Deputy Premier of Queensland
The Deputy Premier of Queensland is a role in the Government of Queensland assigned to a responsible Minister in the Australian state of Queensland. It has second ranking behind the Premier of Queensland in Cabinet, its holder serves as Acting Premier during absence or incapacity of the Premier; the Deputy Premier may either be appointed by the Premier during the cabinet formation process, or may be elected by caucus. Due to the contingent role of the Deputy Premier, they without exception always have additional ministerial portfolios; until December 1974, although the role carried the same responsibilities it was never formally recognised or titled as such. Government of Queensland Politics of Queensland Premiers of Queensland
Judiciary of Australia
The judiciary of Australia comprises judges who sit in federal courts and courts of the States and Territories of Australia. The High Court of Australia sits at the apex of the Australian court hierarchy as the ultimate court of appeal on matters of both federal and State law; the large number of courts in Australia have different procedural powers and characteristics, different jurisdictional limits, different remedial powers and different cost structures. Under the Australian Constitution, federal judicial power is vested in the High Court of Australia and such other federal courts as may be created by the federal Parliament; these courts include the Federal Court of Australia, the Federal Circuit Court of Australia, the Family Court of Australia. Federal jurisdiction can be vested in State courts; the Supreme Courts of the states and territories are superior courts of record with general and unlimited jurisdiction within their own state or territory. They can try any justiciable dispute, whether it be for money or not, whether it be for $1 or $1 billion.
Like the Supreme Courts, the Family Court and Federal Court are superior courts of record, which means that they have certain inherent procedural and contempt powers. But unlike their Supreme Court counterparts, their subject matter jurisdiction must be granted by statute. Under the doctrine of "accrued jurisdiction", the Federal Court can, rule on issues outside its explicit jurisdiction, provided that they are part of a larger matter that the court does have jurisdiction over; the High Court has limited trial powers, but rarely exercises them. It has ample power to transfer cases started there to another, more appropriate court, so that the High Court can conserve its energies for its appellate functions. Common law and equity are administered by the same courts, in a manner similar to that of the Supreme Court of Judicature Act 1873. Legal and equitable remedies may be pursued in the one action in the one court. Judges are appointed without intervention by the existing judiciary. Once appointed, judges have tenure and there are restrictions on their removal from office.
For example, a federal judge may not be removed from office except by the Governor-General upon an address of both Houses of Parliament for proved misbehavior. Judges in Australia are appointed by the Executive government of the relevant jurisdiction, most judges have practised as a barrister. Federal judges may only serve until age 70. There is no constitutional limit on the length of service of State court judges, but State laws fix a retirement age. For example, in New South Wales, judges must retire at age 72, though they can remain as "acting judges" until age 76; the hierarchy consists of a variety of courts and tribunals at both the federal and state and territory levels, with the High Court being the highest court in the Australian judicial system. A single body of Australian common law is applied in the various Australian courts, determined by the High Court now that appeals to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council have been abolished; the High Court has described the concept of a superior court as having'no ready application in Australia to federal courts.'
Despite this, Australian courts are characterised as either'superior' or'inferior.' The Federal Court and the Supreme Courts of each State and Territory are considered to be superior courts. There is no single definition of the term'superior court'. In many respects Australian superior courts are similar to the Senior Courts of Wales. In Australia, superior courts generally: have unlimited jurisdiction in law and equity, or at least are not subject to jurisdictional limits as to the remedies they may grant. Inferior courts are those beneath superior courts in the appellate hierarchy, are seen to include the Magistrates and District Court of each State as well as the Federal Circuit Court. Inferior courts are characterised by: jurisdiction conferred by statute and limited as to subject matter or the quantum of relief; these courts among them have jurisdiction over Commonwealth law, that is, law made by the Federal parliament of Australia. The High Court is the highest court in Australia, it was created by section 71 of the Constitution.
It has appellate jurisdiction over all other courts. It has some original jurisdiction, has the power of constitutional review; the High Court of Australia is the superior court to all federal courts, is the final route of appeal from all state superior courts. Appeals to the High Court are by special leave only, granted. Therefore, for most cases, the appellate divisions of the Supreme Courts of each state and territory and the Federal Court are the ultimate appellate courts; the Full Court of the High Court is the ultimate appeal court for Australia. Appeals from Australian courts to the Privy Council were possible, however the Privy Council Act 1968 closed off all appeals to the Privy Council in matters involving federal legislation, the Privy Council Act 1975 closed all routes of appeal from the High Court; the Australia Act 1986 elimi
Leader of the Opposition (Queensland)
This is a list of Leaders of the Opposition in Queensland. Prior to 1898, opposition to the government of the day was less organised, thus the Queensland Parliamentary Record does not designate Leaders of the Opposition before then. The Leader is responsible for managing the Opposition and has a role in administering the Legislative Assembly through the Committee of the Legislative Assembly. Notes1 On 2 April 2011, Campbell Newman was elected to lead the LNP into the 2012 Queensland state election, but was not recognised as the Leader of the Opposition as he was not a Member of Parliament during the 53rd Parliament. Opposition Leaders from 1898. Queensland Parliamentary Record
Local Court of New South Wales
The Local Court of New South Wales is the lowest court in the judicial hierarchy of the Australian state of New South Wales. Known as the Court of Petty Sessions and the Magistrates Court, there are more than 160 branches across New South Wales where the Local Court has jurisdiction to deal with the majority of minor civil and criminal matters. Matters are heard before a single magistrate sitting without a jury, addressed as "Your Honour" or "Sir"; the Local Court has no jurisdiction for claims in equity. On appeal, matters may be heard by the District Court of New South Wales including appeals against the sentence or conviction decided in the Local Court; the Chief Magistrate of the Local Court is Judge Graeme Henson, appointed in 2006. In 1788, following the landing of the First Fleet and establishment of the Colony of New South Wales, the power and authority of the first criminal and civil courts in the Colony of New South Wales were vested by the Charter of Justice; the first Local Court courthouse was constructed in 1821 at Windsor, 56 kilometres northwest of Sydney.
The Local Court of New South Wales hears civil matters of a monetary value of up to $100,000. In addition to this, the Local Court, via its Small Claims Division, hears claims for less than $10,000 and hears applications for Apprehended Violence Orders; the local court has limited jurisdiction under the Family Law Act 1975 to hear and determine family law matters. The local court can deal with applications such as property settlements and residence orders. A magistrate can imprison offenders for no more than two years per sentence and no more than the maximum of five years for multiple sentences; the Children's Court is a division within the Local Court that hears matters involving minors, or those that have not yet reached the age of 18, is a closed court. The press may not publish the identity of the offender; the Coroner's Court is another division within the Local Court that investigates violent or unnatural deaths, suspicious fires and/or explosions, but it cannot make orders to punish offenders.
Coroners may, terminate their proceedings and pass on their findings onto state or federal Directors of Public Prosecutions for initiation of proceedings in another court at their discretion. Courthouses in New South Wales List of New South Wales courts and tribunals Victims Compensation Tribunal Official website Practice Notes - Local Courts New South Wales Chief Magistrate - Local Courts New South Wales
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as primary legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process; the members of a legislature are called legislators. In a democracy, legislators are most popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are used for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber. Names for national legislatures include "parliament", "congress", "diet", "assembly", depending on country; each chamber of the legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a certain number of legislators present to carry out these activities; some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of a few of the members of the chamber.
The members of a legislature represent different political parties. Legislatures vary in the amount of political power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries and executives. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures; the German Bundestag, the Italian Parliament, the Mongolian State Great Khural tied for most powerful, while Myanmar's House of Representatives and Somalia's Transitional Federal Assembly tied for least powerful. Some political systems follow the principle of legislative supremacy, which holds that the legislature is the supreme branch of government and cannot be bound by other institutions, such as the judicial branch or a written constitution; such a system renders the legislature more powerful. In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.
On the other hand, according to the separation of powers doctrine, the legislature in a presidential system is considered an independent and coequal branch of government along with both the judiciary and the executive. Legislatures will sometimes delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies. Legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators. A legislature contains a fixed number of legislators. For example, a legislature that has 100 "seats" has 100 members. By extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can be described as a "seat", as, example, in the phrases "safe seat" and "marginal seat". A legislature may debate and vote upon bills as a single unit, or it may be composed of multiple separate assemblies, called by various names including legislative chambers, debate chambers, houses, which debate and vote separately and have distinct powers. A legislature which operates as a single unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, one divided into three chambers is tricameral.
In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house, while the other is considered the lower house. The two types are not rigidly different, but members of upper houses tend to be indirectly elected or appointed rather than directly elected, tend to be allocated by administrative divisions rather than by population, tend to have longer terms than members of the lower house. In some systems parliamentary systems, the upper house has less power and tends to have a more advisory role, but in others presidential systems, the upper house has equal or greater power. In federations, the upper house represents the federation's component states; this is a case with the supranational legislature of the European Union. The upper house may either contain the delegates of state governments – as in the European Union and in Germany and, before 1913, in the United States – or be elected according to a formula that grants equal representation to states with smaller populations, as is the case in Australia and the United States since 1913.
Tricameral legislatures are rare. Tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary in their size. Among national legislatures, China's National People's Congress is the largest with 2 980 members, while Vatican City's Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7. Neither legislature is democratically elected: the National People's Congress is indirectly elected. Legislature size is a trade off between representation. Comparative analysis of national legislatures has found that size of a country's lower house tends to be proportional to the cube root of its population.
Queensland Police Service
The Queensland Police Service is the principal law enforcement agency responsible for policing the Australian state of Queensland. In 1990, the Queensland Police Force was renamed the Queensland Police Service and the old motto of "Firmness with Courtesy" was changed to "With Honour We Serve"; the headquarters of the Queensland Police Service is located at Brisbane. Commissioner Ian Stewart is the present Commissioner of the Queensland Police Service; the Commissioner reports to the Minister for Police, presently the Hon. Mark Ryan, since 12 December 2017; the Queensland Police marked 150 years of service to the State of Queensland on 1 January 2014. Queensland as a state did not exist until 6 June 1859; the area now called. The colony would have been under the jurisdiction of the New South Wales Police Force up until Queensland established its own police force. Established on 1 January 1864, the Queensland Police started operations with 143 employees, including the first Commissioner of Police D.
T. Seymour; the service had four divisions: Metropolitan Police, Rural Police, Water Police, Native Police. Police worked a seven-day week, although they were entitled to every second Sunday free; the department introduced bicycles in 1895. At the turn of the century there were 845 men and 135 Aboriginal trackers at 256 stations in Queensland. In 1904 the Queensland Police started to use fingerprinting in investigations. In the 1912 Brisbane general strike the Queensland Police were used to suppress striking workers; the first female police officers, Ellen O'Donnell and Zara Dare, were inducted in March 1931 to assist in inquiries involving female suspects and prisoners. Following World War II a number of technological innovations were adopted including radio for communication within Queensland and between state departments. By 1950 the Service had a staff of 10 women police and 30 trackers. In February 1951, a central communication room was established at the Criminal Investigation Branch in Brisbane.
On 14 May 1963, the Juvenile Aid Bureau was established. In 1965 female officers were given the same powers as male officers; the Queensland Police Academy at Oxley, was completed in 1972. Bicycles were phased out in 1975 and more cars and motorcycles were put into service; the Air Wing became operational in 1975 following the purchase of two single-engine aircraft. The decade was a turbulent period in Queensland's political history. Allegations of high-level corruption in both the Queensland Police and State Government led to a judicial inquiry presided over by Tony Fitzgerald; the Fitzgerald Inquiry which ran from July 1987 to July 1989 led to charges being laid against many long-serving police, including Jack Herbert, Licensing Branch Sergeant Harry Burgess, Assistant Commissioner Graeme Parker and Commissioner Terry Lewis. Lewis served ten and a half years; the Fitzgerald Inquiry led to a perjury trial against former Premier Joh Bjelke-Petersen, which ended with a hung jury. The Director of Public Prosecutions elected not to pursue a retrial due to Bjelke-Petersen's age and health.
It was revealed that the jury foreman for the trial was a member of the Young Nationals and identified with the "friends of Joh" movement. The Criminal Justice Commission was established in 1989 by the Queensland Criminal Justice Act 1989, following widespread corruption amongst high-level Queensland politicians and police officers being uncovered in the Fitzgerald Inquiry, it has since merged in 2002 with the Queensland Crime Commission to form the Crime and Misconduct Commission. The Criminal Justice Commission was responsible for significant research into the Queensland Police Service. A new computerised message switching system was put into use throughout Queensland in 1980. At the time it was one of the most effective police communication systems in Australia; the Police Powers and Procedures Act 1997 was passed by the Queensland Government on 1 July 1997 and took effect 6 April 1998. Law enforcement equipment introduced in the 1990s include oleoresin capsicum spray, the Smith & Wesson revolver firearm and the Glock semi-automatic pistol, the long 26" baton to the 21" extendable baton, linked to hinged handcuffs in 1998, Light Detection and Ranging laser-based detection devices and an Integrated Traffic Camera System in 1999 to enforce traffic speed limits.
The Police Powers and Responsibilities Act 2000 came into force in July 2000 which consolidated the majority of police powers into one Act. The Queensland Police contributed to the national CrimTrac system and the National Automated Fingerprint Identification System, established in 2000; the Crime and Misconduct Act 2001 commenced 1 January 2002 and redefined the responsibilities of the Service and the Crime and Misconduct Commission with respect to the management of complaints. The CMC has a witness protection function; the CMC has investigative powers, not ordinarily available to the Queensland Police, for the purposes of enabling the commission to investigate particular cases of major crime. The CMC has the power to investigate cases of misconduct in the Queensland public sector the more serious cases of misconduct. In 2013, the CMC became Corruption Commission. In 2002 there were 8,367 police officers and 2,925 staff members at 321 stations, 40 Police Beat shopfronts and 21 Neighbourhood Police Beats throughout the state.
By 2004 the Service had grown to 2,994 other staff members. As at 30 June 2016 there were 2,794 other staff members; the Taser conducted electrical weapon was trialled
Queensland Fire and Emergency Services
The Queensland Fire and Emergency Services is the primary provider of fire and emergency services in Queensland. The QFES was established in 2013 to improve the coordination and planning of emergency services, adopting an'all hazards' approach to emergency management. QFES headquarters are located in Brisbane; the Department of Community Safety formally had joint coordination control until the all departments merger in 2014. QFES is responsible to the Department of Fire and Emergency Services under the minister Craig Crawford. Fire and Rescue Service 2014 - Current Queensland Fire and Rescue Service 2001–2013, Queensland Fire and Rescue Authority 1997–2001 and Queensland Fire Service 1990–1997. Rural Fire Service 1927 - Current Queensland State Emergency Service 1974 - Current, Civil Defense Organisation 1961 - 1973The QFES is maintained by a mix of over 2,200 professional Fire and Rescue Service firefighters and more than 2000 Auxiliary Fire and Rescue Service Firefighters, 35,000 Rural Fire Brigade volunteers and 6000 State Emergency Service volunteers.
QFES front-line operations is supported by a number of non-operational administration staff throughout the state. The minister responsible is the Honourable Craig Crawford, Minister for Fire and Emergency Services. QFES is led by Commissioner Katarina Carroll APM, the first Commissioner of the combined department model since its inception in 1990. Prior to this the department had a Director-General and each service had a Commissioner or Chief Officer; the QFES is the result of 150 years of evolution in Queensland’s firefighting services. The early years were tough for the Brisbane Fire Brigade and it wasn’t until 1889 that the first firemen was employed; the first legislation for rural fire management was the Act to Prevent the Careless Use of Fire 1865, for urban fire management, the Fire Brigades Act 1876. In 1990, the Queensland Fire Service and the Rural Fires Council were formed replacing the 81 Fire Boards in local government areas and the Rural Fires Board. In 1997, it became the Queensland Fire and Rescue Authority and 2001 saw another name change to the current Queensland Fire and Rescue Service.
In 2013, QFRS merged with EMQ and the Corporate Services Division of the Department of Community Safety to become the Queensland Fire and Emergency Services, encompassing Queensland Fire and Rescue Service,State Emergency Service, Emergency Management and the Rural Fire Service. Each Service within QFES has a rich history The Fire and Rescue Service professional Firefighters ensure a balance between the reduction of risk and enhancement of community resilience, whilst providing effective response and recovery capabilities in the primary hazard response areas of: fire and explosion; the Queensland Fire and Emergency Services provides specialist personnel with the skills and ability to provide combat support services for: land, marine and urban search and rescue. Fire and Rescue Service The Fire and Rescue Service is made up of 2000 professional Firefighters and 2000 Auxiliary firefighters that are responsible for responding to every emergency, they are trained and work in a command structure with high standards to ensure safety.
They have a proud history of protecting Queenslanders and are valued by the community. They look after 95 % of the population. To become a Fire and Rescue Service career Firefighter takes years of intense study and training in all disciplines of rescue, structural fires and major emergencies; the Rural Fire Service, made up of 36 000 volunteers 1400 rural fire brigades and around 2400 fire wardens. They are responsible for responding to bushfires and have some land management capability; the current QFES model means that volunteers will support the Fire & Rescue Service in any emergency as required. Fire and Rescue Service professional Firefighters undertake a range of planning and preparation activities throughout the year, they are trained in Structural Firefighting, Wildland fires, high angle rescue, swift water rescue, road crash rescue, confined space rescue, trench rescue and urban search and rescue and Hazardous material mitigation. Fire hazard mitigation and response is the primary role of the Rural Fire Service.
Rural Fire Brigades, in conjunction with Rural Fire Service permanent staff, Fire & rescue Service, local councils, national parks rangers, local landholders, undertake a range of planning and preparation activities throughout the year to ensure communities are well prepared for the fire season. One of these activities is hazard reduction burns. Hazard reduction burns use fire under controlled circumstances to reduce excess vegetation and minimise the potential for bushfires to get out of control. There is an increasing awareness that timely and effective fire prevention and education saves lives and property. Fire and Rescue Service career Firefighters visit many schools and engage in a range of community education activities to ensure the community is prepared for a range of emergencies. Rural Fire Service members deliver a range of community education programs within their communities; the local knowledge held by members of the brigades, along with their knowledge of vegetation fire behaviour and prevention, ensure the rural community gets information and education specific t