Lucius Junius Brutus
Lucius Junius Brutus was the founder of the Roman Republic and traditionally one of the first consuls in 509 BC. This followed his successful overthrow of the Roman monarchy, he was claimed as an ancestor of the Roman gens Junia, including Decimus Junius Brutus and Marcus Junius Brutus, the most famous of Julius Caesar's assassins. Prior to the establishment of the Roman Republic, Rome had been ruled by kings. Brutus led the revolt that overthrew the last king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, after the rape of the noblewoman Lucretia at the hands of Tarquin's son Sextus Tarquinius; the account is from Livy's Ab urbe condita and deals with a point in the history of Rome prior to reliable historical records. Brutus was the son of Tarquinia, daughter of Rome's fifth king Lucius Tarquinius Priscus and sister to Rome's seventh king Tarquinius Superbus. According to Livy, Brutus had a number of grievances against his uncle the king. Amongst them was the fact that Tarquinius had put to death a number of the chief men of Rome, including Brutus' brother.
Brutus avoided the distrust of Tarquinius's family by feigning slow-wittedness. He accompanied Tarquinius's sons on a trip to the Oracle of Delphi; the sons asked the oracle. The Oracle of Delphi responded that the first among them to kiss their mother "shall hold supreme sway in Rome." Brutus interpreted "mother" to mean Gaia, so he kissed the ground. Brutus, along with Spurius Lucretius Tricipitinus, Publius Valerius Publicola, Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus were summoned by Lucretia to Collatia after she had been raped by Sextus Tarquinius, the son of the king Tarquinius Superbus. Lucretia, believing that the rape dishonored her and her family, committed suicide by stabbing herself with a dagger after telling of what had befallen her. According to legend, Brutus grabbed the dagger from Lucretia's breast after her death and shouted for the overthrow of the Tarquins; the four men gathered the youth of Collatia went to Rome where Brutus, being at that time Tribunus Celerum, summoned the people to the forum and exhorted them to rise up against the king.
The people voted for the deposition of the king, the banishment of the royal family. Brutus, leaving Lucretius in command of the city, proceeded with armed men to the Roman army camped at Ardea; the king, with the army, heard of developments at Rome, left the camp for the city before Brutus' arrival. The army received Brutus as a hero, the king's sons were expelled from the camp. Tarquinius Superbus, was refused entry at Rome, fled with his family into exile. According to Livy, Brutus' first act after the expulsion of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was to bring the people to swear an oath never to allow any man again to be king in Rome. Omnium primum avidum novae libertatis populum, ne postmodum flecti precibus aut donis regiis posset, iure iurando adegit neminem Romae passuros regnare; this is, fundamentally, a restatement of the'private oath' sworn by the conspirators to overthrow the monarchy: Per hunc... castissimum ante regiam iniuriam sanguinem iuro, vosque, di, testes facio me L. Tarquinium Superbum cum scelerata coniuge et omni liberorum stirpe ferro igni quacumque dehinc vi possim exsecuturum, nec illos nec alium quemquam regnare Romae passurum.
There is no scholarly agreement. The spirit of the oath inspired Romans including his descendant Marcus Junius Brutus. Brutus and Lucretia's bereaved husband, Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, were elected as the first consuls of Rome. However, Tarquinius was soon replaced by Publius Valerius Publicola. Brutus' first acts during his consulship, according to Livy, included administering an oath to the people of Rome to never again accept a king in Rome and replenishing the number of senators to 300 from the principal men of the equites; the new consuls created a new office of rex sacrorum to carry out the religious duties, performed by the kings. During his consulship the royal family made an attempt to regain the throne, firstly by their ambassadors seeking to subvert a number of the leading Roman citizens in the Tarquinian conspiracy. Amongst the conspirators were two brothers of Brutus' wife Vitellia, Brutus' two sons, Titus Junius Brutus and Tiberius Junius Brutus; the conspiracy was discovered and the consuls determined to punish the conspirators with death.
Brutus gained respect for his stoicism in watching the execution of his own sons though he showed emotion during the punishment. His colleague Collatinus was removed from office for his lack of harshness on the conspirators. Tarquinius again sought to retake the throne soon after at the Battle of Silva Arsia, leading the forces of Tarquinii and Veii against the Roman army. Valerius led the infantry, Brutus led the cavalry. Arruns, the king's son, led the Etruscan cavalry; the cavalry first joined battle and Arruns, having spied from afar
The plebs were, in ancient Rome, the general body of free Roman citizens who were not patricians, as determined by the census. The precise origins of the group and the term are unclear, though it may be that they began as a limited political movement in opposition to the elite which became more applied. In Latin the word plebs is a singular collective noun, its genitive is plebis; the origin of the separation into orders is unclear, it is disputed when the Romans were divided under the early kings into patricians and plebeians, or whether the clientes of the patricians formed a third group. Certain gentes were patrician, as identified by the nomen, but a gens might have both patrician and plebeian branches that shared a nomen but were distinguished by a cognomen, as was the case with the gens Claudia; the 19th-century historian Barthold Georg Niebuhr held that plebeians began to appear at Rome during the reign of Ancus Marcius and were foreigners settling in Rome as naturalized citizens. In any case, at the outset of the Roman Republic, the patricians had a near monopoly on political and social institutions.
Plebeians were excluded from magistracies and religious colleges, they were not permitted to know the laws by which they were governed. Plebeians served in the army, but became military leaders. Dissatisfaction with the status quo mounted to the point that the plebeians engaged in a sort of general strike, a secessio plebis, during which they would withdraw from Rome, leaving the patricians to themselves. From 494 to 287 BC, five such actions during the so-called "Conflict of the Orders" resulted in the establishment of plebeian offices, the publication of the laws, the establishment of the right of plebeian–patrician intermarriage, the opening of the highest offices of government and some state priesthoods to the plebeians and passage of legislation that made resolutions passed by the assembly of plebeians, the concilium plebis, binding on all citizens. During the Second Samnite War, plebeians who had risen to power through these social reforms began to acquire the aura of nobilitas, "nobility", marking the creation of a ruling elite of nobiles that allied the interests of patricians and noble plebeians.
From the mid-4th century to the early 3rd century BC, several plebeian–patrician "tickets" for the consulship repeated joint terms, suggesting a deliberate political strategy of cooperation. Although nobilitas was not a formal social rank during the Republican era, in general, a plebeian who had attained the consulship was regarded as having brought nobility to his family; such a man was a novus homo, a self-made noble, his sons and descendants were nobiles. Marius and Cicero are notable examples of novi homines in the late Republic, when many of Rome's richest and most powerful men—such as Lucullus and Pompeius—were plebeian nobles; some or many noble plebeians, including Cicero and Lucullus, aligned their political interests with the faction of Optimates, conservatives who sought to preserve senatorial prerogatives. By contrast, the Populares, which sought to champion the plebs in the sense of "common people", were sometimes led by patricians such as Julius Caesar and Clodius Pulcher. In the U.
S. military, plebes are freshmen at the U. S. Military Academy, U. S. Naval Academy, Valley Forge Military Academy and College, the Marine Military Academy, the U. S. Merchant Marine Academy, Georgia Military College, California Maritime Academy; the term is used for new cadets at the Philippine Military Academy. Early public schools in the United Kingdom would enrol pupils as "plebeians" as opposed to sons of gentry and aristocrats. In British, Australian, New Zealand and South African English the back-formation pleb, along with the more derived adjectival form plebby, is used as a derogatory term for someone considered unsophisticated or uncultured. Bread and circuses – Figure of speech referring to a superficial means of appeasement Capite censi – The lowest class of citizens of ancient Rome Plebeian Council – The principal assembly of the ancient Roman Republic Proletariat – The class of wage-earners in an economic society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power Roman Republic – Period of ancient Roman civilization Plebgate, a 2012 British political scandal involving the use of the word as a slur Jackson J. Spielvogel.
World History: Journey Across Time. New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Scott Wertsching. What is a Pleb?. Rome: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Ferenczy, Endre. From the Patrician State to the Patricio-Plebeian State. Amsterdam: A. M. Hakkert. Horsfall, Nicholas; the Culture of the Roman Plebs. London: Duckworth. Millar, Fergus; the Crowd In Rome In the Late Republic. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Mitchell, Richard E.. Patricians and plebeians: The origin of the Roman state. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Morstein-Marx, Robert. Mass oratory and political power in the late Roman Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Mouritsen, Henrik. Plebs and politics in the late Roman Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Raaflaub, Kurt A.. Social struggles in Archaic Rome: New perspectives on the conflict of the orders. Oxford: Blackwell. Vanderbroeck, Paul J. J.. Popular leadership and collective behavior in the late Roman Republic. Amsterdam: Gieben. Vishnia, Rachel Feig. State and Popular Leaders In Mid-Republican Rome 241-167 BC.
London: Routledge. Williamson
The Curiate Assembly was the principal assembly during the first two decades of the Roman Republic. During these first decades, the People of Rome were organized into thirty units called "Curiae"; the Curiae were ethnic in nature, thus were organized on the basis of the early Roman family, or, more on the basis of the thirty original Patrician clans. The Curiae formed an assembly for legislative and judicial purposes; the Curiate Assembly passed laws, elected Consuls, tried judicial cases. Consuls always presided over the assembly. While Plebeians could participate in this assembly, only the Patricians could vote. Since the Romans used a form of direct democracy and not elected representatives, voted before each assembly; as such, the citizen-electors had no power, other than the power to cast a vote. Each assembly was presided over by a single Roman Magistrate, as such, it was the presiding magistrate who made all decisions on matters of procedure and legality; the presiding magistrate's power over the assembly was nearly absolute.
The only check on that power came in the form of vetoes handed down by other magistrates, decisions made by presiding magistrates could be vetoed by higher-ranking magistrates. In addition, after 493 BC, any decision made by a presiding magistrate, including one concerning the Curiate Assembly, could be vetoed by a magistrate known as a plebeian tribune, or tribune of the plebs. In the Roman system of direct democracy, primary types of gatherings were used to vote on legislative and judicial matters; the first was the Assembly. The Curiate Assembly was a comitia. Assemblies represented all citizens if they excluded the plebs like the Curiate Assembly did, were used for official purposes, such as for the enactment of statutes. Acts of an Assembly applied to all Roman citizens; the second type of gathering was the Council, a forum where a specific class of citizen met. In contrast, the Convention was an unofficial forum for communication. Conventions were forums where Romans met for specific unofficial purposes, such as, for example, to hear a political speech.
Private citizens who did not hold political office could only speak before a Convention, not before an Assembly or a Council. Conventions were meetings, no legal or legislative decisions could be made in them. Voters always assembled first into Conventions to hear debates and conduct other business before voting, into Assemblies or Councils to vote. A notice always had to be given several days. For elections, at least three market-days had to pass between the announcement of the election, the actual election. During this time period, the candidates interacted with the electorate, no legislation could be proposed or voted upon. In 98 BC, a statute was passed which required a similar three market-day interval to pass between the proposal of a statute and the vote on that statute. During criminal trials, the assembly's presiding magistrate had to give a notice to the accused person on the first day of the investigation. At the end of each day, the magistrate had to give another notice to the accused person, which informed him of the status of the investigation.
After the investigation was complete, a three market-day interval had to elapse before a final vote could be taken with respect to conviction or acquittal. Only one assembly could operate at any given point in time, any session underway could be dissolved if a magistrate "called away" the electors. In addition to the presiding magistrate, several additional magistrates were present to act as assistants, they were available to help resolve procedural disputes, to provide a mechanism through which electors could appeal decisions of the presiding magistrate. There were religious officials either in attendance or on-call, who would be available to help interpret any signs from the gods, since the Romans believed that the gods let their approval or disapproval with proposed actions be known. In addition, a preliminary search for omens was conducted by the presiding magistrate the night before any meeting. On several known occasions, presiding magistrates used the claim of unfavorable omens as an excuse to suspend a session, not going the way they wanted.
On the day of the vote, the electors first assembled into their Conventions for debate and campaigning. In the Conventions, the electors were not sorted into their Curiae. Speeches from private citizens were only heard if the issue to be voted upon was a legislative or judicial matter, then, only if the citizen received permission from the presiding magistrate. If the purpose of the ultimate vote was for an election, no speeches from private citizens were heard, instead, the candidates for office used the Convention to campaign. During the Convention, the bill to be voted upon was read to the assembly by an officer known as a "Herald"; the order of the vote had to be determined. An urn was brought in, lots were cast to determine the sequence by which the Curiae were to vote; the electors were told to break up the Convention. The electors assembled behind a fenced off area and voted by placing a pebble or written ballot into an appropriate jar; the baskets that held the votes were watched by specific officers
The gens Cassia was a Roman family of great antiquity. The earliest members of this gens appearing in history may have been patrician, but all those appearing in times were plebeians; the first of the Cassii to obtain the consulship was Spurius Cassius Viscellinus, in 502 BC. He proposed the first agrarian law, for which he was charged with aspiring to make himself king, put to death by the patrician nobility; the Cassii were amongst the most prominent families of the Republic, they held high office, lasting well into imperial times. Among their namesakes are the Via Cassia, the road to Arretium, the village of Cassianum Hirpinum an estate belonging to one of this family in the country of the Hirpini, their most famous member is an assassin of Julius Caesar alongside Brutus. A possible clue to the origin of the Cassii is the cognomen Viscellinus or Vecellinus, borne by the first of this gens to appear in history, it appears to be derived from the town of Viscellium or Vescellium, a settlement of the Hirpini, mentioned by Titus Livius in connection with the Second Punic War.
The town was one of three captured by the praetor Marcus Valerius Laevinus after they had revolted in 215 BC. Its inhabitants, the Viscellani, are mentioned by Pliny the Elder; this suggests the possibility that the ancestors of the Cassii were from Hirpinum, or had some other connection with Viscellium. The existence of a substantial estate of the Cassii in Hirpinum at a time further supports such a connection. Spurius Cassius Viscellinus, thrice consul at the beginning of the Republic, has traditionally been regarded as a patrician, in part because all of the consuls before 366 BC were supposed to have been patricians; the previous year saw the passage of the lex Licinia Sextia, formally permitting the plebeians to stand for the consulship. However, scholars have long suspected that a number of consuls bearing traditionally plebeian names during the nearly century and a half before this law were in fact plebeians, that the original intent of the lex Licinia Sextia was not to open the consulship to the plebeians, but to require the election of a plebeian consul each year, although this was not permanently achieved for a number of years after its passage.
Viscellinus may thus have been a plebeian, who made enemies of the patricians through his efforts at agrarian reform, his proposed treaty with Rome's allies during his last consulship. However, this point cannot be settled. Many patrician families had plebeian branches, it was common for families to vanish into obscurity for decades or centuries, before returning to prominence in the Roman state. Patricians could be expelled from their order, or voluntarily go over to the plebeians, it may be that the sons of Viscellinus were expelled from the patriciate in lieu of being executed, or that they chose to pass over to the plebeians following their father's betrayal and murder. From the imagery on their coins, it appears that the Cassii had a special devotion to the Aventine Triad of Ceres and Libera, for whom Spurius Cassius Viscellinus built a temple on the Aventine Hill in 494. Libertas, a goddess associated with Liber and Libera features on their coins, she was the emblem of the Liberatores during the Civil War led by Gaius Cassius Longinus and Brutus against Octavian and Mark Antony.
The principal names of the Cassii during the Republic were Lucius and Quintus. The praenomen Spurius is known only from Spurius Cassius Viscellinus, at the beginning of the Republic, while Marcus appears in the first century BC; the chief family of the Cassii in the time of the Republic bears the name of Longinus. A single Caecianus is known, he might have been related to the Longini. The other cognomina during this time are Hemina, Sabaco and Viscellinus. A number of other surnames are found from the final century of the Republic onwards; the famous censor Lucius Cassius Longinus used the agnomen Ravilla. This list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation. Spurius Cassius Viscellinus, consul in 502, 493, 486 BC, the first magister equitum in 501. Cassii Viscellini, three sons of the consul Viscellinus, whose praenomina are unknown, were spared by the senate after the murder of their father, they or their descendants may have been expelled by the patricians from their order, or have voluntarily passed over to the plebeians.
Quintus Cassius Longinus, military tribune in 252 BC, during the First Punic War. He was deprived of his command following a severe defeat, after engaging the enemy against the orders of the consul, Gaius Aurelius Cotta. Lucius Cassius Q. f. Longinus, son of Quintus Cassius Longinus, the military tribune. Gaius Cassius Longinus, grandfather of Gaius Cassius Longinus, the consul of 171 BC. Gaius Cassius C. f. Longinus, the father of Gaius Cassius Longinus. Gaius Cassius C. f. C. n. Longinus, consul in 171 and censor in 154 BC. Quintus Cassius L. f. Q. n. Longinus, consul in 164 BC, died during his year of office. Lucius Cassius C. f. C. n. Longinus Ravilla, the elder son of the consul of 171, as tribune of the plebs in 137, he passed the third Lex Tabellaria, he was consul in 127, censor in 125 BC. In 113 he was elected special prosecutor to investigate an incest scandal among the vestal virgins. Gaius Cassius C. f. C. n. Longinus, consul in 124 BC.
The gens Minucia was a Roman family, which flourished from the earliest days of the Republic until imperial times. The gens was of patrician origin, but was better known by its plebeian branches; the first of the Minucii to hold the consulship was Marcus Minucius Augurinus, elected consul in 497 BC. The nomen Minucius is confounded with Minicius and Municius; the Minucii gave their name to the street known as the Via Minucia, the Pons Minucius, a bridge on the Via Flaminia, a columned hall on the Campus Martius. The gate known as the Porticus Minucia was named after the consul of 110 BC; the Minucii used the praenomina Marcus, Quintus, Lucius and Gaius. At least one early Minucius bore the praenomen Spurius. Other praenomina appear and only in the final centuries of the Republic; the oldest branch of the family, the Minucii Augurini, were patrician, but in 439 BC Lucius Minucius Augurinus went over to the plebeians, was elected tribune of the plebs. His descendants included the consul of 305 BC and several tribunes of the plebs.
The surname was derived from the position of an important priest specializing in divination. The college of augurs was held in high esteem, membership was restricted to the patricians until 300 BC; some of the early Augurini bore the additional cognomen Esquilinus because they lived on the Esquiline Hill. Surnames of the gens included Rufus and Basilus; the Minucii Rufi and Thermi appear from the latter part of the third century BC until the second half of the first century AD. Rufus means "red" and originally referred to someone with red hair. Thermus, a borrowing from Greek, might refer to hot springs; the Minucii Basili appear only in the final century of the Republic. Their surname is derived from basileus, the Greek word for "king." Although written Basilius, the best manuscripts give Basilus. A number of plebeian Minucii had no cognomen; this list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation. Marcus Minucius Augurinus, consul in 497 BC, the year that the Saturnalia was instituted at Rome, the Temple of Saturn dedicated.
During his second consulship in 491, he defended Gaius Marcius Coriolanus, to no avail. When Coriolanus returned at the head of a Volscian army, Minucius was one of the emissaries sent to meet with him. Publius Minucius Augurinus, consul in 492 BC, negotiated to purchase grain from various cities, in order to alleviate a famine at Rome. Lucius Minucius P. f. M. n. Esquilinus Augurinus, consul in 458 BC, commanded the Roman forces against the Aequi, but allowed himself to become surrounded, he was rescued by the dictator Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, who compelled him to resign the consulship. In 439, as praefectus annonae, he attempted to alleviate a famine by purchasing grain supplies from abroad and regulating grain prices. For his actions, the other patricians accused him of treason, designing to make himself king. Quintus Minucius P. f. M. n. Esquilinus Augurinus, consul in 457 BC. Given the command against the Sabines, he found the enemy safely shut within the walls of their towns, so ravaged the countryside.
Tiberius Minucius Augurinus, consul in 305 BC, at the end of the Second Samnite War. In some accounts, he was slain in battle. Marcus Minucius Augurinus, tribune of the plebs in 216 BC, introduced the bill for the creation of the triumviri mensarii. Gaius Minucius Augurinus, tribune of the plebs in 187 BC, accused Scipio Asiaticus of misappropriating part of the indemnity paid by Antiochus; when Scipio refused to give security, Minucius ordered his arrest, prevented through the intervention of Minucius' colleague, Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus. Tiberius Minucius Augurinus Molliculus, praetor peregrinus in 180 BC, died during the pestilence which visited Rome in that year. Gaius Minucius C. f. Augurinus, triumvir monetalis in 135 BC. Tiberius Minucius C. f. Augurinus, triumvir monetalis in 134 BC, younger brother of Gaius, like him a Popularis. Marcus C. f. C. n. Minucius Rufus, consul in 221 BC, was magister equitum to the dictator Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus in 217, he disagreed with the dictator's strategy, defeated part of Hannibal's army, whereupon he asked the senate to grant him authority equal to the dictator's.
He was slain at Cannae in 216. Quintus Minucius, the legate of Marcus Claudius Marcellus during the siege of Capua in 210 BC, should be identified with Quintus Minucius Rufus, the consul of 197. Quintus Minucius C. f. C. n. Rufus, as praetor in 200 BC, he discovered a conspiracy in Bruttium, he was consul in 197, carried on the war against the Boii, but was refused a triumph by the senate, so celebrated one on the Alban Mount. In 183 he was one of the ambassadors sent to the Gauls. Marcus Minucius Rufus, praetor peregrinus in 197 BC, he subsequently served as one of the commissioners to found a colony at Vibo in Bruttium, was one of the ambassadors sent to Carthage in 193. Titus Minucius Rufus, served in the campaign against Perseus, king of Macedonia, in 171 BC. Marcus Minucius Q. f. Rufus, tribune of the plebs in 121 BC, proposed the repeal of the laws of Gaius Sempronius Gracchus, in which he was opposed by Gracchus himself, he became consul in 110 BC, carried on the war against the barbarians in Thrace, triumphed over the Scordisci and Triballi.
Minucius Rufus, one of the commanders of the Roman fleet in the war against Mithridates. Quintus Minucius Rufus, an eques at Syracuse, who opposed Verres and appeared as one of the witnesses against him. Minuc
The gens Mucia was an ancient and noble patrician house at Rome. The gens is first mentioned at the earliest period of the Republic, but in times the family was known by its plebeian branches; the first of the Mucii to appear in history is Gaius Mucius Scaevola, a young man at the inception of the Roman Republic. According to legend, he volunteered to infiltrate the camp of Lars Porsena, the king of Clusium, who besieged Rome c. 508 BC, who may in fact have captured and held the city for some time. Mucius, armed with a dagger, attempted to assassinate Porsena, but unfamiliar with Etruscan dress, he mistook the king's secretary for the king, was captured. Brought before the king, Mucius declared that he was but one of three hundred Roman men who had sworn to carry out this mission, or die in the attempt; as a show of bravery, it was said that he thrust his right hand into a brazier, stood silently as it burned. Porsena was so impressed by his courage and endurance that Mucius was freed, some traditions held that Porsena withdrew his army in fear of the threat of assassination invented by the young Roman.
The chief praenomina used by the Mucii were Publius and Gaius, all of which were common throughout Roman history. The only major family of the Mucii bore the cognomen Scaevola; this surname is said to have been acquired by Gaius Mucius, who lost the use of his right hand following his attempt on the life of Lars Porsena, was subsequently called Scaevola because only his left hand remained. The similar cognomen, which occurs in other gentes, including among the Junii, is assumed to mean "left handed", Scaevola could be a diminutive form; the only other important cognomen of the Mucii was Cordus, borne by some of the Scaevolae. According to some traditions, Gaius Mucius was surnamed Cordus, assumed the surname Scaevola on account of his deed before Porsena. However, it may be that the tradition concerning his right hand was a addition to the story, intended to explain the descent of the Mucii Scaevolae from one of the heroes of the Republic. Although Gaius Mucius was a patrician, the Mucii Scaevolae were plebeians.
This list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation. Gaius Mucius Scaevola, attempted the life of Lars Porsena, c. 508 BC. Publius Mucius Scaevola, father of the praetor of 215 BC. Quintus Mucius P. f. Scaevola, praetor in 215 BC, received Sardinia as his province, his command there was prolonged for three years. He may have been consul in 220. Publius Mucius Q. f. P. n. Scaevola, consul in 175 BC, triumphed over the Ligures. Quintus Mucius Q. f. P. n. Scaevola, consul in 174 BC. Publius Mucius Scaevola, consul in 133 BC, he was regarded as one of the founders of the ius civile. Publius Licinius Crassus Dives Mucianus, Pontifex Maximus, consul in 131 BC. Quintus Mucius Q. f. Q. n. Scaevola, called the augur, consul in 117 BC. Mucia Q. f. Q. n. the elder daughter of Quintus Mucius Scaevola, the augur, married Lucius Licinius Crassus, the orator, consul in 95 BC, the colleague of Mucia's cousin, Quintus Mucius Scaevola. Tertia Mucia Q. f. Q. n. better known as Mucia Tertia, the younger daughter of the augur, married Gnaeus Pompeius, the triumvir.
Quintus Mucius P. f. Scaevola, son of the Pontifex Maximus, was consul in 95 BC, himself became Pontifex Maximus, he was murdered during the proscription of the younger Marius. Gaius Mucius Scaevola, one of the quindecimviri sacris faciundis in 17 BC. Gaius Licinius Mucianus, consul in AD 52, 70, 75. List of Roman gentes De Lingua Latina. Marcus Tullius Cicero, Brutus, De Domo Sua, De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum, De Legibus, De Officiis, De Oratore, Epistulae ad Atticum, Epistulae ad Familiares, Laelius de Amicitia, Pro Balbo, Pro Plancio, Pro Sexto Roscio Amerino, Topica. Titus Livius, History of Rome. Marcus Velleius Paterculus, Compendium of Roman History. Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac Dictorum Memorabilium. Marcus Annaeus Lucanus, Pharsalia. Quintus Asconius Pedianus, Commentarius in Oratio Ciceronis Pro Scauro. Gaius Plinius Secundus, Naturalis Historia. Marcus Fabius Quintilianus, Institutio Oratoria. Flavius Josephus, Bellum Judaïcum.</ref> Publius Cornelius Tacitus, Historiae. Plutarchus, Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans.
Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, De Vita Caesarum. Lucius Annaeus Florus, Epitome de T. Livio Bellorum Omnium Annorum DCC. Appianus Alexandrinus, Bellum Civile. Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae. Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus, Roman History. Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus, Adversus Jovinianum. Digesta seu Pandectae. Joannes Zonaras, Epitome Historiarum. Gerardus Vossius, De Historicis Latinis, Jan Maire, Brittenburg. Sigmund Wilhelm Zimmern, Geschichte des Römischen Privatrechts bis Justinian, J. C. B. Mohr, Heidelberg. Barthold Georg Niebuhr, The History of Rome, Julius Charles Hare and Connop Thirlwall, trans. John Smith, Cambridge. Wilhelm Drumann, Geschichte Roms in seine
The gens Caecilia was a plebeian family at Rome. Members of this gens are mentioned in history as early as the fifth century BC, but the first of the Caecilii who obtained the consulship was Lucius Caecilius Metellus Denter, in 284 BC. Like other Roman families in the times of the Republic, the Caecilii traced their origin to a mythical personage, the founder of Praeneste, he was said to be the son of Vulcan, engendered by a spark. He was exposed as an infant, but preserved by his divine father, raised by maidens, he grew up amongst the shepherds, became a highwayman. Coming of age, he called upon the people of the countryside to build a new town, convincing them with the aid of a miracle. An alternative tradition claimed that the Caecilii were descended from Caecas, one of the companions of Aeneas, who came with him to Italy after the sack of Troy; the praenomina used by the Caecilii during the Republic are Lucius, Quintus and Marcus. Titus appears only towards the end of the Republic, is not known to have been used by the great house of the Caecilii Metelli.
The cognomina of this gens under the Republic are Bassus, Metellus, Niger and Rufus, of which the Metelli are the best known. From the consulship of Lucius Caecilius Metellus Denter, the family of the Metelli became one of the most distinguished at Rome. In the latter half of the second century BC, it obtained an extraordinary number of the highest offices of the state. Quintus Metellus, consul in 143 BC, had four sons, who were raised to the consulship in succession; the Metelli were distinguished as a family for their unwavering support of the party of the optimates. The etymology of their name is quite uncertain. Festus connects it from mere similarity of sound, with mercenarii; the history of the family is difficult to trace, in many parts conjectural. It is treated at length by Drumann; the victory of the consul L. Caecilius Metellus against Hasdrubal's elephants at Panormus in 251 seems to have left a durable impression on the Caecili Metelli, as many of them featured an elephant on the coins they minted.
In fact, elephants are so used on their coins that it might have become their emblem. This list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation. Gaius Caecilius, grandfather of Lucius Caecilius Metellus, the consul of 251 BC, the father of Lucius Caecilius Metellus Denter, consul in 284. Lucius Caecilius Metellus Denter, consul in 284 and praetor in 283 BC, slain in battle against the Senones. Lucius Caecilius L. f. C. n. Metellus, consul in 251 and 247 BC, during the First Punic War, afterward Pontifex Maximus. Lucius Caecilius L. f. L. n. Metellus, tribune of the plebs in 213 BC degraded by the censors for proposing to abandon Italy and establish a new colony after the Battle of Cannae. Quintus Caecilius L. f. L. n. Metellus, consul in 206 BC, during the Second Punic War. Marcus Caecilius L. f. L. n. Metellus, praetor urbanus in 206 BC. Quintus Caecilius Q. f. L. n. Metellus, surnamed Macedonicus, triumphed over Andriscus, became consul in 143 BC, censor in 131.
Lucius Caecilius Q. f. L. n. Metellus, surnamed Calvus, consul in 142 BC. Quintus Caecilius Q. f. Q. n. Metellus, consul in 123 and censor in 120 BC, conquered the Balearic Islands, receiving the surname Balearicus, founded several cities there. Lucius Caecilius L. f. Q. n. Metellus, surnamed Dalmaticus, consul in 119, triumphed over the Dalmati, became Pontifex Maximus. Lucius Caecilius Q. f. Q. n. Metellus, surnamed Diadematus, consul in 117 BC and censor in 115 BC. Marcus Caecilius Q. f. Q. n. Metellus, consul in 115 BC, triumphed over the Sardinians. Gaius Caecilius Q. f. Q. n. Metellus, surnamed Caprarius, consul in 113 and censor on 102 BC, triumphed over the Thracians. Caecilia Q. f. Q. n. Metella, married Gaius Servilius Vatia. Caecilia Q. f. Q. n. Metella, married Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica Serapio. Quintus Caecilius L. f. Q. n. Metellus, surnamed Numidicus, consul in 109 and censor in 102 BC, triumphed over Jugurtha. Caecilia L. f. Q. n. Metella, wife of Lucius Licinius Lucullus, mother of the younger Lucullus, the conqueror of Mithridates.
Quintus Caecilius Q. f. Q. n. Metellus, surnamed Nepos, consul in 98 BC. Caecilia Q. f. Q. n. Metella, married Appius Claudius Pulcher, praetor in 88 BC. Caecilia L. f. L. n. Metella, married first Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, consul in 115 BC, second Lucius Cornelius Sulla, the dictator. Quintus Caecilius Q. f. L. n. Metellus, surnamed Pius, one of Sulla's most successful generals, consul in 80 BC, Pontifex Maximus. Gaius Caecilius Metellus, a junior senator circa 80 BC. Quintus Caecilius Metellus, surnamed Creticus, consul in 69 BC, triumphed over the Cretans. Lucius Caecilius Metellus, consul in 68 BC, died at the beginning of his year of office. Marcus Caecilius Metellus, praetor in 69 BC. Quintus Caecilius Metellus Creticus quaestor circa 60 BC. with Gaius Trebonius. Quintus Caecilius Q. f. Q. n. Metellus, surnamed Celer, consul in 60 BC. Quintus Caecilius Q. f. Q. n. Metellus Nepos, consul in 57 BC. Quintus Caecilius Q. f. Metellus Pius Scipio, the son of Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica, adopted by Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius.
Lucius Caecilius Metellus, tribunus plebis in 49 BC, opposed Caesar's attempt to take possession of the sacred treasury. Marcus Caecilius Metellus, mentioned by Cicero in 60 BC. Quintus Caecil