Albrecht von Haller
Albrecht von Haller was a Swiss anatomist, naturalist, encyclopedist and poet. A pupil of Herman Boerhaave, he is referred to as "the father of modern physiology." Haller was born into an old Swiss family at Bern. Prevented by long-continued ill-health from taking part in boyish sports, he had more opportunity for the development of his precocious mind. At the age of four, it is said, he expound the Bible to his father's servants; when still hardly fifteen he was the author of numerous metrical translations from Ovid and Virgil, as well as of original lyrics, an epic of four thousand lines on the origin of the Swiss confederations, writings which he is said on one occasion to have rescued from a fire at the risk of his life, however, to burn them a little with his own hand. Haller's attention had been directed to the profession of medicine while he was residing in the house of a physician at Biel after his father's death in 1721. While still a sickly and excessively shy youth, he went in his sixteenth year to the University of Tübingen, where he studied under Elias Rudolph Camerarius Jr. and Johann Duvernoy.
Dissatisfied with his progress, he in 1725 exchanged Tübingen for Leiden, where Boerhaave was in the zenith of his fame, where Albinus had begun to lecture in anatomy. At that university he graduated in May 1727, undertaking in his thesis to prove that the so-called salivary duct, claimed as a recent discovery by Georg Daniel Coschwitz, was nothing more than a blood-vessel. In 1752, at the University of Göttingen, Haller published his thesis discussing the distinction between "sensibility" and "irritability" in organs, suggesting that nerves were "sensible" because of a person's ability to perceive contact while muscles were "irritable" because the fiber could measurably shorten on its own, regardless of a person's perception, when excited by a foreign body. In 1757, he conducted a famous series of experiments to distinguish between nerve impulses and muscular contractions. Haller visited London, making the acquaintance of Sir Hans Sloane, William Cheselden, John Pringle, James Douglas and other scientific men.
It was during his stay there that his interest in botany was awakened. From a literary point of view the main result of this, the first of his many journeys through the Alps, was his poem entitled Die Alpen, finished in March 1729, appeared in the first edition of his Gedichte; this poem of 490 hexameters is important as one of the earliest signs of the awakening appreciation of the mountains, though it is chiefly designed to contrast the simple and idyllic life of the inhabitants of the Alps with the corrupt and decadent existence of the dwellers in the plains. In 1729 he began to practice as a physician, he became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1743, a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1747, was ennobled in 1749. The quantity of work achieved by Haller in the seventeen years during which he occupied his Göttingen professorship was immense. Apart from the ordinary work of his classes, which entailed the task of newly organizing a botanical garden, an anatomical theatre and museum, an obstetrical school, similar institutions, he carried on without interruption original investigations in botany and physiology, the results of which are preserved in the numerous works associated with his name.
He continued to persevere in his youthful habit of poetical composition, while at the same time he conducted a monthly journal, to which he is said to have contributed twelve thousand articles relating to every branch of human knowledge. He warmly interested himself in most of the religious questions, both ephemeral and permanent, of his day. Like his mentor Boerhaave, Haller was a Christian and a collection of his religious thoughts can be read in a compilation of letters to his daughter. Notwithstanding all this variety of absorbing interests, Haller never felt at home in Göttingen. Haller made important contributions to botanical taxonomy that are less visible today because he resisted binomial nomenclature, Carl Linnaeus's innovative shorthand for species nam
1876 in poetry
Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature. February 24 – Première of first stage production of the poetic drama Peer Gynt by Henrik Ibsen with incidental music by Edvard Grieg, in Christiania, Norway. Robert Bridges, The Growth of Love Robert Browning and How He Worked in Distemper. A copy fell into the hands of one James F. Ryder, a Cleveland, publisher who recognized its awful majesty and soon republished it under the title The Sweet Singer of Michigan Salutes the Public. Ryder sent out numerous review copies to newspapers across the country, with a cover letter filled with low key mock praise, and so Moore received national attention. Following Ryder's lead, contemporary reviews were amusedly negative. For instance, The Rochester Democrat wrote of Sweet Singer, that "Shakespeare, could he read it, would be glad that he was dead …. If Julia A. Moore would kindly deign to shed some of her poetry on our humble grave, we should be but too glad to go out and shoot ourselves tomorrow."
Toru Dutt, A Sheaf Gleaned in French Fields: Verse Translations and Poems, Calcutta: B. M. Bose.
Jeanne Hersch was a Swiss philosopher of Polish-Jewish origin, whose works dealt with the concept of freedom. She studied under the existentialist Karl Jaspers in Germany in the early 1930s. In 1956, she was appointed to a professorship at the University of Geneva, one of the first women to hold such a post at a Swiss university, holding the post until 1977. From 1966 to 1968 she headed the philosophy division of UNESCO, was a member of its executive commission from 1970 to 1972. In 1968 she edited Le droit d'être un homme, une anthologie mondiale de la liberté in French, an anthology of writings on human rights, republished in French in 1984 and 1990. In 1987, she received the Einstein Medal. Emmanuel Dufour-Kowalski Présence dans le Temps, L'Âge d'Homme Editions, Lausanne, 1999. Biography and her works
1942 in poetry
Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature. March 28 – Spanish poet Miguel Hernández dies of tuberculosis as a political prisoner in a prison hospital having scrawled his last verse on the wall. April 3 – French poet Paul Éluard's poem "Liberté" is first published in the collection Poésie et vérité in Paris. In June it is reprinted by the magazine Fontaine, titled to reach Vichy France, it is published by Éditions de Minuit and printed in London by the official Gaullist magazine La France libre. Thousands of copies are parachuted into Occupied France by aircraft of the British Royal Air Force. October – English poet Keith Douglas takes part in the Second Battle of El Alamein. December – BIM magazine founded in Barbados. American poet George Oppen forces his induction into the U. S. Army. Preview, a small literary magazine, is founded in Canada. First Statement, a mimeographed, small literary magazine, is founded in Canada. French poet André Breton delivers a lecture entitled "Situation du surealisme entre les deux guerres" at Yale University.
Listed by nation where the work was first published and again by the poet's native land, if different. Arthur Bourinot, Canada at Dieppe. Ralph Gustafson ed. Anthology of Canadian Poetry, including work by F. R. Scott, A. M. Klein, A. J. M. Smith, Leo Kennedy, E. J. Pratt, Dorothy Livesay, P. K. Page and Earle Birney. Sri Aurobindo, Collected Poems and Plays, in two volumes, Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram Raul De Loyola Furtado known as Joseph Furtado, Selected Poems, Bombay: published by the author in a limited edition of 100 copies P. R. Kaikini, The Snake in the Moon, Bombay: New Book Co. Poetry in War Time, London: Faber and Faber. Stephen Spender and Visions Dorothy Wellesley, Lost Planet, Other Poems Conrad Aiken, Brownstone Eclogues Stephen Vincent Benét, They Burned the Books John Berryman, Poems R. P. Blackmur, The Second World John Malcolm Brinnin: The Garden Is Political The Lincoln Lyrics Malcolm Cowley, A Dry Season Robert Frost, A Witness Tree Langston Hughes, Shakespeare in Harlem Randall Jarrell, Blood for a Stranger Edna St. Vincent Millay, The Murder of Lidice Kenneth Patchen, The Teeth of the Lion Muriel Rukeyser, Wake Island Karl Shapiro: Person and Thing The Place of Love Wallace Stevens: Parts of a World, includes "The Poems of Our Climate," "The Well Dressed Man with a Beard," and "Examination of the Hero in a Time of War", Knopf Notes Toward a Supreme Fiction, Cummington Press Mark Van Doren, Our Lady Peace Margaret Walker, For My People Robert Penn Warren, Eleven Poems on the Same Theme Edmund Wilson, Notebooks of Night Louise Bennett, Dialect Verses, Caribbean Listed by nation where the work was first published and again by the poet's native land, if different.
Listed alphabetically by first name, regardless of surname: Birendra Chattopadhyay, Grahacyta Dinesh Das, Kabita 1343–48 Jibanananda Das, Banalata Sen Akhtar Ansari Akbarabadi, Urdu Hari Daryani, Sindhi-language K. S. Narasimha Swami, Mysuru Malige, Kannada-language, called "the most famous collection of love poems in Kannada" N. Gopla Pillai, Sita-Vicara-Lahari, transla
Suzanne Curchod was a French-Swiss salonist and writer. She hosted one of the most celebrated salons of the Ancien Régime, she led the development of the Hospice de Charité, a model small hospital in Paris that still exists today as the Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital. She was the wife of French finance minister Jacques Necker, is referenced in historical documents as Madame Necker. Born in May 1737, Curchod was the daughter of Louis Antoine Curchod, Protestant pastor of the Swiss village of Crassier near Lausanne, Magdelaine d'Albert de Nasse; the family was of modest means, but Suzanne was well educated, becoming fluent in Latin and showing aptitude for mathematics and science. Her first salon was a literary group called the Académie des Eaux comprising a circle of Lausanne-based students with Curchod as president. In 1757 Curchod met the historian Edward Gibbon, who fell in love with her, writing in a recollection of their courtship that he "found her learned without pedantry, lively in conversation, pure in sentiment, elegant in manners."
He wished to marry her, but paternal disapproval on both sides, Gibbon's own wavering, Suzanne's refusal to leave Switzerland for England thwarted their plans. Gibbon broke off the engagement in 1762, an event that fell in between the deaths of Curchod's parents in 1760 and 1763. With the loss of income resulting from the death of her father and her mother were left poor, a situation she coped with by giving lessons. After her mother died, she became a companion to a young French widow, Madame de Vermenoux, who took her to Paris around 1763 or 1764. At the time, Madame de Vermenoux was being courted by the ambitious Swiss financier Jacques Necker but was uncertain whether she wanted to remarry at all. Within a few months, Necker turned his attention to Curchod, in 1764 the two were married, they had one child, a daughter named Anne Louise Germaine, the future writer and philosopher now better known as Madame de Staël. In 1776, Madame Necker's husband became Director-General of Finances, head of the French finance ministry under King Louis XVI, a position he gained in spite of the double disadvantage of his Protestant religion and Swiss origins.
He owed much of his success to his wife's salon, where the luminaries of Parisian society gathered to discuss art and politics. Among the regular visitors were Jean-François Marmontel, Jean-François de La Harpe, the Comte de Buffon, the Baron von Grimm, Gabriel Bonnot de Mably, Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, Antoine Léonard Thomas, the compilers of the Encyclopédie including Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert. Madame Necker's salons were a meeting place for Swiss expatriates such as Marie Thérèse Rodet Geoffrin and Marie Anne de Vichy-Chamrond, marquise du Deffand, it was at one of Madame Necker's dinners that a group of men of letters first proposed starting a subscription to pay for a statue of Voltaire by the sculptor Jean-Baptiste Pigalle. His statue of a nude Voltaire is now in the Louvre. Madame Necker carried on an extensive correspondence with Grimm, Thomas and others of these men of letters when they were away from Paris; the time commitment involved in running a salon, combined with her husband's dislike of bluestocking authors, prevented Madame Necker from pursuing her interest in writing to the extent she desired.
Her surviving writings are few: a memoir about the establishment of hospitals and some reflections on divorce. She devoted considerable time to ensuring that their daughter Germaine received the best education possible; the French hospital system during the 18th century was not well standardized and overall lacked good patient care. Hospital conditions were unsatisfactory due to overcrowding, as exemplified by the Hôtel-Dieu de Paris. After visiting this hospital, French Encyclopedist Denis Diderot described it this way: The biggest, roomiest and most terrifying of all hospitals... Imagine every kind of patient, sometimes packed three, five, or six into a bed, the living alongside the dead and dying, the air polluted by this mass of sick bodies, passing the pestilential germs of their affections from one to the other, the spectacle of suffering and agony on every hand; these kinds of harsh conditions prompted discussion of hospital reform among government officials. They called for improvements to the hospital environment and for strategic siting of hospitals to make it easier for families to visit hospital-bound relatives.
As finance minister, Jacques Necker was influential in steering the agreed reforms. One of the first of the proposed “neighborhood hospitals” was the Hospice de Charité, a small-scale hospital located in a vacated monastery. Responsibility for its development was placed on Madame Necker, she turned it into a facility with a 120-patient capacity, she enlisted the services of around a dozen Sisters of Charity, the women who traditionally managed the day-to-day tasks and tended to patients in French hospitals. The new hospital began accepting patients in 1778, serving the areas of St. Sulpice and du Gros Caillou in Paris and welcoming the poor. Patients had to be residents of the area, they had to show proof that they were Catholic by presenting a certificate of baptism and a confession. Madame Necker aimed to improve patient care while maintaining the institution’s financial efficiency, as detailed in the preface of the hospital’s first annual report from 1780, she summarized her goals for the Hospice de Charité project thus: To show the possibility of nursing sick people, each one in a bed to himself, with all the ca
Alice Rivaz was a Swiss author and feminist. She was born Alice Golay in the small Swiss municipality of Rovray, in the Canton of Vaud, the only child of Paul Golay and Ida Ettler, both strong Calvinists, her mother had been a deaconess before deciding to leave that life to marry, while her father was a school teacher at the time of her birth. With a growing embrace of socialism, he gave up that career and became a writer for the leftist periodical, Le Grutléen, for which the family moved to Lausanne. Alice Rivaz' writings are thought to reflect the conflict the couple experienced as a result of their differing points of view, with her mother's piety butting up against her father's political convictions. At the age of 25 Rivaz moved to Geneva, she studied music, training to become a pianist. After several years of work with the International Labour Organization she turned to writing, became one of the foremost French language writers of Switzerland, she was buried at the prestigious Cimetière des Rois.
In her birthplace there is a commemorative plaque. In Geneva a street and a College were named after her, and since 2002 there is an Intercity train called Alice Rivaz. Rivaz began working on her first novel around 1937, which came to be titled Nuages dans la main, published in 1940, her novel Jette ton pain, published in 1979, is considered her finest work. Her writings are known for dealing with women in art and in the family, as well as having feminist themes. Along with novels, short stories and diaries she did a study of poet Jean-Georges Lossier. Nuages dans la trans. Clouds in your Hands Comme le sable, novel La Paix des ruches, novel trans; the Peace of the Beehive Sans Alcool, short stories, trans. Without Alcohol. Comptez vos jours Le Creux de la vague, novel L'Alphabet du matin, novel De Mémoire et d'oubli, short stories Jette ton pain, trans. Cast your Bread Ce Nom qui n'est pas le mien, essays Traces de vie, diaries Jean-Georges Lossier. Poésie et vie essay, 1986 L'Homme et son enfant.
Sans alcool. Le Canari, short stories, 1996 Creuser des puits dans le désert Letters to Jean-Claude Fontanet, 2001 Les Enveloppes bleues. Correspondance 1944–51, 2005 Pourquoi serions-nous heureux? Correspondance 1945–1982, 2008 Media related to Alice Rivaz at Wikimedia Commons Publications by and about Alice Rivaz in the catalogue Helveticat of the Swiss National Library "Literary estate of Alice Rivaz". HelveticArchives. Swiss National Library; the filahome-stamps.com website
Jürg Amann was a Swiss author and dramatist. He has written radio plays, a biography of Robert Walser, other works. 1982 Ingeborg Bachmann Prize 1983 Conrad-Ferdinand-Meyer-Preis Das Symbol Kafka. Bern 1974 Die Korrektur. Wien 1977 Hardenberg. Romantische Erzählung nach dem Nachlass des Novalis. Aarau 1978 Verirren oder Das plötzliche Schweigen des Robert Walser. Aarau 1978 Die Kunst des wirkungsvollen Abgangs. Aarau 1979 Die Baumschule. Berichte aus dem Réduit. München 1982 Büchners Lenz. Wien 1983 Nachgerufen. München 1983 Ach, diese Wege sind sehr dunkel. München 1985. Enthält drei Stücke: Ach, diese Wege sind sehr dunkel, Büchners Lenz, Die deutsche Nacht. Patagonien. München 1985 Robert Walser. Auf der Suche nach einem verlorenen Sohn. München 1985. Eine Brieferzählung. München 1987 Nach dem Fest. München 1988. Enthält 3 Stücke: Nach dem Fest, Der Traum des Seiltänzers vom freien Fall, Die Korrektur. Der Rücktritt. Eine nationale Tragödie. Zelg-Wolfhalden 1989 Tod Weidigs. Acht Erzählungen. München 1989 Der Vater der Mutter und Der Vater des Vaters.
Düsseldorf 1990 Der Anfang der Angst. Aus einer glücklichen Kindheit. Düsseldorf 1991 Widerschein. Bildteppiche von Ilse Abka Prandstetter. Texte von Jürg Amann, Friederike Mayröcker und Julian Schutting. Nachwort von Peter Weiermair, Innsbruck 1991 Zwei oder drei Dinge. Innsbruck 1993 Über die Jahre. Innsbruck 1994 Und über die Liebe wäre wieder zu sprechen. Innsbruck 1994 Rondo und andere Erzählungen. Zürich 1996 Schöne Aussicht. Innsbruck 1997 Ikarus. Zürich 1998 Iphigenie oder Operation Meereswind. Mit Bildern von Anton Christian, Düsseldorf 1998 Golomir. Weitra 1999 Kafka. Wort-Bild-Essay. Haymon, Innsbruck 2000, ISBN 3-85218-319-7 Am Ufer des Flusses. Erzählung. Haymon, Innsbruck 2001, ISBN 3-85218-350-2 Kein Weg nach Rom. Ein Reisebuch. Eremiten-Presse, Düsseldorf 2001, ISBN 3-87365-325-7 Mutter töten. Prosa. Haymon, Innsbruck 2003, ISBN 3-85218-429-0 Sternendrift. Ein amerikanisches Tagebuch. Eremiten-Presse, Düsseldorf 2003, ISBN 3-87365-331-1 Wind und Weh. Abschied von den Eltern. Eremiten-Presse, Düsseldorf 2005, ISBN 3-87365-337-0 Pornographische Novelle.
Tisch 7, Köln 2005, ISBN 3-938476-06-0 Übermalungen-Überspitzungen. Van-Gogh-Variationen. Haymon, Innsbruck 2005, ISBN 3-85218-491-6 Zimmer zum Hof. Erzählungen. Haymon, Innsbruck 2006, ISBN 3-85218-511-4 Mehr bedarfs nicht: 12 mal beste deutsche Gedichte, München Piper Verlag 2006 ISBN 978-3492049146 Pekinger Passion. Arche, Zürich 2008, ISBN 978-3-7160-2376-1 Nichtsangst. Fragmente auf Tod und Leben. Haymon, Innsbruck 2008, ISBN 978-3-85218-525-5 Die kalabrische Hochzeit. Roman. Zürich 2009, ISBN 978-3-7160-2615-1 Die Reise zum Horizont. Novelle. Haymon, Innsbruck 2010, ISBN 978-3-85218-640-5 Der Kommandant. Monolog. Arche, Zürich 2011, ISBN 978-3-7160-2639-7 Die Briefe der Puppe. Nimbus, Wädenswil 2011, ISBN 978-3-907142-57-8 Letzte Lieben. Arche, Zürich 2011, ISBN 978-3-7160-2671-7 Ein Lied von Sein und Schein. Nimbus, Wädenswil 2012, ISBN 978-3-907142-70-7 Wohin denn wir. Roman. Haymon, Innsbruck 2012, ISBN 978-3-85218-764-8 Vater, warum hast du mich verlassen. Arche, Zürich 2013, ISBN 978-3-71602-694-6 Die erste Welt.
Nimbus, Wädenswil 2013, ISBN 978-3-907142-89-9 "Literary estate of Jürg Amann". HelveticArchives. Swiss National Library. Publications by and about Jürg Amann in the catalogue Helveticat of the Swiss National Library