1955 Singaporean general election
General elections were held in Singapore on 2 April 1955 to elect the 25 elected seats in the Legislative Assembly. Nomination day was on 28 February 1955. Following the promulgation of the Rendel Constitution, the 1955 elections were the first occasion on which a majority of the seats were to be elected rather than be appointed by the colonial authorities; the new constitution was written after recommendations by a committee to grant local citizens more autonomy, headed by George Rendel, were passed. According to the new Constitution, locals would share executive power with the colonial authorities and there would be a Chief Minister among elected legislators; the number of elected seats was increased to 25, with the British government appointing the remaining seven members. The Governor of Singapore and Colonial Secretary posts were replaced by a Chief Secretary, who inherited the power to appoint four nominated Assembly Members. Scrapped were the seats of the Solicitor-General, two directors, two ex-officios, the three commercial organisations and the City Council representative.
For the first time, political parties were permitted to adopt a standard party symbol for all their candidates and independents to select theirs instead of balloting for them. The Progressive Party, representing the English-speaking bourgeois and Democratic Party fielded the largest number of candidates each; the Malay Union, the United Malays National Organisation and the Malayan Chinese Association ran together as the Singapore Alliance after leaving the three-party Labour Front alliance, which had consolidated into a single party. Meanwhile, the Labour Party was a spent force as both AMs had left the party, with one moving to LF and one going independent. A seat was earlier vacated due to the demise of PP's popular C. J. P. Paglar, who died from a stroke. To the chagrin of the British, who had anticipated a PP victory and its leader, Tan Chye Cheng, to emerge as Chief Minister, it was the Labour Front that garnered the most seats and its chairman, David Marshall, thus became Singapore's first Chief Minister.
Although the Labour Front was the largest winning party, it did not have the 13 seats to command a majority in the Legislative Assembly. As a result, Marshall had to seek a coalition with the Singapore Alliance which had collected three seats. In its first elections, the newly formed People's Action Party, led by lawyer and former Progressive Party election agent Lee Kuan Yew, chose to field only a handful of candidates to protest against the Rendel Constitution and became the main opposition party after winning nearly all its contested seats. List of Singaporean electoral divisions Sr, Pugalenthi Elections in Singapore VJ Times International Pte Ltd, Singapore ISBN 981-221-025-3 General Elections 1955 Singapore Elections
Legislative Council of Singapore
The Legislative Council of the Colony of Singapore was a Legislative Council in Singapore that assisted the Governor in making laws in Singapore. It came into existence in 1946, when the Repeal Act abolished the Straits Settlements, Singapore became a Crown Colony on its own that would need its own Legislative Council. Based on existing systems in place when the council operated under the Straits Settlements, it was opened for public voting in 1948, before being replaced by the Legislative Assembly in 1953; the Legislative Council of the Straits Settlements was formed on 1 April 1867 when the Straits Settlements was made a Crown Colony that answered directly to the Secretary of State for the Colonies in London, instead of the Calcutta government based in India. Letters patent granted a Colonial Constitution on 4 February, which allocated much power to the governor, he is assisted by an Executive Council and Legislative Council, the latter of, entrusted with law-making in the colony, although the governor had a casting vote and the power of assent and veto on all bills.
The Legislative Council was composed of members in the Executive Council, the chief justice, non-official members nominated by the governor. These nominated members were intended to better represent the local people, including in its ranks Asian members. Wealthy Asian business and professional leaders, they were not a fair representation of the locals, however. Starting with four members, it started to grow through the years, with Singaporean members dominating the council to the displeasure of the politicians from Malacca and Penang. Despite this control by British subjects of European race, the local Asian population was apathetic about such control. There have been a few exceptions. Tan Cheng Lock, a member of the Executive Council and who had opposed several policies made by the Legislative Council, such as the Aliens Ordinance of 1933 which restricted immigration as anti-Chinese, called for direct popular representation through popular votes, to increase the number of non-official members to form a majority in the Legislative Council.
Initiatives like these were unsuccessful, when there is little support from wider society who are apathetic to local politics, with the Chinese population paying more attention towards growing their commercial and professional interests, in the events occurring back in China, fueled by the rise in Chinese nationalism sentiments. After World War II, the Repeal Act of 1946 dissolved the Straits Settlements, with Singapore becoming a Crown Colony on its own while Penang and Malacca joined the Malayan Union; the effects of the war led to major changes in attitudes towards the British colonial government with the drop in confidence in their ability to govern and protect Singapore, a resulting desire to have greater say and participation in local affairs. With mounting local pressure, a new Colonial Constitution was passed, with the Singapore Colony Order-in-Council of 1946 to 1948 providing for public voting to take place for the first time with the first general election of 1948. Elected members of the Legislative Council were restricted to only 6 non-official members and voting was only open to adult British subjects who have been residents in Singapore for at least a year before the elections.
The rest of the 13 non-officials included four nominated members by the governor and three by the chambers of commerce. Nine official members complete the council; the governor continued to exercise significant power, included the right to veto bills by the council. Legislative Council of the Straits Settlements Legislative Assembly of Singapore Parliament of Singapore The road to Singaporean independence Timeline of Parliament Singaporean history
Singapore the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23%; the country is known for its transition from a developing to a developed one in a single generation under the leadership of its founder Lee Kuan Yew. In 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the company's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, it gained independence from the British Empire in 1963 by joining Malaysia along with other former British territories, but separated two years over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965.
After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global hub for education, finance, human capital, logistics, technology, tourism and transport; the city ranks in numerous international rankings, has been recognised as the most "technology-ready" nation, top International-meetings city, city with "best investment potential", world's smartest city, world's safest country, second-most competitive country, third least-corrupt country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, the second-busiest container port. The Economist has ranked Singapore as the most expensive city to live in, since 2013, it is identified as a tax haven. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".
Singapore ranks 9th on the UN Human Development Index with the 3rd highest GDP per capita. It is placed in key social indicators: education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety and housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied. According to the Democracy Index, the country is described as a "flawed democracy"; the city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, its cultural diversity is reflected in major festivals. Pew Research has found. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, continues to shape national policies in education, politics, among others. Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government; the People's Action Party has won every election since self-government began in 1959. As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council Secretariat, as well as many international conferences and events.
It is a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations. The English name of Singapore is an anglicisation of the native Malay name for the country, in turn derived from Sanskrit, hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City, its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols. However, it is unlikely that lions lived on the island. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is established; the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE "island at the end" in Malay. Singapore is referred to as the Garden City for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence, the Little Red Dot for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot. Singapore is referred to as the "Switzerland of Asia" in 2017 due to its neutrality on international and regional issues; the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy identified a place called Sabana in the general area in the second century, the earliest written record of Singapore occurs in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of Pu Luo Chung.
This was itself a transliteration from the Malay name "Pulau Ujong", or "island at the end". The Nagarakretagama, a Javanese epic poem written in 1365, referred to a settlement on the island called Tumasik. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama. Although the historicity