Edward Joseph Garland
Edward Joseph "Ted" Garland was a farmer, diplomat and a Canadian federal politician. He was born in Ireland. Garland, an active member of the United Farmers of Alberta, was first elected to the House of Commons of Canada in the 1921 Canadian federal election as a candidate for the Progressive Party of Canada, he defeated two other candidates in a landslide to win his first term in office. A founding member of the radical Ginger Group of MPs, he stood for re-election in the 1925 Canadian federal election, he was re-elected in a hotly contested election to win his second term in office; the government was dissolved after the Liberal-Progressive coalition fell apart and he ran for re-election again just a year in the 1926 Canadian federal election winning re-election this time under the United Farmers of Alberta banner. He won his fourth term in the 1930 Canadian federal election. Garland was one of the group of radical MPs to meet following the 1930 election and plan the creation of a new party.
He was a founding member of that party, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, when it was launched in 1932 and stood as a CCF candidate but was defeated on his bid for a fifth term in office in the 1935 Canadian federal election by Charles Edward Johnston from the Social Credit Party of Canada. He served as president of the UFA in the early 1930s. After his career in the Canadian Parliament Garland served as the High Commissioner to Ireland from May 4, 1946 to March 19, 1947. After his term as High Commissioner he served as Canada's first Envoy to Norway from August 25, 1947 and Iceland from March 16, 1949 with both posts ending on August 19, 1952. Edward Joseph Garland – Parliament of Canada biography Edward Joseph Garland Head of Posts List
Co-operative Commonwealth Federation
The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation was a social-democratic and democratic socialist political party in Canada. The CCF was founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, agrarian, co-operative, labour groups, the League for Social Reconstruction. In 1944, the CCF formed the first social-democratic government in North America when it was elected to form the provincial government in Saskatchewan. In 1961, the CCF was succeeded by the New Democratic Party; the full, but little used, name of the party was Co-operative Commonwealth Federation. The CCF aimed to alleviate the suffering that workers and farmers, the ill and the old endure under capitalism, seen most starkly during the Great Depression, through the creation of a Co-operative Commonwealth, which would entail economic co-operation, public ownership of the economy, political reform; the object of the political party as reported at its founding meeting in Calgary in 1932 was "the federation of organizations whose purpose is the establishment in Canada of a co-operative commonwealth, in which the basic principle of regulating production and exchange will be the supplying of human needs instead of the making of profit."The goal of the CCF was defined as a "community freed from the domination of irresponsible financial and economic power in which all social means of production and distribution, including land, are owned and controlled either by voluntarily organized groups of producers and consumers or – in the case of major public services and utilities and such productive and distributive enterprises as can be conducted most efficiently when owned in common – by public corporations responsible to the people's elected representatives".
Many of the party's first Members of Parliament were members of the Ginger Group, composed of United Farmers of Alberta, left-wing Progressive, Labour MPs. These MPs included United Farmers of Alberta MPs William Irvine and Ted Garland, Agnes Macphail, Humphrey Mitchell, Abraham Albert Heaps, Angus MacInnis, Labour Party MP J. S. Woodsworth. Involved in founding the new party were members of the League for Social Reconstruction, such as F. R. Scott and Frank Underhill, it can be said that the CCF was founded on May 26, 1932, when the Ginger Group MPs and LSR members met in William Irvine's office, the unofficial caucus meeting room for the Ginger Group, went about forming the basis of the new party. J. S. Woodsworth was unanimously appointed the temporary leader until they could hold a founding convention; the temporary name for the new party was the Commonwealth Party. At its founding convention in 1932 in Calgary, the party settled on the name "Co-operative Commonwealth Federation" and selected J. S. Woodsworth as party leader.
Woodsworth had been an Independent Labour Party MP since 1921 and a member of the Ginger Group of MPs. The party's 1933 convention, held in Regina, adopted the Regina Manifesto as the party's program; the manifesto outlined a number of goals, including public ownership of key industries, universal public pensions, universal health care, children's allowances, unemployment insurance, workers' compensation. Its conclusion read, "No CCF Government will rest content until it has eradicated capitalism and put into operation the full programme of socialized planning which will lead to the establishment in Canada of the Co-operative Commonwealth." The party affiliated to the Socialist International. In line with Alberta's important role in founding the CCF, it is said that the first CCF candidate elected was Chester Ronning in the Alberta provincial constituency of Camrose, in October 1932; the UFA, under whose banner he contested the election, formalized its already-strong connection to the CCF in its next provincial convention, in January 1933.
In its first federal election, seven CCF MPs were elected to the House of Commons in 1935. Eight were elected in the following election in 1940, including their first member east of Manitoba, Clarence Gillis, in Nova Scotia's Cape Breton South district; the party was divided with the outbreak of World War II: Woodsworth was a passionate pacifist, this upset many supporters of the Canadian war effort. Woodsworth had a physically debilitating stroke in May 1940 and could no longer perform his duties as leader. In October, Woodsworth wrote a letter to the 1940 CCF convention, in essence asking to retire from the leadership. Instead, the delegates created the new position of Honorary President, abolished the President's position and re-elected M. J. Coldwell as the National Chairman. Coldwell was appointed acting House Leader on 6 November. Woodsworth died on 21 March 1942, Coldwell became the new leader at the July convention in Toronto and threw the party's support behind the war effort; as a memorial to Woodsworth, Coldwell suggested that the CCF create a research foundation, Woodsworth House was established in Toronto for that purpose.
The party won a critical York South by-election on 8 February 1942, in the process prevented the Conservative leader, former Prime Minister Arthur Meighen, from entering the House of Commons. In the 1945 election, 28 CCF MPs were elected, the party won 15.6% of the vote. However, the party was to have its greatest success in provincial politics in the 1940s. In 1943, the Ontario CCF became the official opposition in that province, in 1944 the Saskatchewan CCF formed the first democratic socialist government in North America, with Tommy Douglas as premier. Douglas introduced universal Medicare to Saskatchewan, a policy, soon adopted by other provinces and implemented nationally by
Thomas Wakem Caldwell
Thomas Wakem Caldwell was a farmer and political figure in New Brunswick, Canada. He represented Victoria—Carleton in the House of Commons of Canada from 1919 to 1925 as a United Farmers Progressive Party Member of Parliament, he was born in Florenceville, New Brunswick, the son of Andrew Cunningham Caldwell and Margaret Wakem, after completing his education, became a farmer there. Caldwell was married twice: to Annie Abeldt in 1892 and to Melissa Haladay, he was president of the United Farmers of New Brunswick and served on the executive board of the Farmer's Co-operative Company of New Brunswick. Caldwell was first elected to the House of Commons in a 1919 by-election held after Frank Broadstreet Carvell was named chairman of the Board of Railway Commissioners, he was defeated when he ran for re-election in 1925. Caldwell went to England as a farm delegate to protest an embargo on Canadian potatoes, he died in Ottawa at the age of 69
Levi William Humphrey
Levi William Humphrey was a Progressive party member of the House of Commons of Canada. He was born in Monson, United States and became a locomotive engineer for Canadian Pacific Railways. Humphrey, the son of David Humphrey, came to Canada in 1898 settling in Rossland, British Columbia Rossland, the terminus for Canadian Pacific Railways, he moved to Nelson, British Columbia where he resided until his death in 1947. He served overseas with the Canadian Expeditionary Force from 1915 to 1919. In 1918, he married Anne Ogwen Hughes, he was elected to Parliament at the Kootenay West riding in the 1921 general election. After serving his only federal term, the 14th Canadian Parliament, Humphrey was defeated by William Esling of the Conservatives in the 1925 federal election. Levi William Humphrey – Parliament of Canada biography
Agnes Campbell Macphail was a Canadian politician, the country's first female Member of Parliament. First elected to the House of Commons of Canada in 1921, she served as an MP until 1940. Moving to provincial politics, from 1943 to 1945 and again from 1948 to 1951 she was a member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario representing the Toronto riding of York East. Active throughout her life in progressive Canadian politics, Macphail worked for two separate parties and promoted her ideas through column-writing, activist organizing, legislation. Agnes Macphail was born to Dougald McPhail and Henrietta Campbell in Proton Township, Grey County, Ontario. Although her surname was spelled "McPhail" at birth, she discovered during a trip to Scotland that her family's surname had been "Macphail" and changed her name to reflect this, she was raised in the Methodist Church, but converted to the Reorganized Latter Day Saint church as a teenager, the church of her missionary uncle. Macphail attended Owen Sound Vocational Institute for one year.
Though she did well, she transferred to Stratford Normal School so she could board with a relative. She graduated in 1910 with a second class teacher's certificate, she was accepted at all five. She claimed that this was not due to a scarcity of teachers at the time, she taught in several rural schools in such communities as Port Elgin and Newmarket. While working in Sharon, Macphail became active politically, joining the United Farmers of Ontario and its women's organization, the United Farm Women of Ontario, she became a columnist for the Farmer's Sun around this time. After amendments to the Elections Act by the Conservative federal government in 1919, Macphail was elected to the House of Commons as a member of the Progressive Party of Canada for the electoral district of Grey Southeast in the 1921 federal election, becoming the first female MP in Canadian history, she was re-elected in the 1925, 1926, 1930 federal elections. Macphail objected to the Royal Military College of Canada in 1924 on the grounds that it taught snobbishness and provided a cheap education for the sons of the rich and again in 1931 on pacifist grounds.
As a radical member of the Progressive Party, Macphail joined the socialist Ginger Group, a faction of the Progressive Party that led to the formation of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation. She became the first president of the Ontario CCF in 1932. However, she left the CCF in 1934 when the United Farmers of Ontario pulled out over fears of Communist influence in the Ontario CCF. While Macphail was no longer formally a CCF member, she remained close to the CCF MPs and participated in caucus meetings; the CCF did not run candidates against Macphail in her three subsequent federal campaigns. In the 1935 federal election, Macphail was again elected, this time as a United Farmers of Ontario–Labour MP for the newly formed Grey—Bruce riding, she was allowed to use the party's name after it stopped being a political organization in 1934. She was always a strong voice for rural issues. Macphail was a strong advocate for penal reform and her efforts contributed to the launch of the investigative Archambault Commission in 1936.
The final report became the basis for reform in Canadian penitentiaries following World War II. Macphail's concern for women in the criminal justice system led her, in 1939, to found the Elizabeth Fry Society of Canada, named after British reformer Elizabeth Fry. Causes she championed included pensions for workers' rights. Macphail was the first Canadian woman delegate to the League of Nations in Geneva, where she worked with the World Disarmament Committee. Although a pacifist, she voted for Canada to enter World War II. In the 1940 election, she was defeated. With the death of United Reform MP for Saskatoon City, Walter George Brown, a few days after the election, Macphail was recruited by the United Reform Movement to run in the by-election to fill the seat. On August 19, she was defeated by Progressive Conservative candidate Alfred Henry Bence, he received 4,798 votes. It was her last federal campaign as a candidate. Macphail was a frequent contributor to newspapers in Grey County such as the Flesherton Advance acting as a correspondent or ambassador to the rest of the country.
She wrote dispatches from Parliament about political news of interest to the rural communities back home, contributed columns when she travelled and spoke to citizens in other regions. She wrote a number of pieces for The Farmer's Sun, an Ontario progressive weekly, including a number of reminiscences about rural Ontario history. Out of office, she wrote agricultural columns for The Globe and Mail newspaper in Toronto and contributed pieces about politics to the Newmarket Era. Following a family tragedy in her home town, Macphail moved to the Toronto suburb of East York and rejoined the Ontario CCF in 1942 becoming its farm organizer. In the 1943 provincial election, Macphail was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Ontario as a member of the Ontario CCF representing the suburban Toronto riding of York East, she and Rae Luckock were the first women elected to the Ontario Legislature. She was the first woman sworn in as an Ontario Member of Provincial Parliament. Although defeated in the 1945 provincial election, she was elected again in the 1948 election.
Macphail was responsible for Ontario's first equal-pay legislation, passed in 1951, but was unable to continue her efforts when she was defeated in elections that year. At that time, Macphail was able to support herself through journalism, public speaking and organizing for the Ontario CC
Liberal Party of Canada
The Liberal Party of Canada is the oldest and longest-serving governing political party in Canada. The Liberals form the current government, elected in 2015; the party has dominated federal politics for much of Canada's history, holding power for 69 years in the 20th century—more than any other party in a developed country—and as a result, it is sometimes referred to as Canada's "natural governing party". The party espouses the principles of liberalism, sits at the centre to centre-left of the Canadian political spectrum, with the Conservative Party positioned to the centre-right and the New Democratic Party, occupying the left. Like their federal Conservative Party rivals, the party is defined as a "big tent", attracting support from a broad spectrum of voters. In the late 1970s, Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau claimed that his Liberal Party adhered to the "radical centre"; the Liberals' signature policies and legislative decisions include universal health care, the Canada Pension Plan, Canada Student Loans, multilateralism, official bilingualism, official multiculturalism, patriating the Canadian constitution and the entrenchment of Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Clarity Act, making same-sex marriage and cannabis use legal nationwide.
In the 2015 federal election, the Liberal Party under Justin Trudeau had its best result since the 2000 election, winning 39.5 percent of the popular vote and 184 seats, gaining a majority of seats in the House of Commons. The Liberals are descended from the mid-19th century Reformers who agitated for responsible government throughout British North America; these included George Brown, Alexander Mackenzie, Robert Baldwin, William Lyon Mackenzie and the Clear Grits in Upper Canada, Joseph Howe in Nova Scotia, the Patriotes and Rouges in Lower Canada led by figures such as Louis-Joseph Papineau. The Clear Grits and Parti rouge sometimes functioned as a united bloc in the legislature of the Province of Canada beginning in 1854, a united Liberal Party combining both English and French Canadian members was formed in 1861. At the time of confederation of the former British colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, the radical Liberals were marginalized by the more pragmatic Conservative coalition assembled under Sir John A. Macdonald.
In the 29 years after Canadian confederation, the Liberals were consigned to opposition, with the exception of one stint in government. Alexander Mackenzie was the de facto leader of the Official Opposition after Confederation and agreed to become the first official leader of the Liberal Party in 1873, he was able to lead the party to power for the first time in 1873, after the MacDonald government lost a vote of no confidence in the House of Commons due to the Pacific Scandal. Mackenzie subsequently won the 1874 election, served as Prime Minister for an additional four years. During the five years the Liberal government brought in many reforms, which include the replacement of open voting by secret ballot, confining elections to one day and the creation of the Supreme Court of Canada, the Royal Military College of Canada, the Office of the Auditor General; however the party was only able to build a solid support base in Ontario, in 1878 lost the government to MacDonald. The Liberals would spend the next 18 years in opposition.
In their early history, the Liberals were the party of opposition to imperialism. The Liberals became identified with the aspirations of Quebecers as a result of the growing hostility of French Canadians to the Conservatives; the Conservatives lost the support of French Canadians because of the role of Conservative governments in the execution of Louis Riel and their role in the Conscription Crisis of 1917, their opposition to French schools in provinces besides Quebec. It was. Laurier was able to capitalize on the Tories' alienation of French Canada by offering the Liberals as a credible alternative. Laurier was able to overcome the party's reputation for anti-clericalism that offended the still-powerful Quebec Roman Catholic Church. In English-speaking Canada, the Liberal Party's support for reciprocity made it popular among farmers, helped cement the party's hold in the growing prairie provinces. Laurier led the Liberals to power in the 1896 election, oversaw a government that increased immigration in order to settle Western Canada.
Laurier's government created the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta out of the North-West Territories, promoted the development of Canadian industry. Until the early part of the century, the Liberal Party was a loose, informal coalition of local and regional bodies with a strong national party leader and caucus but with an informal and regionalized extra-parliamentary organizational structure. There was no national membership of the party, an individual became a member by joining a provincial Liberal party. Laurier called the party's first national convention in 1893 in order to unite Liberal supporters behind a programme and build the campaign that brought the party to power in 1896; as a result of the party's defeats in the 1911 and 1917 federal elections, Laurier attempted to organize the party on a national level by creating three bodies: the Central Liberal Information Office, the National Liberal Advisory Committee, the National Liberal Organization Committee. Howev
Cabinet of Canada
The Cabinet of Canada is a body of ministers of the Crown that, along with the Canadian monarch, within the tenets of the Westminster system, forms the government of Canada. Chaired by the prime minister, the Cabinet is a committee of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada and the senior echelon of the Ministry, the membership of the Cabinet and ministry being co-terminal. For practical reasons, the Cabinet is informally referred to either in relation to the prime minister in charge of it or the number of ministries since Confederation; the current cabinet is the Trudeau Cabinet, part of the 29th Ministry. The interchangeable use of the terms cabinet and ministry is a subtle inaccuracy that can cause confusion; the government of Canada, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is defined by the constitution as the Queen acting on the advice of her Privy Council. However, the Privy Council—composed of former members of parliament and former chief justices of Canada, other elder statesmen—rarely meets in full.
This body of ministers of the Crown is the Cabinet, which has come to be the council in the phrase Queen-in-Council. One of the main duties of the Crown is to appoint as prime minister the individual most to maintain the confidence of the House of Commons; the prime minister thereafter heads the Cabinet. The Queen is informed by her viceroy of the acceptance of the resignation of a prime minister and the swearing-in of a new ministry, she remains briefed through regular communications from her Canadian ministers and holds audience with them whenever possible; the governor general appoints to the Cabinet persons chosen by the prime minister—John A. Macdonald once half-jokingly listed his occupation as cabinet maker. For instance, there is a minister from each province in Canada, ministers from visible minority groups, female ministers and, while the majority of those chosen to serve as ministers of the Crown are Members of Parliament, a Cabinet sometimes includes a senator as a representative of a province or region where the governing party won few or no ridings.
Efforts are further made to indulge interest groups that support the incumbent government and the party's internal politics must be appeased, with Cabinet positions sometimes being a reward for loyal party members. It is not necessary for Cabinet members to have a position in parliament although they are always selected from the House of Commons. From time to time, a senator may be included; as with other Westminster derived governments, but unlike the United States Cabinet, the size and structure of the Canadian Cabinet is malleable, the slate of Cabinet positions tending to be restructured periodically, the last major period of realignment occurring between 1993 and 1996. Throughout the 20th century, Cabinets had been expanding in size until the Cabinet chaired by Brian Mulroney, with a population of 40 ministers. Mulroney's successor, Kim Campbell, reduced this number, Jean Chrétien eliminated 10 members of the ministry from the Cabinet, so that by 1994 there were a total of 23 persons in Cabinet.
Under the chairmanship of Paul Martin, the number increased again to 39, in the vicinity of which it has remained. Cabinet itself—or full Cabinet—is further divided into committees; the Treasury Board, overseeing the expenditure of the sovereign's state funds within every department, is one of the most important of these, as is the Priorities and Planning Committee referred to as the inner Cabinet, the body that sets the strategic directions for the government, approves key appointments, ratifies committee memberships. Other Cabinet committees include: Operations, Social Affairs, Economic Growth and Long-Term Prosperity, Foreign Affairs and Security and Energy Security; each committee is chaired by a senior minister whose own portfolio intersects with the mandate of the committee he or she is chairing. Each minister of the Crown is responsible for the general administration of at least one government portfolio and heads a corresponding ministry or ministries, known in Canada as departments or agencies.
The most important minister, following the first minister, is the Minister of Finance, while other high-profile ministries include foreign affairs, industry and health. The official order of precedence does not follow the same pattern, with ministers being listed in the order of their appointment to the Privy Council or, if appointed to the Privy Council on the same day, in order of election or appointment to parliament. Unique positions in Cabinet are those such as Leader