Dormition Cathedral, Moscow
The Cathedral of the Dormition known as the Assumption Cathedral or Cathedral of the Assumption is a Russian Orthodox church dedicated to the Dormition of the Theotokos. It is located on the north side of Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin in Russia, where a narrow alley separates the north from the Patriarch's Palace with the Twelve Apostles Church. Separately in the southwest separated by a narrow passage from the church, is the Palace of Facets; the Cathedral is regarded as the mother church of Muscovite Russia. In its present form it was constructed between 1475–79 at the behest of the Moscow Grand Duke Ivan III by the Italian architect Aristotele Fioravanti. From 1547 to 1896 it was. In addition, it is the burial place for most of the Moscow Metropolitans and Patriarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church and it serves as a part of Moscow Kremlin Museums. Archaeological investigations in 1968 indicated that the site of the present Cathedral was a medieval burial ground, supporting the hypothesis that a wooden church existed on the site in the 12th century.
This was replaced by a limestone structure built around 1326, mentioned in historical records. In the 14th century, Metropolitan Peter persuaded Ivan I that he should build a cathedral to the Theotokos in Moscow like the Cathedral of the Dormition in the capital city Vladimir. Construction of the cathedral began on August 4, 1326, the cathedral was finished and consecrated on August 4, 1327. At that time Moscow became the capital of the Vladimir-Suzdal' principality. By the end of the 15th century the old cathedral had become dilapidated, in 1472 the Moscow architects Kryvtsov and Myshkin began construction of a new cathedral. Two years in May 1474, the building was nearing completion when it collapsed due to earthquake. Following the disaster, Ivan III invited Aristotele Fioravanti, a celebrated architect and engineer from Bologna, Italy, to come to Moscow and entrusted him with the task of designing the cathedral from scratch in the traditions of Russian architecture; the Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir was once again taken as a model for the building, so Fioravanti travelled to Vladimir in order to study Russian methods of building.
He designed a light and spacious masterpiece that combined the spirit of the Renaissance with Russian traditions. The foundation for the new cathedral was laid in 1475, in 1479 the new cathedral was consecrated by Metropolitan Geronty; the interior was painted with frescoes and adorned with many icons, including the Theotokos of Vladimir and Blachernitissa. The design of the new church, with its five domes proved immensely popular, was taken as a template for numerous other churches throughout Russia. In 1547 the coronation of the first Russian Tsar, Ivan the Terrible, took place in this cathedral. From 1721 it was the scene of the coronation of the Russian emperors; the ritual installation of metropolitans and patriarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church took place in this cathedral, their tombs are to be found here. The cathedral suffered from many disasters in its history, including fires in 1518, 1547, 1682 and 1737, looting under the armies of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Time of Troubles in 1612.
During the French occupation of Russia, it was used as a horse stable. It was restored in 1894-1895 and from 1910-1918. On November 21, 1917, the cathedral was the setting for the installation of Tikhon, the Metropolitan of Moscow, as the first patriarch of the restored Patriarchate of Moscow. However, following the 1917 Russian Revolution, the new Bolshevik government closed all churches in the Moscow Kremlin, converted the cathedral into a museum. By special permission from Vladimir Lenin, the last Pascha was held in 1918; the final moment of this Paschal service was the subject of an unfinished painting by Pavel Korin entitled Farewell to Rus. Most of the church treasures were sold overseas. There is a legend that in the winter of 1941, when the Nazi Germany had reached the threshold of Moscow, Joseph Stalin secretly ordered a service to be held in the Dormition Cathedral to pray for the country's salvation from the invading Germans; the building was repaired in 1949/50, 1960 and 1978. In 1990 the Dormition Cathedral was returned to the church for periodic religious services, shortly before the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
It was restored to the Russian Orthodox Church in 1991. Dormition Cathedral is a tremendous six-pillared building with five domes, it was modeled after the Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir, in that it made extensive use of limestone masonry on a high limestone base, was laid out as a three nave church with a vaulted cross-dome. It is built of well-trimmed white-stone blocks. However, Fioravanti did not use cantilever vaults as was common in Russian architecture, but introduced groin vaults and transverse arches. For the upper portion of the building, he used specially-made bricks, larger than the standard Russian size, which reduced weight and allowed for more slender arch supports. Thus, the easternmost pair of columns in front of the apses are Russian in the use of massive rectangular open piers, whereas the remaining four are simpler Corinthian columns; the slim shape of these columns contributes to the light, spacious effect of the interior. Inside, the church decoration is dominated by its fresco painting.
The huge iconostasis dates from 1547, but its two highest tiers are additions from 1626 and 1653/1654 under Patriarch Nikon. In addition to its litu
Russian architecture follows a tradition whose roots lies in Kievan Rus'. After the fall of Kiev, Russian architectural history continued in the principalities of Vladimir-Suzdal, the succeeding states of the Tsardom of Russia, the including architecture); the great churches of Kievan Rus', built after the adoption of Christianity in 988, were the first examples of monumental architecture in the East Slavic region. The architectural style of the Kievan state, which established itself, was influenced by Byzantine architecture. Early Eastern Orthodox churches were built from wood, with their simplest form known as a cell church. Major cathedrals featured many small domes, which has led some art historians to infer how the pagan Slavic temples may have appeared. Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod, on the other hand, expressed a new style which exerted a strong influence on Russian church architecture, its austere thick walls, narrow windows, helmeted cupolas have much in common with the Romanesque architecture of Western Europe.
Further departures from the Byzantine model are evident in succeeding Novgorod cathedrals: St Nicholas', St Anthony's, St George's. The secular architecture of Kievan Rus' has survived; until the 20th century only the Golden Gates of Vladimir, despite much 18th-century restoration, could be regarded as an authentic monument of the pre-Mongol period. During the 1940s, archaeologist Nikolai Voronin discovered the well-preserved remains of Andrei Bogolyubsky's palace in Bogolyubovo; the city of Alex preserved its architecture during the Mongol invasion. The first churches were commissioned by the princes; the citizens of 13th-century Novgorod were noted for their shrewdness and prosperity, expanding from the Baltic to the White Sea. The architecture in Novgorod did not begin to flourish until the turn of the 12th century; the Novgorod Sophia cathedral was modeled after the original Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev. Construction was supervised by workmen from Kiev, who imported bricks; the primary building materials were undressed limestone blocks.
It is said. The doors were made of bronze; the katholikon of Yuriev Monastery was commissioned in 1119 by Prince Vsevolod Mstislavovich. The architect was known as Master Peter, one of the few architects who have been recorded at this time in Russia; the exterior is characterized by narrow windows and double-recessed niches, which proceed in a rhythm across the façade. Its pillars are spaced, emphasizing the height of the vaulted ceilings; the interior was covered in frescoes from the prince’s workshops, including some of the rarest Russian paintings of the time. The Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior was a memorial to Ilya Muromets. During the Mongol invasion, Ilya was reputed to have saved the city. During this time the city-state of Novgorod established a separate district for the princes, subdividing the city into a series of streets where the church still stands; the church windows are more detailed, the niches deeper and the dome is augmented by a pitched roof. Another church resembling the Church of the Transfiguration is the Church of Saints Peter and Paul in Kozhevniki.
It was constructed in 1406, the primary difference is in building material. The detail is focused on south facades. New ornamental motifs in the brick appear at this time. Brick was used for the pilasters which delineate the façade, it was plastered, but underwent restoration after it was damaged during World War II. Its apse points towards the river, which provides a welcome sight for ships approaching from the Baltic; the shingled roof resembles the bochka roofs popular at the time. The walls were built from local quarrystone; the ground plan of the church is square with four pillars, one apse and one dome. Russian architecure is a mix of Pagan architecture; some characteristics taken from the Slavic pagan temples are the exterior galleries and the plurality of towers. Between the 6th and the 8th century, the Slavs built fortresses, named grods, which were constructed wooden mechanisms of separation; the Mongols looted the country so that capitals could not afford new stone churches for more than half a century.
Novgorod and Pskov escaped the Mongol yoke and evolved into successful commercial republics. The churches of Novgorod, are steep-roofed and carved; the tiny and picturesque churches of Pskov feature many novel elements: corbel arches, church porches, exterior galleries and bell towers. All these features were introduced by Pskov masons to Muscovy, where they constructed numerous buildings during the 15th century; the 14th-century churches of Muscovy are few, their ages are disputed. Typical monuments—found in Nikolskoe and Kolomna —are diminutive single-dome
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
The Neglinnaya River known as Neglinka, Neglimna, is a 7.5-km long underground river in the central part of Moscow and a tributary of the Moskva River. It flows in the tunnels under Samotechnaya Street, Tsvetnoy Boulevard, Neglinnaya Street and Alexander Garden and Zaryadye; the Neglinnaya discharges into the Moskva River through two separate tunnels near Bolshoy Kamenny Bridge and Bolshoy Moskvoretsky Bridge. The river in its natural state used to flow from the northern parts of Moscow to the south across the centre of the city; the Kremlin was built on a hill east of the Neglinnaya, using the river as a moat. The moat did not stop foreign invasions, but slowed down development of territories west of the Kremlin; when Muscovites began settling on the western side, territories around the Neglinnaya remained vacant due to frequent flooding. Muscovites constructed a number of dams, creating a chain of six interconnected ponds, used for firefighting, with watermills, forges and public baths. There were four bridges across the Neglinnaya River: Voskresensky Bridge, three-span Kuznetsky Bridge, Troitsky Bridge and Petrovsky Bridge.
The first plans to rebuild the Neglinnaya River, presented in 1775, materialized in 1792. A new masonry canal, one sazhen wide, was laid parallel to the Neglinnaya. After the Fire of Moscow, the canal was so polluted that the city cleared it and covered with a masonry vault, creating the first Neglinnaya Tunnel; this formed present-day Neglinnaya Street and Theatre Square. Before centralised city sewage, the tunnel doubled as a sewer, dumping the refuse into the Moskva river; the first reconstruction replaced part of the tunnel with a larger pipe, but was terminated by World War I. This new pipe, designed by engineer Schekotov, was adequate by any standard, could suffice, if completed in full length. Narrow cross-section of old pipe, could not accommodate the volume of water during high water and freshets, flooding central streets. In 1966, the city built a second arm for the Neglinnaya River. In 1974—1989, after the 1973 flood, the city built a new 4-kilometer tunnel, 3.47 metres high and 4.90 metres wide, from Durova Street to Metropol Hotel.
The old tunnel was re-used as a cable conduit. Present-day ponds on Manezhnaya Square are not an imitation; the real river runs too deep to be properly displayed. The area is dotted with diminutive statues on subjects taken from Russian fables designed by Zurab Tsereteli. Contractors report with photographs of 1965 flood www.mosinzhproekt.ru Russia Today image gallery
Grand Duchy of Moscow
The Grand Duchy of Moscow, Muscovite Rus' or Grand Principality of Moscow was a Rus' principality of the Late Middle Ages centered around Moscow, the predecessor state of the Tsardom of Russia in the early modern period. The state originated with Daniel I, who inherited Moscow in 1283, eclipsing and absorbing its parent duchy of Vladimir-Suzdal by the 1320s, it annexed the Novgorod Republic in 1478 and the Grand Duchy of Tver in 1485. After the Mongol invasion of Rus', Muscovy was a tributary vassal to the Mongol-ruled Golden Horde until 1480. Muscovites and other inhabitants of the Rus' principality were able to maintain their Slavic and Orthodox traditions for the most part under the Tatar Yoke. There was strong contact and cultural exchange with the Byzantine Empire. Ivan III further consolidated the state during his 43-year reign, campaigning against his major remaining rival power, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, by 1503 he had tripled the territory of his realm, adopting the title of tsar and claiming the title of "Ruler of all Rus'".
By his marriage to the niece of the last Byzantine emperor, he claimed Muscovy to be the successor state of the Roman Empire, the "Third Rome". The emigration of the Byzantine people influenced and strengthened Moscow's identity as the heir of the Orthodox traditions. Ivan's successor Vasili III enjoyed military success, gaining Smolensk from Lithuania in 1512, pushing Muscovy's borders to the Dniepr River. Vasili's son Ivan IV was an infant at his father's death in 1533, he was crowned in 1547, assuming the title of tsar together with the proclamation of Tsardom of Russia. As with many medieval states the country had no particular "official" name, but rather official titles of the ruler. "The Duke of Moscow" or "the Sovereign of Moscow" were common short titles. After the unification with the Duchy of Vladimir in the mid-14th century, the dukes of Moscow might call themselves "the Duke of Vladimir and Moscow", as Vladimir was much older than Moscow and much more "prestigious" in the hierarchy of possessions, although the principal residence of the dukes had been always in Moscow.
In rivalry with other duchies Moscow dukes designated themselves as the "Grand Dukes", claiming a higher position in the hierarchy of Russian dukes. During the territorial growth and acquisitions, the full title became rather lengthy. In routine documents and on seals, various short names were applied: "the Duke of Moscow", "the Sovereign of Moscow", "the Grand Duke of all Rus'", "the Sovereign of all Rus'", or ""the Grand Duke" or "the Great Sovereign". In spite of feudalism the collective name of the Eastern Slavic land, Rus', was not forgotten, though it became a cultural and geographical rather than political term, as there was no single political entity on the territory. Since the 14th century various Moscow dukes added "of all Rus'" to their titles, after the title of Russian metropolitans, "the Metropolitan of all Rus'". Dmitry Shemyaka was the first Moscow duke who minted coins with the title "the Sovereign of all Rus'". Although both "Sovereign" and "all Rus'" were supposed to be rather honorific epithets, since Ivan III it transformed into the political claim over the territory of all the former Kievan Rus', a goal that the Moscow duke came closer to by the end of that century, uniting eastern Rus'.
Such claims raised much opposition and hostility from its main rival, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which controlled a large portion of the land of ancient Rus' and hence denied any claims and the self-name of the eastern neighbour. Under the Polish-Lithuanian influence the country began to be called Muscovy in Western Europe; the first appearances of the term were in an Italian document of 1500. Moscovia was the Latinized name of the city of Moscow itself, not of the state; the term Muscovy persisted in the West until the beginning of the 18th century and is still used in historical contexts. When the Mongols invaded the lands of Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, Moscow was an insignificant trading outpost in the principality of Vladimir-Suzdal. Although the Mongols burnt down Moscow in the winter of 1238 and pillaged it in 1293, the outpost's remote, forested location offered some security from Mongol attacks and occupation, while a number of rivers provided access to the Baltic and Black Seas and to the Caucasus region.
More important to the development of the state of Moscow, was its rule by a series of princes who expanded its borders and turned a small principality in the Moscow River Basin into the largest state in Europe of the 16th century. The first ruler of the principality of Moscow, Daniel I, was the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky of Vladimir-Suzdal, he started to expand his principality by seizing Kolomna and securing the bequest of Pereslavl-Zalessky to his family. Daniel's son Yuriy controlled the entire basin of the Moskva River and expanded westward by conquering Mozhaisk, he forged an alliance with the overlord of the Rus' principalities, Uzbeg Khan of the Golden Horde, married the khan's sister. The Khan allowed Yuriy to claim the title of Gran
A rotunda is any building with a circular ground plan, sometimes covered by a dome. It can refer to a round room within a building; the Pantheon in Rome is a famous rotunda. A Band Rotunda is a circular bandstand with a dome; the rotunda has historical and architectural value because it was widespread in medieval Central Europe. A great number of parochial churches were built in this form in the 9th to 11th centuries CE in Central Europe; this type of circular shaped parochial building can be found in great number in Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia Austria, Bavaria and the Czech Republic. It was thought of as a structure descending from the Roman Pantheon. However, it can be found not on former Roman territories, but in Central Europe, its size was 6–9 meters inner diameter and the apsis was directed toward the east. Sometimes 3 or 4 apsides were glued to the central circle and this type has relatives in the Caucasus. Several types of rotundas are found in the Carpathian Basin, within the former boundaries of Kingdom of Hungary.
The role and form developed from gradual enlargements of ancient small village churches. Many of them still stand today, e.g. in Nagytótlak, Kallósd and Kissikátor in Hungary or in Bíňa and Šivetice in Slovakia. In many places the ancient foundations have conserved; the village church of Sárospatak is complete with an eastern apse. The church of Alagimajor at Dunakeszi was enlarged toward the apse in the 14th century. More significant enlargement of the central rotunda is seen at Isaszeg where the extension extended toward the East and West. In many cases the rotunda was used as the apse of the village's new and larger church; such semi-circle apses are preserved all over the Carpathian Basin. Rotundas of six apses, a most interesting form, are found at Karcsa, Kiszombor in Hungary, at Horjany in Ukraine and several places in Armenia. There is an interesting connection between Central European and Caucasian rotundas of the 9th to 11th centuries AD. Several Armenian built rotunda churches have sixfold arched central apsis, i.e. at Aragatz, Bagnayr, Kiagmis Alti in Armenia.
At the same time eightfold arched central buildings are frequently occurring in Armenia: Ani, Varzhahan. It was a suggestion that there was not only western European but Eastern Caucasian relation for architects of Hungary in this age of King Stephen I of Hungary. Temple of Heaven construction completed on 1420 during Yongle Emperor who constructed Forbidden City of China. Fujian Tulou is a traditional rural dwellings of the Hakka in Fujian region of China, they are built between the 20th centuries. Baptistery at the Piazza dei Miracoli, Italy. Pantheon, Italy built as a temple to the seven deities of the seven planets in the state religion of Ancient Rome; the Church of the Rotonda in Thessaloniki, built as the "Tomb of Galerius" in 306 AD. St George Rotunda in Sofia, Bulgaria, a 4th-century Early Christian church. St. George Cathedral Church at Zvartnots, Armenia. St. Martin's Rotunda in Vyšehrad Castle, Czech Republic. Rotunda of St Marija Assunta in Mosta, Malta. Temple Church in London; the Ducal Rotunda of the Virgin Mary and St Catherine in Znojmo, Czech Republic.
Chausathi Yogini temples in India at Hirapur and Morena Bahá'í House of Worship in Willmette, Illinois, USA. The Rotunda in Aldershot in the UK, built in 1876 and demolished in the 1980s Ranelagh Gardens in London, built in the 1740s and demolished in 1805, it was painted by Canaletto. Pantheon, opened 1772, demolished in 1937; the leisure centre at Fort Regent, in St Helier, Jersey, a regular venue for shows and events The internal Rotunda in the Michael Maddox Petrovsky Theatre, Moscow. Gate Theatre in Dublin, Ireland. Roundhouse in London built in 1847 as a turntable engine shed, it was used as a gin store till being converted into a theatre in the 1960s. Royal Albert Hall in London, England. IMAX Theatre in London, England; the Jackie Robinson Rotunda at Citi Field. Romanian Athenaeum in Bucharest, it is a landmark of the Romanian capital city. Opened in 1888, the ornate, circular building is the city's main concert hall and home of the "George Enescu" Philharmonic and of the George Enescu annual international music festival.
Ohio Stadium in Columbus, built in 1922 Villa Capra "La Rotonda" by the Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio in Vicenza, Italy. Ickworth House in Suffolk, England. Mereworth Castle in Kent, England; the Rotunda in Birmingham, built as an office building in 1964. The Rotunda Building, Virginia, rebuilt in 2007; the Rotunda at the University of Virginia built in 1826. British Museum Reading Room, built in 1857; the Rotunda Museum, North Yorkshire. Dallas Hall at Southern Methodist University, Texas, built in 1911. Stockholm Public Library, built in 1928. Umeå University, Umeå, built in 1972. Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Terminal built in 1933. Science Museum of Virginia built in 1919 Vanderbilt University's Wyatt Center. Drew University's Dorothy Young Center for the Arts built in 2002, opened in 2003; the Campus Activity Centre at Thompson Rivers Un
Charles Cameron (architect)
Charles Cameron was a Scottish architect who made an illustrious career at the court of Catherine II of Russia. Cameron, practitioner of early neoclassical architecture, was the chief architect of Tsarskoye Selo and Pavlovsk palaces and the adjacent new town of Sophia from his arrival in Russia in 1779 to Catherine's death in 1796. All his indisputable tangible works "can be encompassed in a day's tour". Twice dismissed by Paul of Russia during the Battle of the Palaces, Cameron enjoyed a brief revival of his career under Alexander I in 1803–1805. Apart from the well-researched Catherinian period, Cameron's life story remains poorly documented, not in the least due to Cameron's own efforts to shake off the bad reputation he had earned in the 1770s in London. Cameron's British neoclassicism was an isolated episode in Russian architecture dominated by Italian artists. According to his first biographer Georgy Lukomsky, "Cameron remains one of the greatest exponents of British taste and British Art abroad, if he has been so forgotten in his own country, it would seem only right to rectify this omission".
Howard Colvin ranked Cameron "one of the major urban architects of the eighteenth century... an accomplished designer and decorator in a neoclassical style that has affinities with that of Robert Adam. His style is sufficiently individual to exonerate him from the imputation of being an imitator... Although still a Palladian, Cameron was a pioneer of Greek Revival in Russia." Charles Cameron was the son of Walter Cameron, a London carpenter, speculative builder and a member of the London Carpenter's Company. He claimed descent from the Camerons of Lochiel, a Scottish clan involved in the Jacobite rising of 1745. Walter Cameron was friendly with Dr Archibald Cameron, the last Jacobite to be executed for his role in the'45 and a relation of Lochiel. Walter visited Archibald shortly before his execution and may have assisted his wife and children, one of whom was named Charles. Cameron used the Lochiel coat of arms for his personal bookplate, although modern researchers since David Talbot Rice question or deny his claims for Lochiel lineage.
Researchers disagree on the exact year of Cameron's birth, which may be either 1743, 1745 or 1746. Cameron trained in London with the architect Isaac Ware. After Ware's death in 1766 Cameron settled on continuing his late master's work on a new edition of Lord Burlington's Fabbriche Antiche, a project that required personal studies and surveys of ancient Roman architecture, he spent 1767 in London, preparing prints of works by Andrea Palladio, arrived in Rome in 1768. There, he surveyed the Baths of Titus and Nero's Domus Aurea, digging into subterranean remains that were rediscovered only in the 20th century. According to Dmitry Shvidkovsky, Cameron met in Rome with another Charles Cameron, a Jacobite and a true member of the Lochiel clan, "borrowed" the life story of the latter to embellish his own. Cameron returned from Italy around 1769 and published the results of his studies in 1772 under the title The Baths of the Romans explained and illustrated... with proper scientific commentaries in English and French.
Cameron's life between 1769 and his departure to Russia in 1779 remains known. Archives attest to his involvement in only one construction contract in London, for an Adam style building in Hanover Square. Walter Cameron, the main contractor, was ruined by litigation with the property owner and had to sell his son's art collection to raise funds. Charles sued his father, jailed in Fleet Prison for debt. In 1791, when Cameron applied for a membership in the Architect's Club of London, he was barred admission due to this and other episodes that had stained his reputation in England. Catherine's tastes in architecture evolved from Rococo and Gothic Revival architecture in the first decade of her reign to emerging Neoclassicism in the 1780s, she leaned to French variety of neoclassicism mixed with ancient Roman motifs. Catherine the first of European monarchs, realized that the emerging style had the potential to become a definitive form of imperial art, she spared no expense in hiring foreign craftsmen trained in the neoclassical manner.
She instructed Baron Melchior Grimm, her European agent in matters of art and antiques, to hire Italian architects because "the Frenchmen we have here know too much and build dreadful houses – because they know too much." These Italians, Giacomo Quarenghi and the unknown Giacomo Trombara, arrived in Russia after Cameron. Cameron arrived in Russia in 1779 invited by Catherine's agents. Exact details of Cameron's hire remain vague, but on 23 August 1779 an enthusiastic Catherine wrote to Grimm that "At present I am taken with Mr. Cameron, a Scot by nationality and a Jacobite, great draughtsman, well versed in antique monuments and well known for his book on the Baths of Rome. At the moment we are making a garden with him on a terrace..." Catherine wrote that Cameron was raised at the Roman court of the Pretender and that he was a nephew of Jean Cameron of Glen Dessary reflecting a new "romanticized" persona that Cameron assumed in Russia. Cameron settled first in Chernyshev House in Saint Petersburg but soon moved to his own house in Tsarskoye Selo.
Cameron, a Londoner, had no practical experience in landscaping prior to 1779. Peter Hayden suggested that Cameron learned the trade from his father-in-law, John Bush, who worked in T