Kalmia latifolia, commonly called mountain laurel, calico-bush, or spoonwood, is a broadleaved evergreen shrub in the heather family, that is native to the eastern United States. Its range stretches from southern Maine south to northern Florida, mountain laurel is the state flower of Connecticut and Pennsylvania. It is the namesake of Laurel County in Kentucky and the city of Laurel and it is an evergreen shrub growing to 3–9 m tall. The leaves are 3–12 cm long and 1–4 cm wide and its flowers are round, ranging from light pink to white, and occur in clusters. There are several named cultivars today that have darker shades of pink, near red and it blooms in May and June. All parts of the plant are poisonous, the plant is naturally found on rocky slopes and mountainous forest areas. It thrives in soil, preferring a soil pH in the 4.5 to 5.5 range. The plant often grows in thickets, covering great areas of forest floor. In the Appalachians, it can become tree-sized but is a shrub farther north, the species is a frequent component of oak-heath forests.
In low, wet areas, it grows densely, but in dry uplands has a more sparse form, Kalmia latifolia is notable for its unusual method of dispensing its pollen. As the flower grows, the filaments of its stamens are bent, when an insect lands on the flower, the tension is released, catapulting the pollen forcefully onto the insect. Experiments have shown the flower capable of flinging its pollen up to 15 cm, physicist Lyman J. Briggs became fascinated with this phenomenon in the 1950s after his retirement from the National Bureau of Standards and conducted a series of experiments in order to explain it. It is known as Ivybush or spoonwood, the plant was first recorded in America in 1624, but it was named after Pehr Kalm, who sent samples to Linnaeus in the 18th century. The plant was brought to Europe as an ornamental plant during the 18th century. It is still grown for its attractive flowers and year round evergreen leaves. Elliptic, leathery, glossy leaves are dark green above and yellow green beneath.
All parts of plant are toxic if ingested. Numerous cultivars have been selected with varying flower color, many of the cultivars have originated from the Connecticut Experiment Station in Hamden and from the plant breeding of Dr. Richard Jaynes
Delaware is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic and/or Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered to the south and west by Maryland, to the northeast by New Jersey, the state takes its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, an English nobleman and Virginias first colonial governor. Delaware occupies the portion of the Delmarva Peninsula and is the second smallest, the sixth least populous. Delaware is divided into three counties, the lowest number of counties of any state, from north to south, the three counties are New Castle and Sussex. While the southern two counties have historically been agricultural, New Castle County has been more industrialized. Before its coastline was explored by Europeans in the 16th century, Delaware was inhabited by groups of Native Americans, including the Lenape in the north. It was initially colonized by Dutch traders at Zwaanendael, near the present town of Lewes, Delaware was one of the 13 colonies participating in the American Revolution.
On December 7,1787, Delaware became the first state to ratify the Constitution of the United States, the Delaware Indians, a name used by Europeans for Lenape people indigenous to the Delaware Valley, derive their name from the same source. The surname de La Warr comes from Sussex and is of Anglo-Norman origin and it came probably from a Norman lieu-dit La Guerre. This toponymic could derive from the Latin word ager, from the Breton gwern or from the Late Latin varectum, the toponyms Gara, Gaire appear in old texts cited by Lucien Musset, where the word gara means gore. It could be linked with a patronymic from the Old Norse verr, Delaware is 96 miles long and ranges from 9 miles to 35 miles across, totaling 1,954 square miles, making it the second-smallest state in the United States after Rhode Island. Delaware is bounded to the north by Pennsylvania, to the east by the Delaware River, Delaware Bay, New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean, small portions of Delaware are situated on the eastern side of the Delaware River sharing land boundaries with New Jersey.
The state of Delaware, together with the Eastern Shore counties of Maryland, the definition of the northern boundary of the state is unusual. Most of the boundary between Delaware and Pennsylvania was originally defined by an arc extending 12 miles from the cupola of the courthouse in the city of New Castle and this boundary is often referred to as the Twelve-Mile Circle. This is the only nominally circular state boundary in the United States, to the west, a portion of the arc extends past the easternmost edge of Maryland. The remaining western border runs slightly east of due south from its intersection with the arc, the Wedge of land between the northwest part of the arc and the Maryland border was claimed by both Delaware and Pennsylvania until 1921, when Delawares claim was confirmed. Delaware is on a plain, with the lowest mean elevation of any state in the nation. Its highest elevation, located at Ebright Azimuth, near Concord High School, the northernmost part of the state is part of the Piedmont Plateau with hills and rolling surfaces
American Samoa is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Samoa. American Samoa consists of five islands and two coral atolls. The largest and most populous island is Tutuila, with the Manuʻa Islands, Rose Atoll, All islands except for Swains Island are part of the Samoan Islands, located west of the Cook Islands, north of Tonga, and some 300 miles south of Tokelau. To the west are the islands of the Wallis and Futuna group, the 2010 census showed a total population of 55,519 people. The total land area is 199 square kilometers, slightly more than Washington, American Samoa is the southernmost territory of the U. S. and one of two U. S. territories south of the Equator, along with the uninhabited Jarvis Island. Tuna products are the exports, and the main trading partner is the United States. American Samoa is noted for having the highest rate of enlistment of any U. S. state or territory. Most American Samoans are bilingual and can speak English and Samoan fluently, Samoan is the same language spoken in neighboring independent Samoa.
Contact with Europeans began in the early 18th century, dutchman Jacob Roggeveen was the first known European to sight the Samoan Islands in 1722. This visit was followed by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville who named them the Navigator Islands in 1768, contact was limited before the 1830s, when English missionaries and traders began arriving. The site of battle is called Massacre Bay. Mission work in the Samoas had begun in late 1830 when John Williams of the London Missionary Society arrived from the Cook Islands, by that time, the Samoans had gained a reputation for being savage and warlike, as violent altercations had occurred between natives and European visitors. In March 1889, an Imperial German naval force entered a village on Samoa, three American warships entered the Apia harbor and prepared to engage the three German warships found there. Before any shots were fired, a typhoon wrecked both the American and German ships, a compulsory armistice was called because of the lack of any warships.
Forerunners to the Tripartite Convention of 1899 were the Washington Conference of 1887, the Treaty of Berlin of 1889, the following year, the USA formally occupied its portion, a smaller group of eastern islands, one of which contains the noted harbor of Pago Pago. The Navy secured a Deed of Cession of Tutuila in 1900, the territory became known as the US Naval Station Tutuila. On July 17,1911, the US Naval Station Tutuila, in 1918 during the final stages of World War I, the flu pandemic had taken its toll, spreading rapidly from country to country. The result of Poyers quick actions earned him the Navy Cross from the US Navy, with this distinction, American Samoans regarded Poyer as their hero for what he had done to prevent the deadly disease
Helianthus annuus, the common sunflower, is a large annual forb of the genus Helianthus grown as a crop for its edible oil and edible fruits. This sunflower species is used as bird food, as livestock forage. The plant was first domesticated in the Americas, wild Helianthus annuus is a widely branched annual plant with many flower heads. The domestic sunflower, often only a single large inflorescence atop an unbranched stem. Sunflower seeds were brought to Europe from the Americas in the 16th century, the plant has an erect rough-hairy stem, reaching typical heights of 3 metres. The tallest sunflower on record achieved 9.17 metres, Sunflower leaves are broad, coarsely toothed and mostly alternate. What is often called the flower of the sunflower is actually a head or pseudanthium of numerous small individual five-petaled flowers. The outer flowers, which resemble petals, are called ray flowers, each petal consists of a ligule composed of fused petals of an asymmetrical ray flower. They are sexually sterile and may be yellow, orange, the flowers in the center of the head are called disk flowers.
The disk flowers are arranged spirally, there are 34 spirals in one direction and 55 in the other, however, in a very large sunflower head there could be 89 in one direction and 144 in the other. This pattern produces the most efficient packing of seeds mathematically possible within the flower head, most cultivars of sunflower are variants of Helianthus annuus, but four other species are domesticated. This includes H. tuberosus, the Jerusalem Artichoke, which produces edible tubers, a model for the pattern of florets in the head of a sunflower was proposed by H. Vogel in 1979. It is a form of Fermats spiral, the angle 137. 5° is related to the golden ratio and gives a close packing of florets. This model has been used to computer graphics representations of sunflowers. The sunflower, Helianthus annuus, genome is diploid with a chromosome number of 17. Some sources claim its true size is around 3.5 billion base pairs, to grow best, sunflowers need full sun. They grow best in fertile, well-drained soil with heavy mulch, in commercial planting, seeds are planted 45 cm apart and 2.5 cm deep.
Sunflower whole seed are sold as a food, raw or after roasting in ovens
Illinois is a state in the midwestern region of the United States, achieving statehood in 1818. It is the 6th most populous state and 25th largest state in terms of land area, the word Illinois comes from a French rendering of a native Algonquin word. For decades, OHare International Airport has been ranked as one of the worlds busiest airports, Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and politics. With the War of 1812 Illinois growth slowed as both Native Americans and Canadian forces often raided the American Frontier, mineral finds and timber stands had spurred immigration—by the 1810s, the Eastern U. S. Railroads arose and matured in the 1840s, and soon carried immigrants to new homes in Illinois, as well as being a resource to ship their commodity crops out to markets. Railroads freed most of the land of Illinois and other states from the tyranny of water transport. By 1900, the growth of jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted a new group of immigrants.
Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars, the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in Chicago, who created the citys famous jazz and blues cultures. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois, Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was the only U. S. president born and raised in Illinois. Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official slogan, Land of Lincoln. The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum is located in the capital of Springfield. Illinois is the spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers name for the Illinois Native Americans. American scholars previously thought the name Illinois meant man or men in the Miami-Illinois language and this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for man is ireniwa and plural men is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has said to mean tribe of superior men.
The name Illinois derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa he speaks the regular way and this was taken into the Ojibwe language, perhaps in the Ottawa dialect, and modified into ilinwe·. The French borrowed these forms, changing the ending to spell it as -ois. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, the Illinois name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans, the Koster Site has been excavated and demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation
The peony or paeony is a flowering plant in the genus Paeonia, the only genus in the family Paeoniaceae. They are native to Asia and Western North America, scientists differ on the number of species that can be distinguished ranging from 25 to 40, although the current consensus is 33 known species. The relationships between the species need to be further clarified, most are herbaceous perennial plants 0. 25–1 metre tall, but some are woody shrubs 0. 25–3.5 metres tall. They have compound, deeply lobed leaves and large, often fragrant flowers, in ranging from purple red to white or yellow, in late spring. Peonies are among the most popular plants in temperate regions. Herbaceous peonies are sold as cut flower on a scale, although generally only available in late spring. All Paeoniaceae are deciduous perennial herbs or shrubs, with thick roots and thin roots for gathering water. Some species are caespitose, because the crown produces adventitous buds and they have rather large compound leaves without glands and stipules, and with anomocytic stomata.
In the woody species the new growth emerges from scaly buds on the previous flush or from the crown of the rootstock, the large bisexual flowers are mostly single at the end of the stem. In P. emodi, P. lactiflora, P. veitchii and many of the cultivars these contributed to, Flowers close at night or when the sky is overcast. Each flower is subtended by a number of bracts, that may form a sort of involucre, has 3-7 tough free sepals and mostly 5-8 and these categories however are intergrading, making it difficult to assign some of them, and the number of these parts may vary. Within the circle of stamens is a more or less prominent, lobed disc, within the disk is a varying number of separate carpels, which have a very short style and a decurrent stigma. Each of these develops into a dry fruit, which open with a lengthwise suture, the annual growth is predetermined, if the growing tip of a shoot is removed, no new buds will develop that season. Paeoniaceae are dependent on C3 carbon fixation and they contain ellagic acid, ethereal oils and flavones, as well as crystals of calcium oxalate.
The wax tubules that are formed primarily consist of palmitone, the basic chromosome number is five. About half of the species of the section Paeonia however is tetraploid, both allotetraploids and autotetraploids are known, and some diploid species are of hybrid origin. The family name Paeoniaceae was first used by Friedrich K. L, rudolphi in 1830, following a suggestion by Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling that same year. The family had given other names a few years earlier
Pandanus tectorius is a species of Pandanus that is native to Malesia, eastern Australia, and the Pacific Islands. It grows in the coastal lowlands typically near the edge of the ocean, common names in English include Tahitian screwpine, thatch screwpine. Hala tree, and Pu hala in Hawaiian, the fruit is sometimes known as Hala fruit. The tree belongs to the Pananaceae family and the genus Pandanus L. F. P. tectorius is a tree that grows upright to reach 4–14 m in height. The single trunk is slender with brown ringed bark and it is spiny, grows to 4. 5-11 m in width, and forks at a height of 4–8 metres. It is supported by prop roots that firmly anchors the tree to the ground, roots sometimes grow along the branch, and they grow a wide angles in proportion to the trunk. Pandanus tectorius is dioecious, meaning male and female flowers are borne on separate trees, male flowers, known as racemes, are small and short-lived, lasting only a single day. The flowers are grouped in 3 and gathered in clusters surrounded by big.
These clusters are about 1 ft in length and are fragrant, the female P. tectorius trees produce a segmented, large fruit. Although unrelated, the fruit resembles a pineapple, the fruit of P. tectorius is either ovoid, subglobose or globose with a diameter of 4–20 cm and a length of 8–30 cm. The fruit is made up of 38–200 wedge-like phalanges, often referred to as keys or carpels, which have an outer fibrous husk and are 8 in in length. There are roughly 40 to 80 keys in each fruit and the color of the fruit can be yellow, the phalanges are buoyant, and the seeds within them can remain viable for many months while being transported by ocean currents. The leaves of Pandanus tectorius are usually 90–150 cm in length, some varieties have spines along the edges and ribs throughout the leaves. The leaves are arranged at the end of the branches. Pandanus tectorius naturally grows in regions, such as on mangrove margins and beaches. It requires 1, 500–4,000 mm of annual rainfall, P. tectorius is considered more drought tolerant than coconut trees.
The trees have adapted to drought by reducing fruiting, thatch Screwpine is well adapted to grow in the many soil types present on coasts, including quartz sand, coral sand, and peat, as well as in limestone and basalt. P. tectorius is salt and wind tolerant and favors slightly acidic to basic soil, the trees are strong and can typically withstand tropical storms
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Camellia japonica, known as common camellia or Japanese camellia, is one of the best known species of the genus Camellia. Sometimes called the Rose of winter, it belongs to the Theaceae family and it is the official state flower of Alabama. There are thousands of cultivars of C. japonica in cultivation, with different colors. In the wild, it is found in mainland China, southern Korea and it grows in forests, at altitudes of around 300–1,100 metres. Camellia japonica is a tree or shrub, usually 1. 5–6 metres tall. Some cultivated varieties achieve a size of 72m² or more, the youngest branches are purplish-brown, becoming grayish-brown as they age. The alternately arranged leaves are dark green on the top side, paler on the underside. The base of the leaf is pointed, the margins are finely toothed. In the wild, flowering is between January and March, the flowers appear along the branches, particularly towards the ends, and have very short stems. They occur either alone or in pairs, and are 6–10 centimetres across, there are about nine greenish bracteoles and sepals.
The numerous stamens are 2. 5–3.5 centimetres long, the three-lobed style is about 3 centimetres long. The fruit consists of a capsule with three compartments, each with one or two large brown seeds with a diameter of 1–2 centimetres. Fruiting occurs in September to October in the wild, C. japonica leaves are eaten by the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera, such as The Engrailed. The Japanese white eye bird pollinates Camellia japonica, the genus Camellia was named after a Jesuit priest and botanist named Georg Kamel. The specific epithet japonica was given to the species by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 because Engelbert Kaempfer was the first to give a description of the plant while in Japan, the leaf has a glabrous stem about 1 centimetre long. The bracteoles and sepals are velvety and it flowers between January–March, and from September–October. It is grown as a plant in the form of many cultivars throughout the world. Camellia japonica var. rusticana T. L. Ming naturally occurs in forests in Zhejiang in mainland China and in Honshu, the leaf has a shorter petiole, about 5 millimetres long, with fine hairs at the base
Malus is a genus of about 30–55 species of small deciduous apple trees or shrubs in the family Rosaceae, including the domesticated orchard apple. The other species are known as crabapples, crab apples, crabs. The genus is native to the zone of the Northern Hemisphere. Apple trees are typically 4–12 m tall at maturity, with a dense, the leaves are 3–10 cm long, simple, with a serrated margin. Apples require cross-pollination between individuals by insects, all are self-sterile, and self-pollination is impossible, making pollinating insects essential, several Malus species, including domestic apples, hybridize freely. They are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species. The centre of the fruit contains five carpels arranged star-like, each containing one or two seeds, for the Malus pumila cultivars, the cultivated apples, see Apple. Crabapples are popular as ornamental trees, providing blossom in Spring. The fruits often persist throughout Winter, numerous hybrid cultivars have been selected, of which Evereste and Red Sentinel have gained The Royal Horticultural Societys Award of Garden Merit.
Other varieties are dealt with under their species names, some crabapples are used as rootstocks for domestic apples to add beneficial characteristics. For example, varieties of Baccata, called Siberian crab and they are used as pollinizers in apple orchards. In emergencies, a bucket or drum bouquet of crabapple flowering branches are placed near the beehives as orchard pollenizers. Crabapple fruit is not an important crop in most areas, being extremely sour due to acid, and in some species woody. In some southeast Asian cultures they are valued as a condiment, sometimes eaten with salt and chili pepper. Some crabapple varieties are an exception to the reputation of being sour, crabapples are an excellent source of pectin, and their juice can be made into a ruby-coloured preserve with a full, spicy flavour. A small percentage of crabapples in cider makes a more interesting flavour, as Old English Wergulu, the crab apple is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm, recorded in the 10th century.
Apple wood gives off a pleasant scent when burned, and smoke from a wood fire gives an excellent flavour to smoked foods. It is easier to cut when green, dry wood is exceedingly difficult to carve by hand
Indiana /ɪndiˈænə/ is a U. S. state located in the midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 38th largest by area and the 16th most populous of the 50 United States and its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U. S. state on December 11,1816, before becoming a territory, varying cultures of indigenous peoples and historic Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Indiana has an economy with a gross state product of $298 billion in 2012. Indiana has several areas with populations greater than 100,000. The states name means Land of the Indians, or simply Indian Land and it stems from Indianas territorial history. On May 7,1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the section the Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a resident of Indiana is officially known as a Hoosier.
The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads who hunted large game such as mastodons. They created stone tools made out of chert by chipping and flaking, the Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, such new tools included different types of spear points and knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as axes, woodworking tools. During the latter part of the period, they built mounds and middens. The Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC, the Woodland period took place in Indiana, where various new cultural attributes appeared. During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, an early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods, nearing the end of the stage, the people developed highly productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash.
The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD, the Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with mounds and plazas defining ceremonial
Azaleas /əˈzeɪliə/ are flowering shrubs in the genus Rhododendron, particularly the former sections Tsutsuji and Pentanthera. Azaleas bloom in spring, their flowers often lasting several weeks, shade tolerant, they prefer living near or under trees. They are part of the family Ericaceae, plant enthusiasts have selectively bred azaleas for hundreds of years. This human selection has produced over 10,000 different cultivars which are propagated by cuttings, Azalea seeds can be collected and germinated. Azaleas are generally slow-growing and do best in well-drained acidic soil, fertilizer needs are low, some species need regular pruning. Azaleas are native to several continents including Asia and North America and they are planted abundantly as ornamentals in the southeastern USA, southern Asia, and parts of southwest Europe. Magnolias owner John Grimke Drayton imported the plants for use in his estate garden from Philadelphia, with encouragement from Charles Sprague Sargent from Harvards Arnold Arboretum, Magnolia Gardens was opened to the public in 1871, following the American Civil War.
Magnolia is one of the oldest public gardens in America, since the late nineteenth century, in late March and early April, thousands visit to see the azaleas bloom in their full glory. R. occidentale flowers are larger than other azaleas and are white with a splotch of yellow. R. arborescens are native to the east coast of North America and can be found growing wild from Alabama to Pennsylvania in wooded, plants grow up to 20 feet high and flowers are white and fragrant. The Flame Azalea, R. Native to the regions of Pennsylvania to Georgia. Flowers do not smell but bloom in every shade from yellow to crimson red. Flowers bloom in the late spring, a good variety for drier soils and shady areas. Foliage turns bright yellow in the Fall, Azalea leafy gall can be particularly destructive to azalea leaves during the early spring. Hand picking infected leaves is the method of control. They can be subject to root rot in moist. In Chinese culture, the azalea is known as thinking of home bush and is immortalized in the poetry of Du Fu, the azalea is one of the symbols of the city of São Paulo, in Brazil.
In addition to being renowned for its beauty, the azalea is highly toxic—it contains andromedotoxins in both its leaves and nectar, including honey from the nectar