This is a list of Swedish kings, queens and viceroys of the Kalmar Union. The earliest record of what is considered to be a Swedish king appears in Tacitus' work Germania, c. 100 AD. However, due to scant and unreliable sources before the 11th century, lists of succession traditionally start in the 10th century with king Olof Skötkonung, his father Eric the Victorious, who were the first Swedish kings to be baptized. There are, lists of Swedish pagan monarchs with far older dates, but in many cases these kings appear in sources of disputed historical reliability; these records notably deal with the legendary House of Yngling, based on the Danish chronicler Saxo Grammaticus, Eric the Victorious and Olof Skötkonung have been classified as belonging to the Swedish house of Ynglings, tracing them back to Sigurd Hring and Ragnar Lodbrok. However, according to Icelandic sources this line of kings was broken; as there is no evidence that Eric and Olof used the Yngling name themselves, modern historians instead refer to their family as the House of Munsö, the Old Dynasty or the House of Uppsala.
In the 16th century, Johannes Magnus constructed a mythical line of Swedish kings, beginning with Magog, the son of Japheth, to demonstrate the antiquity of the Swedish throne. On the basis of that list, Eric XIV and Charles IX chose to use high ordinals. In contemporary Swedish usage, medieval kings are not given any ordinal at all. A list of Swedish monarchs, represented on the map of the Estates of the Swedish Crown, created by French engraver Jacques Chiquet and published in Paris in 1719, starts with Canute I and shows Eric XIV and Charles IX as Eric IV and Charles II while the only Charles who holds his traditional ordinal in the list is Charles XII, being the highest enumerated. Sweden has been ruled by queens regnant on three separate occasions: by Margaret and Ulrika Eleonora and earlier by a female regent Duchess Ingeborg. In addition to the list below, the Swedish throne was claimed by the kings of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1599 to 1660. Following his abdication Sigismund continued to claim the throne from 1599 to his death in 1632.
After his death the claim was continued by Vladislaus IV and John II Casimir. The Swedish monarchs have been of the House of Bernadotte since 1818, based on the Swedish Act of Succession of 1810; the Constitution of 1809 assumed that the monarch would appoint his Cabinet as he saw fit, but growing calls for democratisation during the end of the 19th century made such an idea impossible to sustain. 1917 marks the end of any real political power for the Swedish monarch. The Constitution of 1974 codifies this development by removing all decision-making powers from the monarch, making it both de facto and de jure a ceremonial position, today the Government has the chief executive power, not the king. In 1980, the rule of succession was changed from agnatic to absolute primogeniture, to the benefit of Princess Victoria, the current heir apparent. For lists of the prehistoric kings of Sweden see List of legendary kings of Sweden House of Stenkil House of Estridsen House of Eric House of Sverker House of Bjelbo House of Bjelbo House of Estridsen House of Wittelsbach The House of Bjelbo is sometimes referred to as the House of Folkung House of Estridsen House of Wittelsbach House of Oldenburg House of Bjelbo House of Vasa House of Wittelsbach House of Oldenburg House of Wittelsbach House of Oldenburg House of Hesse House of Hesse House of Wittelsbach House of Oldenburg House of Bernadotte House of Hesse Constitution of Sweden Dominions of Sweden Government of Sweden Kings of Sweden family tree Lands of Sweden Line of succession to the Swedish Throne List of Swedes List of Swedish consorts List of Swedish governments List of Swedish military commanders List of Swedish politicians Politics of Sweden Prime Minister of Sweden Provinces of Sweden Realm of Sweden Riksdag, Riksdag of the Estates Royal mottos of Swedish monarchs Swedish monarchs family tree List of Danish monarchs List of Norwegian monarchs List of Estonian rulers List of Finnish rulers List of Greenlandic rulers List of rulers of Iceland Pomeranian rulers Lists of incumbents
The Rosa'George Burns' is a yellow and red striped Floribunda rose cultivar, developed in the United States by Tom Carruth in 1996. The rose was introduced in 1997 by Spring Hill Nurseries.'George Burns' was created by American rose breeder, Tom Carruth, in 1996. and introduced into the United States in 1997 by Spring Hill Nurseries. In 2019, the rose was introduced in Australia under ` Glamourpuss', by Swane's Nursery; the stock parents of'George Burns' are the pink-blend hybrid tea rose cultivar,'Calico' and the red-blend hybrid tea rose,'Roller Coaster'. A Grandiflora rose cultivar,'Rock & Roll' was developed by Carruth in 2006, by crossing'George Burns' and'New Zealand'.'George Burns' is a compact, repeat-blooming shrub, 3 to 4 ft in height and a 2 to 3 ft spread. Blooms are 4 in in diameter on average, can have 26 to 40 petals in small clusters. Flowers are ruffled with a citrus-like fragrance. Blooms are full with stripes and splashes of color changing from lemon yellow and deep red to rose pink and cream.
Cooler temperatures bring out the yellow hues in the rose.'George Burns' is a disease resistant plant with dark, glossy green foliage. Garden roses Rose Hall of Fame List of Award of Garden Merit roses
The fish family Psychrotidae contains about 40 recognized species in 9 genera. This family consists of bottom-dwelling marine sculpins shaped like tadpoles, with large heads and bodies that taper back into small, flat tails; the skin is loosely attached and movable, the layer underneath it is gelatinous. The eyes are placed high on the head, focused forward closer to the tip of the snout. Members of the family have small, leaf-like pectoral fins and lack scales, although some species are covered with soft spines; this is important to the species as the depths in which they live are low pressure and they are ambush/opportunistic/foraging predators that do not expend energy unless they are forced to. The blobfish has a long, broad tongue and conical teeth that are recurved and are arranged in bands in irregular rows along the premaxillaries. Teeth are nonexistent on vomer; the blobfish has a set of specialized pharyngeal teeth that are well developed and paired evenly along the upper and lower portions of the pharyngeal arch.
These specialized teeth may aid in the breakdown of food due to the strategic dependency on whatever food falls from above. They are found in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, they are found in depths ranging from 3000–17000 meters. The adults live on the sea floor, between 1,000 and 28,000 m deep, The intense biological pressure to conserve energy within deep sea fish seems to be true across many species. In this case the blobfish can live to be 130 years old. Categorized as the predator of the deep sea they have no real predatorily issues, their name is derived from the Greek psychrolouteo, meaning "to have a cold bath". They tend to live in colder waters; the blob sculpin, Psychrolutes phrictus, exhibits complex nesting behaviors complete with egg guarding. Reproductively the blobfish have been seen gathering in large numbers to lay their pinkish eggs in a single surrounding nesting area; the number of eggs laid within one nest can range from 9,000 to 108,000. Another observation of the parental care of the blobfish is.