definitions of any level below 11, any references to the structure at level 12. The pyramid for womens football in England runs separately to nine tiers, the Football League was created in 1888 by Aston Villa director William McGregor. It was dominated by clubs who had supported professionalism. The twelve founding members consisted of six from Lancashire and six from the Midlands, no sides from the South including London initially participated. The system consists of a pyramid of leagues, bound together by the principle of promotion and relegation. A certain number of the most successful clubs in each league can rise to a higher league, in addition to sporting performance, promotion is usually contingent on meeting criteria set by the higher league, especially concerning appropriate facilities and finances. In theory it is possible for a local amateur club to rise to the pinnacle of the English game and become champions of the Premier League. While this may be unlikely in practice, there certainly is significant movement within the pyramid, the top five levels contain one division each and are nationwide in scope. Below this, the levels have progressively more leagues, with each covering progressively smaller geographic areas. Many leagues have more than one division, at the lower levels the existence of leagues becomes intermittent, although in some of the more densely populated areas there are leagues more than twenty layers below the Premier League. Clubs from these leagues may, if they feel they meet the standard of play and have suitable facilities. The seven levels immediately below the Premier League and English Football League are known as the National League System, in May 2014 The Football Association announced provisional plans for a new division between the English Football League and the National League which would include B teams of higher level clubs. The English football league system does not include the version of the game often called Sunday league football. These leagues are independent entities with no promotion or relegation involving the football pyramid, however, some Sunday League clubs have been known to join pyramid leagues if they desire to progress higher. There are also some Saturday leagues such as the Lincolnshire League which are not officially part of the pyramid, at the top is the single division of the Premier League, containing 20 clubs, all of which, up to the 2010–11 season, were based in England. Below the Premier League is the English Football League, which is divided into three divisions of 24 clubs each, The Championship, League One and League Two, the 92 clubs in the Premier League and English Football League are all full-time professional clubs. They are often referred to as League clubs because, before the establishment of the Premier League in 1992, clubs outside this group are referred to as non-League clubs, although they too play most of their football in league-type competitions
Football League First Division
The Football League First Division is a former division of the Football League. Between 1888 and 1992 it was the division in the English football league system. Following the creation of the FA Premier League it was a second-level division, in 2004 it was rebranded as the Football League Championship. The Football League was founded in 1888 by Aston Villa director William McGregor and it originally consisted of a single division of 12 clubs, known as The Football League. When the League admitted additional members from the rival Football Alliance in 1892, for the next 100 years, the First Division was the top professional league in English football. Then, in 1992 the 22 clubs making up the First Division elected to resign from the Football League, the Football League was consequently re-organised, with the Second, Third and Fourth Divisions now renamed the First, Second and Third respectively. Thus, the First Division, while still the top level of the Football League, the First Division was renamed as the Football League Championship prior to the start of the 2004–05 season, as part of a league-wide rebrand. Liverpool were the most frequent winners of the First Division when it was the top flight of English football, winning it a total of 18 times. After the creation of the Premier League, the new Division One title was won more than once by one club, Sunderland. The First Division initially consisted of 12 founder clubs, since then it has undergone a series of expansions as football became more popular, as of the 1975–76 season players had to make 14 appearances for their club during the season in order to qualify for a winners medal. See List of English football champions, see List of winners of English Football League Championship and predecessors
Arsenal Football Club is a professional football club based in Highbury, London, that plays in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. The club has won 13 League titles,12 FA Cups, Arsenal was the first club from the South of England to join The Football League, in 1893. They entered the First Division in 1904, and have accumulated the second most points. Relegated only once, in 1913, they continue the longest streak in the top division, in the 1930s, Arsenal won five League Championships and two FA Cups, and another FA Cup and two Championships after the war. In 1970–71, they won their first League and FA Cup Double, between 1989 and 2005, they won five League titles and five FA Cups, including two more Doubles. They completed the 20th century with the highest average league position, Herbert Chapman won Arsenals first national trophies, but died prematurely. He helped introduce the WM formation, floodlights, and shirt numbers, Arsène Wenger has been the longest-serving manager and has won the most trophies. His teams set several English records, the longest win streak, the longest unbeaten run, in 1886, Woolwich munitions workers founded the club as Dial Square. In 1913, the crossed the city to Arsenal Stadium in Highbury. They became Tottenham Hotspurs nearest club, commencing the North London derby, in 2006, they moved down the road to the Emirates Stadium. Arsenal earned €435. 5m in 2014–15, with the Emirates Stadium generating the highest revenue in world football, based on social media activity from 2014–15, Arsenals fanbase is the fifth largest in the world. In 2016, Forbes estimated the club was the second most valuable in England, on 1 December 1886, munitions workers in Woolwich, now South East London, formed Arsenal as Dial Square, with David Danskin as their first captain. Named after the heart of the Royal Arsenal complex, they took the name of the complex a month later. Royal Arsenal F. C. s first home was Plumstead Common, though spent most of their time in South East London playing on the other side of Plumstead. Royal Arsenal won Arsenals first trophies in 1890 and 1891, Royal Arsenal renamed themselves for a second time upon becoming a limited liability company in 1893. They registered their new name, Woolwich Arsenal, with The Football League when the club ascended later that year, Woolwich Arsenal was the first southern member of The Football League, starting out in the Second Division and winning promotion to the First Division in 1904. Falling attendances, due to financial difficulties among the munitions workers, businessmen Henry Norris and William Hall took the club over, and sought to move them elsewhere. In 1913, soon after relegation back to the Second Division, Woolwich Arsenal moved to the new Arsenal Stadium in Highbury and this saw their third change of name, the following year, they reduced Woolwich Arsenal to simply The Arsenal
Ronald Frederick Ron Atkinson, commonly known as Big Ron, is an English former football player and manager. In the 1990s and early 2000s, he was one of Britains best-known football pundits and he spent his playing career at Oxford United, where he still holds the club record for appearances. As a manager, he won the FA Cup with Manchester United in 1983 and 1985, Atkinson, who was born in Liverpool but moved to Warwickshire shortly after his birth, did not achieve great heights in his playing career. After beginning his career as a ground staff boy at Wolverhampton Wanderers, he was signed by Aston Villa from works team BSA Tools at the age of 17 and he has referred to then Villa coach Jimmy Hogan as his biggest influence. He was transferred to Oxford United in the summer of 1959 on a free transfer, there he played alongside his younger brother Graham Atkinson. He went on to make over 500 appearances in all competitions as a wing-half for the club, earning, in his days the nickname, The Tank. He was Uniteds captain through their rise from the Southern League to the Second Division, achieved in only six years from 1962 to 1968 and he was the first ever footballer to captain a club from the Southern League through three divisions of the Football League. After retiring from playing, Atkinson became manager player of non-league Kettering Town in 1971, aged only 32. His success there led to a move to the league with Cambridge United, going on to win the then Fourth Division in 1977, at the start of 1978, Atkinson moved to manage First Division West Bromwich Albion. He soon signed black player Brendon Batson from his club, to play alongside the black pair of Laurie Cunningham. Never before had a team in the top division of English football simultaneously fielded three players on a regular basis. Atkinson led West Bromwich Albion to third place in the league in the season 1978–79, on 30 December 1978 they achieved a famous 5–3 victory over Manchester United at Old Trafford. The club were second in the table at the time, only beaten off top spot from Liverpool by goal difference and they finished fourth in 1981, and shortly after this Atkinson became manager of Manchester United on the dismissal of Dave Sexton. Atkinson was seen as the man who could bring the spark to Manchester United that had been so sorely lacking under his predecessor, Dave Sexton had taken them to second place in the league in 1980 but did not win a major trophy in his four years at the club. He also gave a debut to promising young forward Norman Whiteside in April 1982, 1982–83 also saw the breakthrough of young Norman Whiteside as one of the best performing players in the First Division. Whiteside was also on the scoresheet for the FA Cup final replay as United beat Brighton 4–0 after drawing the first game 2–2. They finished fourth in the league, having topped the table at several stages once again, before injuries to key players counted against them and they dropped points. The end of the saw the sale of key midfielder Ray Wilkins to A. C. Milan of Italy for £1.5 million
Wolverhampton Wanderers F.C.
Wolverhampton Wanderers Football Club /ˌwʊlvərˈhæmptən/ is a professional association football club based in the city of Wolverhampton, West Midlands. The club was known as St. Lukes FC and was founded in 1877. They compete in the Championship, the second highest tier of English football, the following season saw two further managers dismissed as the club then suffered a second relegation, ending up in League One. However, in the season they gained promotion back to the Championship where they currently reside. The clubs current head coach is Paul Lambert, who took charge in November 2016, having become professional, the club were nominated to become one of the twelve founder members of the Football League in 1888, in which they played the first Football League match ever staged. They ended the season in third place, as well as reaching their first FA Cup Final, losing 0–3 to the first Double winners. At the conclusion of the campaign the club relocated for a time when they moved to Molineux. Wolves lifted the FA Cup for the first time in 1893 when they beat Everton 1–0, and added a second triumph in 1908, two years after having dropped into the Second Division. After struggling for years to regain their place in the top division, the club suffered a further relegation in 1923, entering the Third Division. Eight years later Wolves regained their status after winning the Second Division title under Major Frank Buckley. This game had been the last in a Wolves shirt for Stan Cullis, the 1950s were by far the most successful period in the clubs history. Captained by Billy Wright, Wolves finally claimed the championship for the first time in 1953–54. This became the final spur for Gabriel Hanot, the editor of LÉquipe, to propose the creation of the European Cup, although the decade opened with a fourth FA Cup victory and almost the first double of the 20th century, the 1960s saw Wolves begin to decline. Cullis was sacked in September 1964 in a season that ended with relegation and this exile would last only two seasons though, as they were promoted in 1967 as runners-up. During the close season in 1967, Wolves played a season in North America as part of the fledgling United Soccer Association league which imported clubs from Europe. Playing as the Los Angeles Wolves, they won the Western Division, the clubs return to the English top flight heralded another period of relative success under Bill McGarry, with a fourth place in 1971 qualifying them for the newly created UEFA Cup. They lifted silverware though two later, when they won the League Cup for the first time by beating Manchester City 2–1 in the final. The club was saved from liquidation at the last minute when it was purchased by a consortium fronted by former player Derek Dougan
Dave Jones (footballer, born 1956)
David Ronald Dave Jones is an English former footballer and currently manager of EFL League Two side Hartlepool United. Jones played for Everton, Coventry and Preston North End as a defender, in 1995, he became the manager of Stockport County, guiding the team to a League Cup semi-final and automatic promotion to the second tier of English football in 1997. When the case came to court the judge recorded a not guilty verdict, Jones later spoke of his bitterness about the handling of the case and claimed it was the cause of his fathers death, who had died shortly after the allegations became public. Jones had a spell in charge of Cardiff City between 2005 and 2011. They reached an FA Cup Final in 2008, losing 1–0 to Portsmouth, Cardiff lost a 2010 Championship Play-off Final 3–2 against Blackpool. After failing to achieve promotion with Cardiff, losing to Reading the following season in a play-off semi-final and he was appointed manager of Sheffield Wednesday on 1 March 2012, guiding the club to finishing second in League One, thus gaining automatic promotion to the Championship. Jones was dismissed by Wednesday in December 2013, after a three-year absence from management, he was appointed manager at Hartlepool United in January 2017. Like most professional managers in the game, Jones enjoyed a career as a player in his early years and he started his professional career with Everton in his home city of Liverpool. He played as a defender with the team for seven years, during which time he represented England at youth and under-21 level. He left Everton to play for Coventry City in 1981 for a fee of £275,000 – after three seasons he picked up a knee injury which threatened to end his football career. After recovering from injury, he played two further seasons for Seiko in Hong Kong and one season for Preston North End before retiring. Jones first went to Hong Kong on 2 April 1981 on loan from Coventry City for the remainder of the season, at the end of the season, Seiko won the league championship for the third time in a row as well as the Hong Kong FA Cup. He was also selected in the squad of Hong Kong League XI led by Dutch coach George Knobel, to face French side Monaco on 9 January 1982, which ended in a 1–0 win for the Hong Kong League XI. In July 1990, he joined Stockport County as a manager for their youth team and he took the team into the First Division from an automatic promotion place in 1997. He also took the club to the semi-finals of what was then the Coca Cola Cup where they were defeated by Middlesbrough. During the same cup run Stockport also defeated Sheffield United, Blackburn Rovers, Southampton and West Ham United and this promotion brought him to the attention of Southampton, who offered him a contract to manage their Premier League team. His reign during the 1999–2000 season was rocked by his arrest on charges of abuse during his employment as a care worker in the late 1980s. The case put tremendous strain on the manager, who was forced to defend his case on Merseyside whilst managing a team based over two hundred miles away on the south coast
George Graham (footballer)
George Graham is a Scottish former football player and manager. He made 455 appearances in the Football League as a midfielder or forward for Aston Villa, Chelsea, Arsenal, Manchester United, Portsmouth and Crystal Palace. Approximately half of his appearances were for Arsenal and he was part of the side that won the Football League Championship. Graham also made 17 appearances for California Surf in 1978 and he then moved to the coaching staff at Crystal Palace, before joining former Palace manager Terry Venables as a coach at Queens Park Rangers. He later managed Millwall, Arsenal, Leeds United and Tottenham Hotspur, the youngest of seven children, Graham grew up in poverty in Bargeddie, near Coatbridge. He was raised by his mother, Janet, after his father, Robert Young Graham, died of tuberculosis and heart failure on Christmas Day 1944 and his elder sister also died of tuberculosis at the age of 19, in 1951. When growing up, Graham showed considerable promise as a footballer, Grahams career saw him play for clubs in England and the United States. He signed for Aston Villa in 1961, on his 17th birthday and he spent three seasons at the Birmingham club, but only made eight appearances – though one of them was the clubs 1963 League Cup final loss to Birmingham City. Chelsea signed him in July 1964 for £5,000 and this culminated in Graham and seven others being sent home and disciplined by Docherty for breaking a pre-match curfew in 1965. Bertie Mees Arsenal were looking for a replacement for Joe Baker and he made his debut on 1 October 1966 at home to Leicester City, and although the result was a 4–2 defeat he immediately became a regular in the Arsenal side. He was Arsenals top scorer in both 1966–67 and 1967–68, having started out as a forward for the club. With Arsenal, Graham was a runner-up in both the 1968 and 1969 League Cup finals, before winning a medal with the 1969–70 Inter-Cities Fairs Cup. Winning the Double brought the attention of Scotland and Graham was selected for the side for the first time against Portugal on 13 October 1971. He would go on to win twelve caps over the two years for Scotland, scoring three goals, his final one coming against Brazil on 30 June 1973. By then, however, Graham was no longer an Arsenal player, the arrival of Alan Ball midway through 1971–72 had made his place in the Arsenal side less assured and he therefore moved for £120,000 to Manchester United in December 1972. In total, he played 308 matches for Arsenal, scoring 77 goals and he spent two years at United, and was relegated to Division Two, before seeing out his career in England at Portsmouth and Crystal Palace. He played the summer of 1978 in America for the California Surf, after retiring from playing, he became a coach at Crystal Palace and then later Queens Park Rangers. On 6 December 1982 Graham was appointed manager of Millwall, who were bottom of the old Third Division
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union also created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, titles, the legal system within Scotland has also remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law. Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is also a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages. Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was also discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
Bruce David Rioch is a football manager and former player for the Scotland national team. His last managerial post was at Aalborg BK in the Danish Superliga in 2008, as a manager, he has taken charge of clubs in England, the United States, and Denmark. His brother Neil, son Gregor and nephew Matty Holmes were also professional footballers, Rioch was born in Aldershot, Hampshire. After moving to Luton, Bedfordshire, at the age of 14, he joined his side, Luton Town. He made his first team later that month, and his league debut in November 1964 in a 1–0 defeat at home to Southend United. He spent a couple of establishing himself and was a regular member of the Luton team, scoring 24 goals. He moved to Aston Villa in July 1969 for a fee of £100,000 and he won a League Cup runners up medal in 1971, Villa losing 2–0 to Tottenham Hotspur. He moved to Derby County in February 1974, winning a League Championship medal and he joined Everton in December 1976, but returned to Derby County in September 1977. After a dispute with the Derby manager, Tommy Docherty, Rioch had brief spells with Birmingham City in December 1978. He then left the Baseball Ground to play for NASL side Seattle Sounders, while playing with Seattle Sounders in 1980 he was named to the NASL First Team All-Stars. He returned to England in October 1980 when he joined Torquay United as player-coach, in July 1982, Rioch became player-manager of Torquay United, but left in January 1984. In February 1985, after 13 months out of the game he was appointed manager of FC Seattle, of the US Western Soccer Alliance, a year later they won a second successive promotion, this time as winners of the Second Division promotion/First Division relegation playoffs. Middlesbrough showed great promise in the first half ot 1988–89, and he was sacked the following March as the Teessiders hovered just above the Second Division drop zone but on the brink of their first ever Wembley final in the Zenith Data Systems Cup. Rioch is held in the highest esteem by fans of Middlesbrough as, following liquidation, he took a squad of local players. Many fans believe that, had it not been for Rioch, whenever Rioch returned to Middlesbrough as the opposition manager the Boro fans would frequently chant the songs that they had when Rioch was manager as a mark of respect for his services. Rioch made a return to management the following month with Millwall and guided them to a playoff place in the 1990–91 Second Division campaign. Riochs next stop was at Bolton Wanderers, becoming manager in May 1992, in his first season they beat cup holders Liverpool 2–0 at Anfield in an F. A cup replay which many fans feel was the start of Boltons resurgence. They finished runners-up in Division Two and won promotion to Division One, the following year Bolton finished in a respectable mid-table position as well as beating Premier League opponents Arsenal, Everton and Aston Villa in the F. A cup
Patrick James Pat Rice, MBE is a Northern Irish former footballer and coach. As a player he made over 500 appearances for Arsenal, winning the Double and he also won 49 caps for Northern Ireland. He announced his retirement from the post on 10 May 2012, born in Belfast, Rice grew up in London, and after working at a greengrocers on Gillespie Road, the street Highbury Stadium is on, he joined Arsenal F. C. as an apprentice in 1964. He turned professional in 1966 and worked his way up through the clubs youth and he made his first-team debut in the League Cup against Burnley on 5 December 1967, a match Arsenal won 2–1. However, during this time he won his first cap for Northern Ireland, against Israel on 10 September 1968, while still largely a reserve player. Rice remained first-choice right back for the rest of the 1970s, playing in the 1972 FA Cup Final as well, of the Double-winning side, he was the one who remained at the club the longest, and became club captain in 1977. As captain, Rice had the honour of lifting the FA Cup after Arsenal beat Manchester United in 1979 and he is one of only 3 Arsenal players to have played in five FA Cup Finals, the other two being David Seaman and Ray Parlour. He also led Arsenal to the 1980 UEFA Cup Winners Cup Final, Rice finally left Arsenal in 1980 at the age of 31, by which time he had played 528 games in total for the club. He moved to Graham Taylors Watford where he helped the club as captain gain promotion to the First Division in 1981–82, Rice scored in Watfords first game in the top flight in 1982–83 against Everton before retiring from playing in 1984. In all the played a total of 137 times for the Hornets. Rice rejoined Arsenal in 1984 as youth coach, a post he held for the next 12 years, winning the FA Youth Cup twice in 1987–88. In September 1996, Rice was briefly manager of the club after the resignation of Stewart Houston. He managed the side for three FA Premier League matches and a 3–2 defeat in the UEFA Cup at home to Borussia Mönchengladbach and he holds the distinction of having taken part, as player or coach, in all three of Arsenals Doubles.2. On the training pitches and on matchdays, Pat has always been a passionate, loyal and insightful colleague and his replacement was former Arsenal player Steve Bould. Rice was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire in the 2013 New Year Honours for services to sport, in November 2013 it was announced that Rice had been admitted to hospital for cancer treatment. After making a recovery from such in March 2014 he returned to The Emirates at half-time during an FA Cup game against Everton, the Gunners went on to win the game 2–0. Arsenal FA Youth Cup,1966 Football League First Division,1971 FA Cup,1971,1979 Watford Football League Second Division,1982 Harris, Jeff & Hogg, cS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list
Northern Ireland is a constituent unit of the United Kingdom in the north-east of Ireland. It is variously described as a country, province, region, or part of the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the total population. Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by an act of the British parliament, Northern Ireland has historically been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown significantly since the late 1990s. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17. 2% in 1986, dropping to 6. 1% for June–August 2014,58. 2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sports persons from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough, some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British. Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, and the rest of the UK are complex, in many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, and people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games. The region that is now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century, the English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Victories by English forces in war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and their intention was to materially disadvantage the Catholic community and, to a lesser extent, the Presbyterian community. In the context of open institutional discrimination, the 18th century saw secret, militant societies develop in communities in the region and act on sectarian tensions in violent attacks. Following this, in an attempt to quell sectarianism and force the removal of discriminatory laws, the new state, formed in 1801, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, was governed from a single government and parliament based in London. Between 1717 and 1775 some 250,000 people from Ulster emigrated to the British North American colonies and it is estimated that there are more than 27 million Scotch-Irish Americans now living in the US. By the close of the century, autonomy for Ireland within the United Kingdom, in 1912, after decades of obstruction from the House of Lords, Home Rule became a near-certainty. A clash between the House of Commons and House of Lords over a controversial budget produced the Parliament Act 1911, which enabled the veto of the Lords to be overturned. The House of Lords veto had been the unionists main guarantee that Home Rule would not be enacted, in 1914, they smuggled thousands of rifles and rounds of ammunition from Imperial Germany for use by the Ulster Volunteers, a paramilitary organisation opposed to the implementation of Home Rule
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural, political, and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is also a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Unai Emery Etxegoien is a Spanish retired footballer who played as a left midfielder, and the current manager of French club Paris Saint-Germain FC. He competed almost exclusively in Segunda División, amassing totals of 215 matches and he subsequently embarked on a managerial career, spending several years in La Liga with Valencia and leading the team to three third-place finishes. In 2013, Emery signed with Sevilla, taking the club to three consecutive Europa League victories before leaving for Paris Saint-Germain, born in Hondarribia, Gipuzkoa, Basque Country, Emery was a youth graduate of Real Sociedad, but never really broke into the first team. After that, he resumed his career mostly in Segunda División, Emery retired with Lorca Deportiva CF at the age of 32, after one season in Segunda División B. In his second season, the Murcians first ever in the second level and they suffered relegation the following campaign, after the managers departure. This prompted a move to Valencia CF, as he succeeded Ronald Koeman, in his first season with the Che, Emery led them to a sixth place-finish, with the subsequent qualification to the UEFA Europa League, in spite of the clubs serious financial problems. The team reached the round-of-32 in the UEFA Cup, a 3–3 aggregate loss against FC Dynamo Kyiv, in 2009–10, Emery led Valencia to the third place, with the subsequent return to the UEFA Champions League after two years. 2010–11 started without David Villa and David Silva, sold to FC Barcelona, in the domestic league the side finished third, thus again qualifying to the Champions League. Emery left the club in June 2012, after repeating the league position, on 13 May 2012, Leonid Fedun, owner of Russian team FC Spartak Moscow, announced Emery as club coach for the following two seasons. On 25 November he was sacked after a run of poor results, Emery returned to his country on 14 January 2013, replacing sacked Míchel at the helm of Sevilla. He led the club to the position in his first full season and, on 14 May 2014. On 18 May 2016, after trailing 0–1 at half-time, one goal from Kévin Gameiro, on 12 June 2016, after Emery expressed his desire to leave Sevilla, the club announced that they would be parting ways. On 28 June 2016, Emery signed a deal with the option of a third to succeed Laurent Blanc at French quadruple-holders Paris Saint-Germain FC. In his first competitive match in charge, on 6 August, Emery led PSG to the second position in the group stage of the Champions League, behind Arsenal. In the first knockout round they defeated FC Barcelona 4–0 at the Parc des Princes, only to lose 1–6 in Spain and be subsequently eliminated. On 1 April, he picked up his honour at Les Rouge-et-Bleu with a 4–1 win over title rivals AS Monaco FC in the final of the Coupe de la Ligue. Emerys father and grandfather, respectively named Juan and Antonio, were also footballers, the former appeared for several clubs in the second tier, whilst the latter competed with Real Unión in the top level, his uncle, Román, played as a midfielder
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and later by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem. This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles later renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, Espan, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians, Basques and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula. The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Aston Villa F.C.
Aston Villa Football Club is a professional association football club based in Aston, Birmingham, that plays in the Championship, the second level of English football. Founded in 1874, they have played at their current home ground, Villa Park, Aston Villa were one of the founder members of the Football League in 1888. They were also one of the members of the Premier League in 1992. Aston Villa are one of only five English clubs to be crowned champions of Europe and they have also won the First Division Championship seven times, the FA Cup seven times, the Football League Cup five times, and the UEFA Super Cup once. They have a local rivalry with Birmingham City and the Second City derby between the sides has been played since 1879. The clubs traditional kit colours are claret shirts with sky blue sleeves, white shorts and their traditional badge is of a rampant lion, which was introduced by the clubs Scottish chairman William McGregor in honour of the Royal Standard of Scotland. The club is owned by Recon Group Limited, a company chaired by Chinese businessman Tony Xia. Aston Villa Football Club were formed in March 1874, by members of the Villa Cross Wesleyan Chapel in Handsworth which is now part of Birmingham, the four founders of Aston Villa were Jack Hughes, Frederick Matthews, Walter Price and William Scattergood. Aston Villas first match was against the local Aston Brook St Marys Rugby team, as a condition of the match, the Villa side had to agree to play the first half under Rugby rules and the second half under Association rules. The club won their first FA Cup in 1887 with captain Archie Hunter becoming one of the games first household names. Aston Villa were one of the teams that competed in the inaugural Football League in 1888 with one of the clubs directors. Aston Villa emerged as the most successful English club of the Victorian era, winning no fewer than five League titles, in 1897, the year Villa won The Double, they moved into their present home, the Aston Lower Grounds. Supporters coined the name Villa Park, no official declaration listed the ground as Villa Park. This was largely the result of a defensive record, they conceded 110 goals in 42 games,7 of them coming from Arsenals Ted Drake in an infamous 1–7 defeat at Villa Park. Like all English clubs, Villa lost seven seasons to the Second World War, the team was rebuilt under the guidance of former player Alex Massie for the remainder of the 1940s. The team struggled in the league though and were relegated two seasons later, due in part to complacency. However, under the stewardship of manager Joe Mercer Villa returned to the top-flight in 1960 as Second Division Champions, the following season Aston Villa became the first team to win the Football League Cup. Mercers forced retirement from the club in 1964 signalled a period of deep turmoil, the most successful club in England was struggling to keep pace with changes in the modern game, with Villa being relegated for the third time, under manager Dick Taylor in 1967
Brian Little (footballer)
Brian Little is an English football manager and former player. Little has previously managed Darlington, Leicester City, Aston Villa, Stoke City, West Bromwich Albion, Hull City, Tranmere Rovers, Wrexham, as a player, he was a versatile forward who spent his entire playing career at Aston Villa. He made one appearance at International level for England as a substitute against Wales in 1975, on leaving school in 1970, Little signed for Aston Villa who had just been relegated to the Third Division for the first and only time in their history. He made his debut on 30 October 1971, in a 4–1 win over Blackburn Rovers in the Third Division at Villa Park. By 1973–74, with Villa in the Second Division, he was a regular first team player and he progressed through the youth ranks, winning an FA Youth Cup winners medal along the way. He made 247 appearances for the club and scored 60 goals and his playing career came to a halt in 1980 when he retired at the age of 26 due to a knee injury. The injury was discovered when Little was undergoing a medical at Villas local rivals Birmingham City and this meant his intended transfer there was cancelled. He was a flamboyant forward who formed a prolific partnership with Andy Gray. Little is regarded as a great at Villa Park. Although his playing career was over, Little remained on the Aston Villa payroll as youth team coach, when manager Tony Barton was sacked in the summer of 1984, Littles contract was also terminated and he became first-team coach of Wolverhampton Wanderers. Brian Little was appointed manager of Wolverhampton Wanderers on 31 August 1986 as successor to Sammy Chapman. His appointment came at the end of the blackest spell in the clubs history and he oversaw a steady start to the 1986–87 season before Graham Turner was appointed manager 36 days later. Shortly after leaving Wolverhampton, Little was recruited as a first team coach by Middlesbrough manager Bruce Rioch, like Wolves, Middlesbrough were a financially troubled club and had narrowly escaped bankruptcy. Little was an important part of the coaching staff as Middlesbroughs form improved. The season ended in relegation for Middlesbrough but in February Little left the Ayresome Park coaching staff, Darlington were bottom of the Football League in the Fourth Division. He was unable to prevent them getting relegated to the Conference National. 1990–91 brought more success for Little and Darlington as they won the Fourth Division championship, by this time, bigger clubs were taking an interest in the 37-year-old Little and in June 1991 Leicester City appointed Little as their replacement for Gordon Lee. The Foxes had just avoided relegation to the Third Division for the first time in their history, at the end of 1991–92, Leicester came fourth in the Second Division and qualified for the promotion playoffs, the winners securing a place in the new Premier League
John Gregory (footballer)
John Charles Gregory is an English former footballer and was manager of Crawley Town until May 2015. He has previously managed, Portsmouth, Plymouth Argyle, Wycombe Wanderers, Aston Villa, Derby County, Queens Park Rangers, Maccabi Ahi Nazareth, F. C. Ashdod and FC Kairat. As a player, he was a midfielder who started his career at Northampton Town and later played for Brighton & Hove Albion, QPR, Derby. He won six caps for England, Gregory was born in Scunthorpe, Lincolnshire, where his father, Jack Gregory, was playing for Scunthorpe United. Gregory made his football debut in 1972, at the age of 18. He scored eight goals in 187 games over the five years. Gregory was a success at Aston Villa. Despite playing two divisions higher than he had ever done before, he adapted well to First Division football and scored 10 goals in 65 games over the next two seasons. During his time at Villa, Gregory became the player to play in every outfield position. In 1979, Gregory signed for Brighton & Hove Albion, who had just won promotion to the First Division for the first time in their history. He scored seven goals in 72 games over the two seasons before dropping down into the Second Division to sign for Queens Park Rangers. He was part of the QPR side that reached the FA Cup final in 1982, at the end of a difficult season in which QPR only narrowly stayed in the First Division, Gregory dropped down two divisions to sign for fallen giants Derby County. Derby County, champions of England in 1972 and 1975, had fallen into the Third Division in 1984 and had failed to win promotion in 1984–85. Gregory was the centerpiece of their midfield as they achieved promotion to the Second Division at the end of the 1985–86 season, Gregory stayed for one season as Derby County survived their first top flight season for nearly a decade, before announcing his retirement as a player. He played a total of 93 league appearances for the Rams, when taking over as manager of Plymouth Argyle early in 1990, Gregory re-registered himself as a player and appeared three times for them in the Second Division. On departing from the Home Park club, he moved 300 miles north to play for Third Division Bolton Wanderers and his first two spells in management, first with Portsmouth and then with Plymouth Argyle, lasted just a few months each. Shortly afterwards, he linked up as a player with his former England and Northampton Town teammate Phil Neal. He later worked under Brian Little on the staff at Leicester City
Graham Taylor OBE was an English football player, manager, pundit and chairman of Watford Football Club. He was the manager of the England national football team from 1990 to 1993, the son of a sports journalist who worked on the Scunthorpe Evening Telegraph, Taylor found his love of football in the stands of the Old Show Ground watching Scunthorpe United. He became a player, playing at full back for Grimsby Town, after retiring as a player through injury in 1972, Taylor became a manager and coach. He won the Fourth Division title with Lincoln in 1976, before moving to Watford in 1977 and he took Watford from the Fourth Division to the First in five years. Under Taylor, Watford were First Division runners-up in 1982–83, Taylor took over at Aston Villa in 1987, leading the club to promotion in 1988 and 2nd place in the First Division in 1989–90. In July 1990, he became the manager of the England team, England qualified for the 1992 European Championships, but were knocked out in the group stages. Taylor resigned in November 1993, after England failed to qualify for the 1994 FIFA World Cup in the United States, Taylor was heavily criticised personally and professionally during his tenure as an England manager. Taylor faced even more criticism when a documentary, An Impossible Job, filmed the failed qualifying campaign and he was filmed berating the German linesman during the controversial defeat to the Netherlands, in a World Cup qualifier. Taylor returned to management in March 1994 with Wolverhampton Wanderers. After one season at Molineux, he returned to Watford, and his most recent managerial role was manager of Aston Villa, to which he returned in 2002. He left at the end of the 2002–03 season, Taylor served as Watfords chairman from 2009 until 2012 where he continued to hold the position of honorary life-president. He also worked as a pundit for BBC Radio Five Live, born in Worksop, Nottinghamshire, Taylor moved to a council house in Scunthorpe in 1947, where his father Thomas was the sports reporter for the Scunthorpe Evening Telegraph. He went to the Henderson Avenue Junior School, then Scunthorpe Grammar School and he played for the England Grammar Schools football team, and joined the sixth-form after passing six-O-levels in 1961, but he left after one year to pursue a full-time career in football. His head teacher disapproved of his actions who told him, Grammar school boys don’t become footballers and his playing career began with as an apprentice for Scunthorpe United. He then went on to join Grimsby Town in 1962 and played his first competitive game for them in September 1963 against Newcastle United when they won 2–1 and he played 189 games at fullback for Grimsby Town, scoring twice. He was transferred to Lincoln City in the summer of 1968 for a fee of £4,000 and this system was introduced for the inaugural 1888–89 season and was retained for over 90 years until the reward for a win was increased to three points in 1981. He achieved this with Lincoln City and Watford, only two other clubs, Doncaster Rovers and Rotherham United, managed to gain over 70 points in one season under the original scoring system. Taylor was the youngest person to become a FA coach, at the age of 27, following his retirement from playing, Taylor became manager of Lincoln City, being the youngest manager in the league at the age of 28 in December 1972
Republic of Ireland
Ireland, also known as the Republic of Ireland, is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the part of the island. The state shares its land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint Georges Channel to the south-east, and it is a unitary, parliamentary republic. The head of government is the Taoiseach, who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President, the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955. It joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, after joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth. The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by a financial crisis that began in 2008. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again quickly ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index and it also performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a member of the Council of Europe. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was styled, the Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland. Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland. The 1948 Act does not name the state as Republic of Ireland, because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name Eire, and, from 1949, Republic of Ireland, for the state, as well as Ireland, Éire or the Republic of Ireland, the state is also referred to as the Republic, Southern Ireland or the South. In an Irish republican context it is referred to as the Free State or the 26 Counties. From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, during the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the islands population of over 8 million fell by 30%
Martin Hugh Michael ONeill OBE is a professional football manager, from Northern Ireland, who is manager of the Republic of Ireland national team. Starting his career in Northern Ireland, ONeill moved to England where he spent most of his career with Nottingham Forest, with whom he won the European Cup twice. He was capped 64 times for the Northern Ireland national football team, ONeill has managed Grantham Town, Wycombe Wanderers, Norwich City, Leicester City, Celtic, Aston Villa and Sunderland. He guided Leicester City to the Football League Cup final three times, winning twice, as Celtic manager between 2000 and 2005, he led that club to three Scottish Premier League titles and the 2003 UEFA Cup Final in Seville. After joining Aston Villa he achieved three consecutive 6th-place finishes in the English Premier League and guided them to the 2010 Football League Cup Final, ONeill was born in Kilrea, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland in 1952. He was the child of nine siblings, and has four brothers. ONeills father was a member of local GAA club Pádraig Pearses Kilrea. His brothers Gerry and Leo played for the club as well as being on the Derry senior team won the 1958 Ulster Championship. He played for both Kilrea and Derry at underage level as well and he also played Gaelic football while boarding at St. Columbs College, Derry, and later at St. Malachys College, Belfast. While at St. Malachys, he first came to attention as a football player with local side Rosario. This breached the Gaelic Athletic Association prohibition on Gaelic footballers playing foreign sports, when St. Malachys reached the 1970 MacRory Cup final, the Antrim GAA County Board refused to allow the game to go ahead at Belfasts Casement Park. The colleges involved switched the venue to County Tyrone to enable him to play, before playing for Distillery in the Irish League, ONeill played for the South Belfast side Rosario. Now he also has a room dedicated to him in Rosario Football Clubs local Youth Club. While at Distillery, he won the Irish Cup in 1971 and his second goal was particularly impressive, a mazy run in which he dribbled past three opponents before scoring with a powerful shot. As a result of winning the cup, Distillery qualified for Europe the following season, ONeill scored against Barcelona in the European Cup Winners Cup in a 3–1 home defeat in September 1971. During this period he was spotted by a scout for Nottingham Forest and he signed for Nottingham Forest in October 1971, leaving Distillery for a transfer fee of £15,000 and quitting his studies in law at the Queens University of Belfast. ONeill went on to play an role in Forests golden era. He scored on his debut for the club, a 4–1 win over West Bromwich Albion on 13 November 1971
Kevin MacDonald (footballer)
Kevin Duncan MacDonald is a Scottish former footballer who is the former manager of Swindon Town and is currently the interim manager of Aston Villa. As a player MacDonald was a member of the Liverpool double winning side of 1986, prior to taking his first managerial job at Swindon MacDonalds career most notably included a spell as caretaker manager at Aston Villa following the resignation of Martin ONeill on 9 August 2010. MacDonald also worked as assistant manager of the Republic of Ireland, with his ex-Liverpool team-mate Steve Staunton, in 1994, he also spent a short time as caretaker manager at Leicester City. MacDonald was discovered by Leicester City while playing for his town club, Inverness Caledonian. Alex Ferguson, then manager of Aberdeen, watched Macdonald on several occasions while he played for Inverness Caledonian, MacDonald joined Liverpool from Leicester for £400,000 in November 1984. At the start of the season, MacDonald broke his leg against Southampton on 20 September 1986. By the time he recovered Kenny Dalglish had settled on Steve McMahon for the midfield role. He made no appearances for the rest of the 1986–87 season, in his final season at the club, 1988–89, he made just five competitive appearances before he later had spells on loan at his old club Leicester and also at Rangers. In April 1989, shortly before he left Liverpool, MacDonald, along with his team-mates and he scored three competitive goals in his time at Liverpool as well as two goals in the Football League Super Cup, all of which came in the 1985–86 season. In June 1989 he made a permanent move to Coventry City, in November 1994, MacDonald was named caretaker manager of Leicester City for a short period between the departure of Brian Little and the arrival of Mark McGhee. In August 2010, following the resignation of former Aston Villa manager Martin ONeill. He had previously been the manager of Villas successful reserve side, MacDonald had been employed by Aston Villa since 1995 and had held a number of different positions at the club. He then led Villa to a 1–1 draw in their Europa League qualifier first-leg match against Rapid Vienna and his second league game in charge resulted in a 6–0 defeat to Newcastle United. It was reported by The Sun newspaper on 31 August that Macdonald has expressed a desire to manage Villa on a permanent basis, on 28 February 2013, it was announced MacDonald was the new manager of Swindon Town in League One. MacDonald led the team into the 2013 League One play-offs following a 6th place league finish, lFChistory. net player profile Kevin MacDonald at Soccerbase Kevin MacDonald management career statistics at Soccerbase Kevin MacDonald career stats
Gary McAllister MBE is a retired Scottish professional football player. McAllister played primarily as a midfielder, in a career spanning over nineteen years. He started his career at local side Motherwell before moving south of the border to Leicester City at the age of 20 and he then went on to play for Leeds United, where he won the English league championship in 1991–92. McAllister later had spells at Coventry City intersected by a brief, yet successful, McAllister also represented his national side for nine years, winning 59 caps and scoring five goals. His leadership qualities were noticed, and he spent four years as Scotland captain in addition to two seasons as Leeds United captain. He was awarded an MBE in the 2001 New Year Honours in recognition of his contribution to football and was inducted to the Scottish Football Hall of Fame in 2016, as his playing career drew to a close he decided to enter the managerial side of the game. During his second stay at Coventry, he was appointed manager in April 2002 and he resigned from this position in January 2004 and did not enter management again until he returned to Elland Road in January 2008, to replace Dennis Wise. McAllister guided Leeds to the playoffs, but was sacked in December 2008. In April 2011, McAllister became the manager at Premier League club Aston Villa. McAllister began his career at his local side Motherwell. His senior debut was away to Queen of the South on 1 May 1982, McAllister scored eight goals in 70 appearances, culminating in a fine performance in the 1985 Scottish Cup semi-final against Celtic. With Motherwell he was often a striker than a midfielder. McAllisters performances in the cup caught the eye of Leicester City manager Gordon Milne and he signed for the English club, along with Motherwell team-mate Ally Mauchlen, for a combined fee of £350,000 in August 1985. During his first season at Filbert Street he adapted well to regular First Division football, after Hamilton was replaced by David Pleat, however, his stylish playmaking abilities began to flourish. He turned down a mooted £1.15 million move to Nottingham Forest to see out his contract with Leicester after Brian Clough apparently failed to impress him during an interview, in five seasons with Leicester, McAllister played 225 games in total, scoring 52 goals. McAllister arrived at Leeds United on 2 July 1990 for a fee of £1,000,000. The club had just achieved promotion to Division One, the top tier of English football at the time, Leeds performed well in McAllisters first season at Elland Road, finishing fourth in the table and reaching the League Cup semi-finals. He formed a midfield quartet that season with fellow Scottish international Gordon Strachan and relative youngsters David Batty
Alexander Alex McLeish is a Scottish football manager and former player. Born in Glasgow, McLeish played as a defender for Aberdeen during their 1980s glory years, making nearly 500 League appearances for the club. He started his career with spells at Motherwell and Hibernian. McLeish spent ten months as manager of the Scotland national team which failed to qualify for the finals of the 2008 UEFA European championship. He then resigned this post in November 2007 to become manager of Birmingham City, though Birmingham were relegated at the end of the season, McLeish guided them back to the Premier League in 2009. Birmingham then won the 2011 Football League Cup Final, but were relegated again from the Premier League at the end of the 2010–11 season, following this relegation he resigned his post at Birmingham to become manager at their city rivals, Aston Villa. This made him the first manager to move directly from Birmingham City to Aston Villa, having only narrowly avoided relegation in the 2011–12 Premier League season, his contract was terminated by Villa at the end of his first season. McLeish was appointed manager of Championship club Nottingham Forest in December 2012 and he managed Belgian Pro League club Genk in the 2014–15 season, and Zamalek of the Egyptian Premier League in 2016. In recognition of his service to Scottish sport, in 2008 McLeish was awarded an honorary doctorate by the University of Aberdeen. McLeish was born in Duke Street Hospital, Glasgow to parents Alex, a shipyard worker and he has younger siblings Angela and Ian. After living in the Parkhead and Kinning Park districts of the city and he attended Springhill Primary, Barrhead High School, where he was one year below future Aberdeen and Scotland teammate Peter Weir, and John Neilson High School in Paisley. As a juvenile he played for Barrhead Youth Club, alongside Weir, after a local cup final with Glasgow United in 1976 which was watched by a delegation from Aberdeen, including then manager Ally MacLeod, McLeish signed for the Pittodrie club the following day. McLeish spent the majority of his first two seasons at Aberdeen in the reserves and also had a spell at local Junior side Lewis United. He made his debut under Billy McNeill in a New Year fixture against Dundee United on 2 January 1978. His first major appearance was under the management of Alex Ferguson as a substitute in a 2–1 defeat to Rangers in the 1978–79 League Cup. Over the next seven seasons however, he enjoyed great success winning eight domestic, highlights included scoring in a 4–1 victory over Rangers in the 1982 Scottish Cup Final on his 200th Dons appearance and a European Cup Winners Cup win over Real Madrid in 1983. During this period, McLeish formed a formidable defensive triumvirate with Willie Miller, when Ferguson left in 1986 to go to Manchester United, he tried to get McLeish to sign, but it did not work out, he also had talks with Tottenham Hotspur. He won the Scottish player of the year in 1990, after a season in which Aberdeen won both domestic cups and he was captain of Aberdeen after the retirement of Willie Miller
Paul Lambert is a Scottish former professional footballer and manager who played as a midfielder. He is the Head Coach of Championship club Wolverhampton Wanderers, Lambert won numerous honours as a player, winning the Scottish Cup with St Mirren as a 17-year-old, the UEFA Champions League with Borussia Dortmund and all the Scottish domestic honours with Celtic. In his international career, Lambert earned 40 caps for Scotland, Lambert achieved success managing in Englands lower divisions and guided Norwich City into English footballs Premier League with successive promotions in 2009–10 and 2010–11. After keeping Norwich in the Premier League in 2011–12, he managed Aston Villa for three seasons, Lambert was appointed Blackburn Rovers manager in November 2015, before leaving the club in May 2016. Lambert became head coach of Wolverhampton Wanderers on 5 November 2016, Lambert was born in Glasgow, but moved to Linwood, Renfrewshire, when he was a child. He played for Linwood Rangers Boys Club before entering the game with St Mirren in 1985. With St Mirren, the 17-year old Lambert won his first senior winners medal courtesy of the 1987 Scottish Cup Final. Saints beat favourites and that seasons UEFA Cup Finalists, Jim McLeans Dundee United, Lambert played with St Mirren for eight years. In September 1993, Lambert was signed by Tommy McLean for Motherwell for a fee of £250,000 in a move that saw Jimmy Gardner move to St Mirren. The club finished third placed at the end of the 1993–94 season in the Scottish Premier League, with Alex McLeish replacing McLean for the 1994–95 season, Lambert and Motherwell went one place better finishing league runners-up, the clubs highest finish since 1933–34. The club also had qualified for a place in the 1994–95 UEFA Cup, after eliminating Faroese opponents, HB Tórshavn, Motherwell were drawn against Borussia Dortmund, managed by Ottmar Hitzfeld. Drawn away in the first leg, Motherwell lost to a goal by Andreas Möller in the 58th minute. In the second leg, Motherwell were still in the contest, in 1996, Lambert was signed by a manager and club he had played against for Motherwell in the UEFA Cup, Ottmar Hitzfeld of German Bundesliga side Borussia Dortmund. Hitzfeld immediately changed Lamberts role to him as defensive midfielder. In the 1997 UEFA Champions League Final against Juventus, he played in midfield to quell the influence of Juves French playmaker Zinedine Zidane, Lamberts cross also set up Karl-Heinz Riedles opening goal. Lamberts contribution has since been suggested as a man of the match performance and he became the first Scottish player to win the European Cup with a non-UK team, and the first British player to win it since its reformation as the Champions League. Lambert had scored in the lead up to the final with a group stage goal, Lamberts performance in the semi-final elimination of Manchester United was praised in the autobiography of Roy Keane. Lambert scored one goal for Dortmund, against Bayer Leverkusen