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List of Smithsonian museums

The Smithsonian museums are the most visible part of the United States' Smithsonian Institution and consist of 20 museums and galleries as well as the National Zoological Park. 17 of these collections are located in Washington D. C. with 11 of those located on the National Mall. The remaining ones are in Chantilly, Virginia; the Arts and Industries Building, is only open for special events, its newest museum building, the National Museum of African American History and Culture, opened in 2016. The birth of the Smithsonian Institution can be traced to the acceptance of James Smithson's legacy, willed to the United States in 1826. Smithson died in 1829, in 1836, President Andrew Jackson informed Congress of the gift, which it accepted. In 1838, Smithson's legacy, which totaled more than $500,000, was delivered to the United States Mint and entered the Treasury. After eight years, in 1846, the Smithsonian Institution was established; the Smithsonian Institution Building was completed in 1855 to house an art gallery, a library, a chemical laboratory, lecture halls, museum galleries, offices.

During this time the Smithsonian was a learning institution concerned with enhancing science and less interested in being a museum. Under the second secretary, Spencer Fullerton Baird, the Smithsonian turned into a full-fledged museum through the acquisition of 60 boxcars worth of displays from the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia; the income from the exhibition of these artifacts allowed for the construction of the National Museum, now known as the Arts and Industries Building. This structure was opened in 1881 to provide the Smithsonian with its first proper facility for public display of the growing collections; the Institution grew until 1964 when Sidney Dillon Ripley became secretary. Ripley managed to expand the institution by eight museums and increased admission from 10.8 million to 30 million people a year. This period included the greatest and most rapid growth for the Smithsonian, it continued until Ripley's resignation in 1984. Since the completion of the Arts and Industries Building, the Smithsonian has expanded to twenty separate museums with 137 million objects in their collections, including works of art, natural specimens, cultural artifacts.

The Smithsonian museums are visited by over 25 million people every year. 11 of the 20 Smithsonian Institution museums and galleries are at the National Mall in Washington D. C. the open-area national park in Washington, D. C. running between the Lincoln Memorial and the United States Capitol, with the Washington Monument providing a division west of the center. Six other Smithsonian museums including the National Zoo are located elsewhere in Washington. Two more Smithsonian museums are located in New York City and one is located in Chantilly, Virginia; the Smithsonian holds close ties with 171 museums in 41 states, as well as Panama and Puerto Rico. These museums are known as Smithsonian Affiliates. Collections of artifacts are given to these museums in the form of long-term loans from the Smithsonian; these long-term loans are not the only Smithsonian exhibits outside the Smithsonian museums. The Smithsonian has a large number of traveling exhibitions; each year more than 50 exhibitions travel to hundreds of cities and towns all across the United States.

Year museum moved to current building Smithsonian Institution website Smithsonian Affiliated Museums

Harry Earnshaw

Harold Earnshaw, Harry "Shake" Earnshaw, was an English racing cyclist from Yorkshire. In 1938 he was acclaimed as the British Best All-Rounder when his three best event performances were aggregated into 399 miles at 22.627 mph. His achievements were celebrated in 1939 when Cycling Weekly awarded him his own page in the Golden Book of Cycling, now held in'The Pedal Club' archive. Harry Earnshaw was a natural athlete and cyclist, he worked as a coal-miner from school-leaving age until 1938. Harry was given the nickname "Shake" by a visiting uncle. Who after reading a popular magazine called "Fragments", within its pages were a series of cartoons featuring a sergeant-major glaring at a new recruit shouting "Before you come on parade tomorrow, Shakespeare get your hair cut." Turning to the young Harry, who had a good thick crop of dark hair, he said "Shakespeare, get your hair cut". This was adopted as his nickname and over the years, Shakespeare was shortened to "Shake" a name that stayed with him all his life.

Earnshaw started road racing in 1935 when he was 18 years old, winning his first event, 25-miles in 1 hour 18 minutes despite several delays, a fall and mechanical damage. He was renowned as a tough, uncomplaining rider, coping with mechanical and physical set-backs. In 1936 the'Monckton Cycling Club', sponsored by Carlton Cycles* of Worksop, won the team section of the British Best All-Rounder and Earnshaw was fifth in the individual listing. Although Carlton Cycles may have supplied machines on favourable terms to certain riders in the club, the rules governing amateur status were so strict that it was forbidden to allow the makers name to be shown in any photographs of the rider. There was no such thing as a sponsored club in those days. In 1938, the R. T. T. C; the governing body of this branch of the sport, issued an edict prohibiting amateur racing cyclists who were staff employees of cycle manufacturers from appearing on their trade stands at the National Cycle Show. It is alleged that the ban on names being shown led to the development of certain unique frame designs to circumvent this.

In the 1937 British Best All-Rounder, Earnshaw improved to third overall whilst Monckton C. C. again won the team prize. He won the'Sheffield Phoenix 25 mile Time Trial in 1 hour, 1 minute 46 seconds. In 1938 Earnshaw won the British Best All-Rounder with the record average speed of 22.627 mph. This was reward for his victory in the Westerley 100-mile competition in a record time of 4 hours 20 minutes 48 seconds, plus two seasons best performances of 50-miles in 2 hours 4 minutes 21 seconds and 249 miles in 12 hours. Harry Earnshaw's achievements were celebrated in 1938 when Cycling Weekly awarded him his own page in the Golden Book of Cycling. In his senior years he became an accomplished after dinner speaker, but came the sad news of his multiple amputations, a decision, made due to the clotting of the arteries in his legs, the result of which confined him to a wheelchair. Harry died on Thursday, 16 May 1985 aged 69

Keith Smith (Australian footballer)

Keith Smith was a leading Australian rules footballer of the 1930s and 40s, playing for South Melbourne in the Victorian Football League. Born in South Melbourne, the 178 cm tall Smith was recruited by South Melbourne from Victorian Football Association side Port Melbourne. Described as a pacy and skillful player, Smith made his debut against Melbourne, it was to be his only match that year but returned in 1937 to become a regular member of the South Melbourne side for the rest of the 1930s. Prior to the 1945 VFL season, Smith had sought to return to Port Melbourne to finish his career but his application for a transfer was refused by South Melbourne. Smith decided to play one more season at South but there were suggestions that Smith was not pleased with the South Melbourne hierarchy; this was brought into the open on 13 July 1945 when the South Melbourne committee suspended Smith and South Melbourne captain Herbie Matthews for disciplinary reasons after they refused to play in the Round 12 match against St Kilda because of the positions they had been selected in.

Matthews, who played in the centre, had been named on the half forward flank and stated that he would play only if he was named in the centre. When South Melbourne coach Bull Adams dropped Matthews from the side, he asked Smith, named as an emergency, to replace Matthews. Smith refused. Smith and Matthews were suspended indefinitely but after a meeting with officials, returned to the side after missing only one match. Smith was selected on a half forward flank for the 1945 VFL Grand Final against Carlton, he kicked South Melbourne's first goal of the game, kicking two for the match in a losing cause injuring both thighs, was considered one of South's best. Reported for striking Jim Mooring during the violent last quarter, Smith was found not guilty after Mooring concurred that Smith did not strike him. Smith moved to Dimboola to play out his career. Shaw, I. Bloodbath, Melbourne. ISBN 1-920769-97-8