List of The Golden Girls episodes

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The Golden Girls is a television sitcom that ran on NBC from September 14, 1985, to May 9, 1992. A total of 180 episodes were produced, including 11 one-hour episodes.

Series overview[edit]

SeasonEpisodesOriginally airedNielsen ratings[1]
First airedLast airedRankRatingTied with
125September 14, 1985 (1985-09-14)May 10, 1986 (1986-05-10)721.8Dynasty
226September 27, 1986 (1986-09-27)May 16, 1987 (1987-05-16)524.5N/A
325September 19, 1987 (1987-09-19)May 7, 1988 (1988-05-07)421.8N/A
426October 8, 1988 (1988-10-08)May 13, 1989 (1989-05-13)621.4N/A
526September 23, 1989 (1989-09-23)May 5, 1990 (1990-05-05)620.1N/A
626September 22, 1990 (1990-09-22)May 4, 1991 (1991-05-04)1016.5Designing Women
726September 21, 1991 (1991-09-21)May 9, 1992 (1992-05-09)3013.1In the Heat of the Night

Episodes[edit]

Season 1 (1985–1986)[edit]

No. in
series
No. in
season
Title Directed by Written by Original air date
11"The Engagement"Jay SandrichSusan HarrisSeptember 14, 1985 (1985-09-14)
22"Guess Who's Coming to the Wedding?"Paul BogartWinifred HerveySeptember 21, 1985 (1985-09-21)
33"Rose the Prude"Jim DrakeBarry Fanaro and Mort NathanSeptember 28, 1985 (1985-09-28)
44"Transplant"Paul BogartSusan HarrisOctober 5, 1985 (1985-10-05)
55"The Triangle"Jim DrakeWinifred HerveyOctober 19, 1985 (1985-10-19)
66"On Golden Girls"Jim DrakeLiz SageOctober 26, 1985 (1985-10-26)
77"The Competition"Jim DrakeBarry Fanaro and Mort NathanNovember 2, 1985 (1985-11-02)
88"Break-In"Paul BogartSusan HarrisNovember 9, 1985 (1985-11-09)
99"Blanche and the Younger Man"Jim DrakeJames Berg and Stan ZimmermanNovember 16, 1985 (1985-11-16)
1010"The Heart Attack"Jim DrakeSusan HarrisNovember 23, 1985 (1985-11-23)
1111"Stan's Return"Jim DrakeKathy Speer and Terry GrossmanNovember 30, 1985 (1985-11-30)
1212"The Custody Battle"Terry HughesWinifred HerveyDecember 7, 1985 (1985-12-07)
1313"A Little Romance"Terry HughesBarry Fanaro and Mort NathanDecember 14, 1985 (1985-12-14)
1414"That Was No Lady"Jim DrakeLiz SageDecember 21, 1985 (1985-12-21)
1515"In a Bed of Rose's"Terry HughesSusan HarrisJanuary 11, 1986 (1986-01-11)
1616"The Truth Will Out"Terry HughesSusan BeaversJanuary 18, 1986 (1986-01-18)
1717"Nice and Easy"Terry HughesStuart SilvermanFebruary 1, 1986 (1986-02-01)
1818"The Operation"Terry HughesWinifred HerveyFebruary 8, 1986 (1986-02-08)
1919"Second Motherhood"Gary ShimokawaChristopher LloydFebruary 15, 1986 (1986-02-15)
2020"Adult Education"Jack SheaJames Berg and Stan ZimmermanFebruary 22, 1986 (1986-02-22)
2121"The Flu"Terry HughesJames Berg and Stan ZimmermanMarch 1, 1986 (1986-03-01)
2222"Job Hunting"Paul BogartKathy Speer and Terry GrossmanMarch 8, 1986 (1986-03-08)
2323"Blind Ambitions"Terry HughesBob CollearyMarch 29, 1986 (1986-03-29)
2424"Big Daddy"Terry HughesBarry Fanaro and Mort NathanMay 3, 1986 (1986-05-03)
2525"The Way We Met"Terry HughesKathy Speer, Terry Grossman, Winifred Hervey, Mort Nathan, and Barry FanaroMay 10, 1986 (1986-05-10)


Season 2 (1986–1987)[edit]

No. in
series
No. in
season
Title Directed by Written by Original air date
261"End of the Curse"Terry HughesSusan HarrisSeptember 27, 1986 (1986-09-27)
272"Ladies of the Evening"Terry HughesBarry Fanaro and Mort NathanOctober 4, 1986 (1986-10-04)
283"Take Him, He's Mine"Terry HughesKathy Speer and Terry GrossmanOctober 11, 1986 (1986-10-11)
294"It's a Miserable Life"Terry HughesBarry Fanaro and Mort NathanNovember 1, 1986 (1986-11-01)
305"Isn't It Romantic?"Terry HughesJeffrey DuteilNovember 8, 1986 (1986-11-08)
316"Big Daddy's Little Lady"David SteinbergRussell MarcusNovember 15, 1986 (1986-11-15)
327"Family Affair"Terry HughesWinifred HerveyNovember 22, 1986 (1986-11-22)
338"Vacation"Terry HughesWinifred HerveyNovember 29, 1986 (1986-11-29)
349"Joust Between Friends"Terry HughesScott Spencer GordonDecember 6, 1986 (1986-12-06)
3510"Love, Rose"Terry HughesKathy Speer and Terry GrossmanDecember 13, 1986 (1986-12-13)
3611"'Twas the Nightmare Before Christmas"Terry HughesBarry Fanaro and Mort NathanDecember 20, 1986 (1986-12-20)
3712"The Sisters"Terry HughesChristopher LloydJanuary 3, 1987 (1987-01-03)
3813"The Stan Who Came to Dinner"Terry HughesKathy Speer and Terry GrossmanJanuary 10, 1987 (1987-01-10)
3914"The Actor"Terry HughesBarry Fanaro and Mort NathanJanuary 17, 1987 (1987-01-17)
4015"Before and After"Terry HughesBob RosenfarbJanuary 24, 1987 (1987-01-24)
4116"And Then There Was One"Terry HughesRussell MarcusJanuary 31, 1987 (1987-01-31)
4217"Bedtime Story"Terry HughesKathy Speer, Terry Grossman, Mort Nathan, and Barry FanaroFebruary 7, 1987 (1987-02-07)
4318"Forgive Me, Father"Terry HughesKathy Speer and Terry GrossmanFebruary 14, 1987 (1987-02-14)
4419"Long Day's Journey into Marinara"Terry HughesBarry Fanaro and Mort NathanFebruary 21, 1987 (1987-02-21)
4520"Whose Face Is This, Anyway?"Terry HughesWinifred HerveyFebruary 28, 1987 (1987-02-28)
4621"Dorothy's Prized Pupil"Terry HughesChristopher LloydMarch 14, 1987 (1987-03-14)
4722"Diamond in the Rough"Terry HughesJan Fischer and William WeidnerMarch 21, 1987 (1987-03-21)
4823"Son-in-Law Dearest"Terry HughesPatt Shea and Harriet WeissMarch 28, 1987 (1987-03-28)
4924"To Catch a Neighbor"Terry HughesRussell MarcusMay 2, 1987 (1987-05-02)
5025"A Piece of Cake"Terry HughesKathy Speer, Terry Grossman, Mort Nathan, and Barry FanaroMay 9, 1987 (1987-05-09)
5126"Empty Nests"Jay SandrichSusan HarrisMay 16, 1987 (1987-05-16)


Season 3 (1987–1988)[edit]

No. in
series
No. in
season
Title Directed by Written by Original air date
521"Old Friends"Terry HughesKathy Speer and Terry GrossmanSeptember 19, 1987 (1987-09-19)
532"One for the Money"Terry HughesKathy Speer, Terry Grossman,
Barry Fanaro, Mort Nathan, and Winifred Hervey Stallworth
September 26, 1987 (1987-09-26)
543"Bringing Up Baby"Terry HughesBarry Fanaro and Mort NathanOctober 3, 1987 (1987-10-03)
554"The Housekeeper"Terry HughesWinifred Hervey StallworthOctober 17, 1987 (1987-10-17)
565"Nothing to Fear But Fear Itself"Terry HughesChristopher LloydOctober 24, 1987 (1987-10-24)
576"Letter to Gorbachev"Terry HughesBarry Fanaro and Mort NathanOctober 31, 1987 (1987-10-31)
587"Strange Bedfellows"Terry HughesChristopher LloydNovember 7, 1987 (1987-11-07)
598"Brotherly Love"Terry HughesJeffrey Ferro and Fredric WeissNovember 14, 1987 (1987-11-14)
609"A Visit from Little Sven"Terry HughesDavid NicholsNovember 21, 1987 (1987-11-21)
6110"The Audit"Terry HughesWinifred Hervey StallworthNovember 28, 1987 (1987-11-28)
6211"Three on a Couch"Terry HughesJeffrey Ferro and Fredric WeissDecember 5, 1987 (1987-12-05)
6312"Charlie's Buddy"Terry HughesKathy Speer and Terry GrossmanDecember 12, 1987 (1987-12-12)
6413"The Artist"Terry HughesChristopher LloydDecember 19, 1987 (1987-12-19)
6514"Blanche's Little Girl"Terry HughesKathy Speer and Terry GrossmanJanuary 2, 1988 (1988-01-02)
6615"Dorothy's New Friend"Terry HughesRobert Bruce and Martin WeissJanuary 16, 1988 (1988-01-16)
6716"Grab That Dough"Terry HughesWinifred Hervey StallworthJanuary 23, 1988 (1988-01-23)
6817"My Brother, My Father"Terry HughesBarry Fanaro and Mort NathanFebruary 6, 1988 (1988-02-06)
69
70
18
19
"Golden Moments"Terry HughesTeleplay by: Mort Nathan and Barry Fanaro
Story by: Kathy Speer and Terry Grossman
February 13, 1988 (1988-02-13)
7120"And Ma Makes Three"Terry HughesWinifred Hervey StallworthFebruary 20, 1988 (1988-02-20)
7221"Larceny and Old Lace"Terry HughesTeleplay by: Robert Bruce and Martin Weiss
Story by: Jeffrey Ferro and Fredric Weiss
February 27, 1988 (1988-02-27)
7322"Rose's Big Adventure"Terry HughesJeff AbugovMarch 12, 1988 (1988-03-12)
7423"Mixed Blessings"Terry HughesChristopher LloydMarch 19, 1988 (1988-03-19)
7524"Mister Terrific"Terry HughesKathy Speer and Terry GrossmanApril 30, 1988 (1988-04-30)
7625"Mother's Day"Terry HughesTeleplay by: Barry Fanaro and Mort Nathan
Story by: Kathy Speer and Terry Grossman
May 7, 1988 (1988-05-07)


Season 4 (1988–1989)[edit]

No. in
series
No. in
season
Title Directed by Written by Original air date
771"Yes, We Have No Havanas"Terry HughesMort Nathan and Barry FanaroOctober 8, 1988 (1988-10-08)
782"The Days and Nights of Sophia Petrillo"Terry HughesKathy Speer and Terry GrossmanOctober 22, 1988 (1988-10-22)
793"The One That Got Away"Terry HughesChristopher LloydOctober 29, 1988 (1988-10-29)
804"Yokel Hero"Terry HughesMartin Weiss and Robert BruceNovember 5, 1988 (1988-11-05)
815"Bang the Drum, Stanley"Terry HughesRobert Bruce and Martin WeissNovember 12, 1988 (1988-11-12)
826"Sophia's Wedding: Part 1"Terry HughesBarry Fanaro and Mort NathanNovember 19, 1988 (1988-11-19)
837"Sophia's Wedding: Part 2"Terry HughesBarry Fanaro and Mort NathanNovember 26, 1988 (1988-11-26)
848"Brother, Can You Spare That Jacket?"Terry HughesKathy Speer and Terry GrossmanDecember 3, 1988 (1988-12-03)
859"Scared Straight"Terry HughesChristopher LloydDecember 10, 1988 (1988-12-10)
8610"Stan Takes a Wife"Terry HughesWinifred Hervey-StallworthJanuary 7, 1989 (1989-01-07)
8711"The Auction"Terry HughesEric CohenJanuary 14, 1989 (1989-01-14)
8812"Blind Date"Terry HughesChristopher LloydJanuary 28, 1989 (1989-01-28)
8913"The Impotence of Being Ernest"Steve ZuckermanTeleplay by: Rick Copp and David A. Goodman
Story by: Kevin Abbott
February 4, 1989 (1989-02-04)
9014"Love Me Tender"Terry HughesRichard Vaczy and Tracy GambleFebruary 6, 1989 (1989-02-06)
9115"Valentine's Day"Terry HughesKathy Speer, Terry Grossman, Barry Fanaro, and Mort NathanFebruary 11, 1989 (1989-02-11)
9216"Two Rode Together"Terry HughesRobert Bruce and Martin WeissFebruary 18, 1989 (1989-02-18)
9317"You Gotta Have Hope"Terry HughesBarry Fanaro and Mort NathanFebruary 25, 1989 (1989-02-25)
9418"Fiddler on the Ropes"Terry HughesKathy Speer and Terry GrossmanMarch 4, 1989 (1989-03-04)
9519"Till Death Do We Volley"Terry HughesRichard Vaczy and Tracy GambleMarch 18, 1989 (1989-03-18)
9620"High Anxiety"Terry HughesMartin Weiss and Robert BruceMarch 25, 1989 (1989-03-25)
9721"Little Sister"Terry HughesChristopher LloydApril 1, 1989 (1989-04-01)
9822"Sophia's Choice"Terry HughesRichard Vaczy and Tracy GambleApril 15, 1989 (1989-04-15)
9923"Rites of Spring"Terry HughesEric CohenApril 29, 1989 (1989-04-29)
10024"Foreign Exchange"Terry HughesHarriet B. Helberg and Sandy HelbergMay 6, 1989 (1989-05-06)
101
102
25
26
"We're Outta Here"Terry HughesBarry Fanaro, Mort Nathan, Kathy Speer, and Terry GrossmanMay 13, 1989 (1989-05-13)


Season 5 (1989–1990)[edit]

No. in
series
No. in
season
Title Directed by Written by Original air date
1031"Sick and Tired: Part 1"Terry HughesSusan HarrisSeptember 23, 1989 (1989-09-23)
1042"Sick and Tired: Part 2"Terry HughesSusan HarrisSeptember 30, 1989 (1989-09-30)
1053"Accurate Conception"Terry HughesGail ParentOctober 14, 1989 (1989-10-14)
1064"Rose Fights Back"Terry HughesMarc SotkinOctober 21, 1989 (1989-10-21)
1075"Love Under the Big Top"Terry HughesRichard Vaczy and Tracy GambleOctober 28, 1989 (1989-10-28)
1086"Dancing in the Dark"Terry HughesPhillip Jayson LaskerNovember 4, 1989 (1989-11-04)
1097"Not Another Monday"Terry HughesGail ParentNovember 11, 1989 (1989-11-11)
1108"That Old Feeling"Terry HughesTom WhedonNovember 18, 1989 (1989-11-18)
1119"Comedy of Errors"Terry HughesDon ReoNovember 25, 1989 (1989-11-25)
11210"All That Jazz"Terry HughesRobert Bruce and Martin WeissDecember 2, 1989 (1989-12-02)
11311"Ebb Tide"Terry HughesMarc SotkinDecember 9, 1989 (1989-12-09)
11412"Have Yourself a Very Little Christmas"Terry HughesTom WhedonDecember 16, 1989 (1989-12-16)
11513"Mary Has a Little Lamb"Terry HughesHarold ApterJanuary 6, 1990 (1990-01-06)
11614"Great Expectations"Terry HughesRobert Bruce and Martin WeissJanuary 13, 1990 (1990-01-13)
11715"Triple Play"Terry HughesGail ParentJanuary 27, 1990 (1990-01-27)
11816"Clinton Avenue Memoirs"Terry HughesRichard Vaczy & Tracy GambleFebruary 3, 1990 (1990-02-03)
11917"Like the Beep Beep Beep of the Tom-Tom"Terry HughesPhillip Jayson LaskerFebruary 10, 1990 (1990-02-10)
12018"An Illegitimate Concern"Terry HughesMarc Cherry and Jamie WootenFebruary 12, 1990 (1990-02-12)
12119"72 Hours"Terry HughesRichard Vaczy and Tracy GambleFebruary 17, 1990 (1990-02-17)
12220"Twice in a Lifetime"Terry HughesRobert Bruce and Martin WeissFebruary 24, 1990 (1990-02-24)
12321"Sisters and Other Strangers"Terry HughesMarc Cherry and Jamie WootenMarch 3, 1990 (1990-03-03)
12422"Cheaters"Terry HughesTom WhedonMarch 24, 1990 (1990-03-24)
12523"The Mangiacavallo Curse Makes a Lousy Wedding Present"Terry HughesPhillip Jayson LaskerMarch 31, 1990 (1990-03-31)
12624"All Bets Are Off"Terry HughesEugene B. SteinApril 28, 1990 (1990-04-28)
127
128
25
26
"The President's Coming! The President's Coming!"Lex PassarisMarc Sotkin, Gail Parent, Martin Weiss, Robert Bruce, Philip Jayson Lasker, Tom Whedon, Marc Cherry, and Jamie WootenMay 5, 1990 (1990-05-05)


Season 6 (1990–1991)[edit]

No. in
series
No. in
season
Title Directed by Written by Original air date
1291"Blanche Delivers"Matthew DiamondGail Parent and Jim VallelySeptember 22, 1990 (1990-09-22)
1302"Once, in St. Olaf"Matthew DiamondHarold ApterSeptember 29, 1990 (1990-09-29)
1313"If at Last You Do Succeed"Matthew DiamondRobert SpinaOctober 6, 1990 (1990-10-06)
1324"Snap Out of It"Matthew DiamondRichard Vaczy and Tracy GambleOctober 13, 1990 (1990-10-13)
1335"Wham, Bam, Thank You, Mammy!"Matthew DiamondMarc Cherry and Jamie WootenOctober 20, 1990 (1990-10-20)
1346"Feelings"Matthew DiamondDon Seigel and Jerry PerzigianOctober 27, 1990 (1990-10-27)
1357"Zborn Again"Matthew DiamondMitchell HurwitzNovember 3, 1990 (1990-11-03)
1368"How Do You Solve a Problem Like Sophia?"Matthew DiamondMarc Cherry and Jamie WootenNovember 10, 1990 (1990-11-10)
1379"Mrs. George Devereaux"Matthew DiamondRichard Vaczy and Tracy GambleNovember 17, 1990 (1990-11-17)
13810"Girls Just Wanna Have Fun... Before They Die"Matthew DiamondGail Parent and Jim VallelyNovember 24, 1990 (1990-11-24)
13911"Stand by Your Man"Matthew DiamondTom WhedonDecember 1, 1990 (1990-12-01)
14012"Ebbtide's Revenge"Matthew DiamondMarc SotkinDecember 15, 1990 (1990-12-15)
14113"The Bloom Is Off the Rose"Matthew DiamondPhillip Jayson LaskerJanuary 5, 1991 (1991-01-05)
14214"Sister of the Bride"Matthew DiamondMarc Cherry and Jamie WootenJanuary 12, 1991 (1991-01-12)
14315"Miles to Go"Matthew DiamondDon Seigel and Jerry PerzigianJanuary 19, 1991 (1991-01-19)
14416"There Goes the Bride: Part 1"Matthew DiamondTeleplay by: Mitchell Hurwitz
Story by: Gail Parent, Jim Vallely, and Mitchell Hurwitz
February 2, 1991 (1991-02-02)
14517"There Goes the Bride: Part 2"Matthew DiamondGail Parent and Jim VallelyFebruary 9, 1991 (1991-02-09)
14618"Older and Wiser"Matthew DiamondRichard Vaczy and Tracy GambleFebruary 16, 1991 (1991-02-16)
14719"Melodrama"Matthew DiamondRobert SpinaFebruary 16, 1991 (1991-02-16)
14820"Even Grandmas Get the Blues"Robert BerlingerGail Parent and Jim VallelyMarch 2, 1991 (1991-03-02)
14921"Witness"Zane BuzbyMitchell HurwitzMarch 9, 1991 (1991-03-09)
15022"What a Difference a Date Makes"Lex PassarisMarc Cherry and Jamie WootenMarch 23, 1991 (1991-03-23)
15123"Love for Sale"Peter D. BeytDon Seigel and Jerry PerzigianApril 6, 1991 (1991-04-06)
152
153
24
25
"Never Yell Fire in a Crowded Retirement Home"Matthew DiamondStory by: Gail Parent
Teleplay by: Tracy Gamble, Richard Vaczy, Tom Whedon, and Mitchell Hurwitz
Story by: Jim Vallely
Teleplay by: Richard Vaczy, Tracy Gamble, Don Seigel, and Jerry Perzigian
April 27, 1991 (1991-04-27)
15426"Henny Penny — Straight, No Chaser"Judy PioliTom WhedonMay 4, 1991 (1991-05-04)


Season 7 (1991–1992)[edit]

No. in
series
No. in
season
Title Directed by Written by Original airdate
1551"Hey, Look Me Over"Lex PassarisMitchell HurwitzSeptember 21, 1991 (1991-09-21)
1562"The Case of the Libertine Belle"Lex PassarisTom WhedonSeptember 28, 1991 (1991-09-28)
1573"Beauty and the Beast"Lex PassarisMarc Cherry and Jamie WootenOctober 5, 1991 (1991-10-05)
1584"That's for Me to Know"Lex PassarisKevin AbbottOctober 12, 1991 (1991-10-12)
1595"Where's Charlie?"Lex PassarisGail Parent and Jim VallelyOctober 19, 1991 (1991-10-19)
1606"Mother Load"Lex PassarisDon Seigel and Jerry PerzigianOctober 26, 1991 (1991-10-26)
1617"Dateline: Miami"Peter D. BeytMarc Cherry and Jamie WootenNovember 2, 1991 (1991-11-02)
162
163
8
9
"The Monkey Show"Lex PassarisMitchell Hurwitz and Marc SotkinNovember 9, 1991 (1991-11-09)
16410"Ro$e Love$ Mile$"Lex PassarisDon Seigel, Jerry Perzigian, Richard Vaczy, and Tracy GambleNovember 16, 1991 (1991-11-16)
16511"Room 7"Peter D. BeytTracy Gamble and Richard VaczyNovember 23, 1991 (1991-11-23)
16612"From Here to the Pharmacy"Lex PassarisGail Parent and Jim VallelyDecember 7, 1991 (1991-12-07)
16713"The Pope's Ring"Lex PassarisKevin AbbottDecember 14, 1991 (1991-12-14)
16814"Old Boyfriends"Peter D. BeytJamie Wooten and Marc CherryJanuary 4, 1992 (1992-01-04)
16915"Goodbye, Mr. Gordon"Lex PassarisGail Parent and Jim VallelyJanuary 11, 1992 (1992-01-11)
17016"The Commitments"Lex PassarisTracy Gamble and Richard VaczyJanuary 25, 1992 (1992-01-25)
17117"Questions and Answers"Lex PassarisDon Seigel and Jerry PerzigianFebruary 8, 1992 (1992-02-08)
17218"Ebbtide VI: The Wrath of Stan"Lex PassarisMarc SotkinFebruary 15, 1992 (1992-02-15)
17319"Journey to the Center of Attention"Lex PassarisJamie Wooten and Marc CherryFebruary 22, 1992 (1992-02-22)
174
175
20
21
"A Midwinter Night's Dream"Lex PassarisKevin Abbott (Part 1)
Tom Whedon (Part 2)
February 29, 1992 (1992-02-29)
17622"Rose: Portrait of a Woman"Lex PassarisRobert SpinaMarch 7, 1992 (1992-03-07)
17723"Home Again, Rose: Part 1"Peter D. BeytGail ParentApril 25, 1992 (1992-04-25)
17824"Home Again, Rose: Part 2"Peter D. BeytJim VallelyMay 2, 1992 (1992-05-02)
179
180
25
26
"One Flew Out of the Cuckoo's Nest"Lex PassarisDon Seigel and Jerry Perzigian (Part 1)
Mitchell Hurwitz (Part 2)
May 9, 1992 (1992-05-09)


Television special[edit]

Title Directed by: Written by: Original air date
"The Golden Girls: Their Greatest Moments"Andrew SoltAndrew Solt, Greg VinesJune 2, 2003 (2003-06-02)
Bea Arthur, Rue McClanahan and Betty White host a Golden Girls retrospective featuring a montage of clips from their favorite episodes and musical moments from the show, never-before-seen bloopers and outtakes, as well as interviews with executive producers Paul Junger Witt and Tony Thomas, and creator/writer Susan Harris. Estelle Getty was unable to participate due to failing health. This special aired not on NBC, but on the Lifetime cable channel, which was running reruns of the series at the time.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Brooks, Tim; Marsh, Earle (2007). The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network and Cable TV Shows 1946-Present (Ninth Edition). Ballantine Books. pp. 1691–1693. ISBN 978-0-345-49773-4. 

External links[edit]