List of Tamil monarchs

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This is a list of Tamil-speaking monarchs, who ruled in Tamilakam and Sri Lanka. The ancient Tamil monarchy was largely hereditary and supported by numerous chieftains.[1]

Tamil royal titles[edit]

  • Perarasan (emperor)
  • Perarasi (empress)
  • Arasan (king)
  • Arasi (queen)
  • Ilavarasan (prince)
  • Ilavarasi (princess)
  • Chitarasan (petty king)
  • Chitarasi (petty queen)

Three Crowned Kings[edit]

Pandyan Kingdom[edit]

Early Pandyans (6th century BCE – 3rd century CE)[edit]

  • Koon Pandiyan
  • Nedunjeliyan I (he was mentioned in legend of Kannagi)
  • Pudappandiyan
  • Mudukudumi Peruvazhudhi
  • Nedunjeliyan II
  • Nanmaran
  • Nedunjeliyan III
  • Maran Vazhudhi
  • Kadalan Vazhudhi
  • Mutriya Chezhiyan
  • Ukkirap Peruvazhudhi

Medieval Pandyans (6th – 10th centuries CE)[edit]

Pandyans under Chola empire (10th – 13th centuries)[edit]

  • Sundara Pandyan I
  • Vira Pandyan I
  • Vira Pandyan II
  • Amarabhujanga Tivrakopa
  • Jatavarman Sundara Chola Pandyan
  • Maravarman Vikrama Chola Pandyan
  • Maravarman Parakrama Chola Pandyan
  • Jatavarman Chola Pandya
  • Seervallabha Manakulachala (1101–1124)
  • Maaravaramban Seervallaban (1132–1161)
  • Parakrama Pandyan I (1161–1162)
  • Kulasekara Pandyan III
  • Vira Pandyan III
  • Jatavarman Srivallaban (1175–1180)
  • Jatavarman Kulasekaran I (1190–1216)

Later Pandyans (13th – 14th centuries)[edit]

Tenkasi Pandyans (15th – 17th centuries)[edit]

During the 15th century, the Pandyans lost their traditional capital city Madurai because of the Islamic and Nayaks invasion, and were forced to move their capital to Tirunelveli in southern Tamilakam and existed there as vassals.

  • Cataiyavarman Parakrama Pandyan 1422–1463
  • Cataiyavarman III Kulasekara Pandyan 1429–1473
  • Azhagan Perumal Parakrama Pandyan 1473–1506
  • Kulasekara Pandyan 1479–1499
  • Cataiyavarman Civallappa Pandyan 1534–1543
  • Parakrama Kulasekara Pandyan 1543–1552
  • Nelveli Maran 1552–1564
  • Cataiyavarman Adiveerama Pandyan 1564–1604
  • Varathunga Pandyan 1588–1612
  • Varakunarama Pandyan 1613–1618
  • Kollankondan ?–?

Chola Empire (c. 300 BCE – 1279 CE)[edit]

A bronze statue of Karikalan.
A sculpture of Rajaraja Chola I.

Legendary Cholas[edit]

Legendary early Chola kings

Early Cholas (c. 300 BCE – 848 CE)[edit]

Medieval Cholas (850 CE–1070 CE)[edit]

Later Cholas (1070 – 1279 AD)[edit]

Chera Kingdom[edit]

Early Cheras[edit]

Later Cheras[edit]

  • Kulashekhara Varman (800–820)
  • Rajashekhara Varman (820–844)
  • Sthanu Ravi Varman (844–885)
  • Rama Varma Kulashekhara (885–917)
  • Goda Ravi Varma (917–944)
  • Kotha Varma (944–962)
  • Bhaskara Ravi Varman I (962–1019)
  • Bhaskara Ravi Varman II (1019–1021)
  • Vira Varman (1021–1028)
  • Rajasimha Varman (1028–1043)
  • Bhaskara Ravi Varman III (1043–1082)
  • Ravi Rama Varma (1082–1090)
  • Rama Varma Kulashekhara (1090–1102)

Cheras of Venadu[edit]

The Cheras under Rama Varma Kulashekhara moved to Kollam and founded the Venadu kingdom, which existed until 16 century.

  • Rama Varma Kulashekhara (1090–1102)
  • Kotha Varma Marthandam (1102–1125)
  • Vira Kerala Varma I (1125–1145)
  • Kodai Kerala Varma (1145–1150)
  • Vira Ravi Varma (1145–1150)
  • Vira Kerala Varma II (1164–1167)
  • Vira Aditya Varma (1167–1173)
  • Vira Udaya Martanda Varma (1173–1192)
  • Devadaram Vira Kerala Varma III (1192–1195)
  • Vira Manikantha Rama Varma Tiruvadi (1195- ?)
  • Vira Rama Kerala Varma Tiruvadi (1209–1214)
  • Vira Ravi Kerala Varma Tiruvadi (1214–1240)
  • Vira Padmanabha Martanda Varma Tiruvadi (1240–1252)
  • Ravi Varma (1299–1313)
  • Vira Udaya Martanda Varma (1313–1333)
  • Aditya Varma Tiruvadi (1333–1335)
  • Vira Rama Udaya Martanda Varma Tiruvadi (1335–1342)
  • Vira Kerala Varma Tiruvadi (1342–1363)
  • Vira Martanda Varma III (1363–1366)
  • Vira Rama Martanda Varma (1366–1382)
  • Vira Ravi Varma (1383–1416)
  • Vira Ravi Ravi Varma (1416–1417)
  • Vira Kerala Martanda Varma (1383)
  • Chera Udaya Martanda Varma (1383–1444)
  • Vira Ravi Varma (1444–1458)
  • Sankhara Sri Vira Rama Martanda Varma (1458–1468)
  • Vira Kodai Sri Aditya Varma (1468–1484
  • Vira Ravi Ravi Varma (1484–1503)
  • Martanda Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal (1503–1504)
  • Vira Ravi Kerala Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal (1504–1528)

Pallava Kingdom[edit]

A Pallava coin with lion insigne of Narasimhavarman I.

Early Pallavas[edit]

  • Tondaiman Ilandiraiyan (son of Chola king Killivalavan with Nākar princess Pili Valai according to Manimegalai).
  • Bappa - Virakurcha - married a Naga of Mavilanga (Kanchi) - The Great Founder of a Pallava lineage
  • Simha Varman I (275–300 or 315–345)
  • Skanda Varman I (345–355) (Shivaskandavarman)

Middle Pallavas[edit]

  • Visnugopa (340–355) (Yuvamaharaja Vishnugopa)
  • Kumaravisnu I (355–370)
  • Skanda Varman II (370–385)
  • Vira Varman (385–400)
  • Skanda Varman III (400–435)
  • Simha Varman II (435–460)
  • Skanda Varman IV (460–480)
  • Nandi Varman I (480–500)
  • Kumaravisnu II (c. 500–510)
  • Buddha Varman (c. 510–520)
  • Kumaravisnu III (c. 520–530)
  • Simha Varman III (c. 530–537)

Later Pallavas[edit]

Ay Kingdom[edit]

Jaffna Kingdom (Aryacakravartis) (c. 1215 – 1619 AD)[edit]

Image of Singai Parasasekaran, his sons Pandaram, Paranirupsingan and Cankili I
  • Cinkai Ariyan Cekaracacekaran I 1215-1240
  • Kulasekara Pararacacekaran I 1240-1256
  • Kulottunga Cekaracacekaran II 1256-1279
  • Vikkrama Pararacacekaran II 1279-1302
  • Varotaya Cekaracacekaran III 1302-1325
  • Marttanta Pararacacekaran III 1325-1348
  • Kunapusana Cekaracacekaran IV 1348-1371
  • Virotaya Pararacacekaran IV 1371-1380
  • Jeyavira Cekaracacekaran V 1380-1410
  • Kunavira Pararacacekaran V 1410-1440
  • Kanagasuriya Cekaracacekaran V 1440-1478
  • Pararacacekaran VI 1478-1519
  • Cankili I (Cekaracacekaran VI) 1519-1565
  • Ilavarasan Puvi Raja Pandaram 1561-1565
  • Kasi Nayinar Pararacacekaran 1565-1570
  • (Name Not Known) 1565-1565
  • Periya Pillai Pandaram Cekaracacekaran 1570-1582
  • Puvi Raja Pandaram Pararacacekaran 1582-1591
  • Ethirmanna Cinkam Pararacacekaran 1591-1615
  • Paddilarasan Arasakesari Pandaram 1615-1616 (Assassinated)
  • Cankili II Cekaracacekaran 1616-1619[2]

Nayakars[edit]

Madurai Nayakar (1529 AD – 1736 AD)[edit]

  • Nagama Nayaka
  • Viswanatha Nayaka
  • Vitthala Raja Nayaka (1546–1558)
  • Kumara Krishnappa Nayaka (1563–1573)
  • Muttu Krishnappa Nayaka (1602–1609)
  • Muttu Virappa Nayaka (1609–1623)
  • Tirumalai Nayaka (1623–1659)
  • Muttu Alakadri Nayaka (1659–1662)
  • Chokkanatha Nayaka (1662–1682)
  • Rangakrishna Muthu Virappa Nayaka (1682–1689)
  • Mangammal (1689–1704)
  • Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha Nayaka (1704–1731)
  • Queen Meenakshi, and the End of the Nayakas (1731–1736)

Gingee Nayakar (1509 – 1649)[edit]

  • Krishnappa Nayaka (1509–1521)
  • Chennappa Nayaka
  • Gangama Nayaka
  • Venkata Krishnappa Nayaka
  • Venkata Rama Bhupaala Nayaka
  • Thriyambamka Krishnappa Nayaka
  • Varadappa Nayaka
  • Ramalinga Nayani vaaru
  • Venkata Perumal Naidu
  • Periya Ramabhadra Naidu
  • Ramakrishnappa Naidu (d. 1649)

Thanjavur Nayakar (1532 – 1673 AD)[edit]

Kandy Nayakar (1739 – 1815 AD)[edit]

Ramnad Sethupathis[edit]

Under Madurai Nayakars (1590 – 1670 AD)[edit]

  • Sadasiva Thevar Sethupathi (1590–1621)
  • Kootan Sethupathi (1621–1637)
  • Dalavai Sethupathi (1637–1659)
  • Raghunatha Sethupathi (1659–1670)

Independent Sethupathis (1670 – 1794 AD)[edit]

  • Raghunatha Kilavan (1670–1708)
  • Vijaya Raghunatha Sethupathi I (1708–1723)
  • Sundaresvara Raghunatha Sethupathi (1723–1724)
  • Bhavani Shankara Thevar (1724–1728)
  • Kumara Muthu Vijaya Raghunatha Sethupathi (1728–1734)
  • Muthukumara Raghunatha Sethupathi (1734–1747)
  • Rakka Thevar (1747–1748)
  • Vijaya Raghunatha Sethupathi II (1748–1760)
  • Muthuramalinga Sethupathi I (1760–1794)

Under British Raj (1795 – 1979 AD)[edit]

Pudukkotai Tondaimans (1680 – 1948 AD)[edit]

Sivaganga estate (1725 – 1947 AD)[edit]

  • Muthu Vijaya Raghunatha Periyavudaya Thevar (1730-1750)
  • Muthu Vaduganatha Periyavudaya Thevar (1750-1780)
  • Velu Nachiyar (1780-1790)
  • Vellacci (1790-1793)[3]
  • Vangam Periya Udaya Thevar (1793-1801)
  • Zamindar under British rule (1803-1947)

Velir monarchs[edit]

Palaiyakkarars[edit]

Others[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Splendours of Tamil Nadu. p.146
  2. ^ "genealogy of the royal house of jaffna".
  3. ^ K. R. Venkatarama Ayyar, Sri Brihadamba State Press, 1938, A Manual of the Pudukkóttai State, p.720