Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States. It borders the state of Montana to the east and northeast, Wyoming to the east and Utah to the south, to the north, it shares a small portion of the Canadian border with the province of British Columbia. With a population of around 1.7 million people and an area of 83,569 square miles, Idaho is the 14th largest, the states capital and largest city is Boise. Idaho prior to European settlement was inhabited solely by Native American peoples, in the early 19th century, Idaho was considered part of the Oregon Country, an area disputed between the U. S. and the United Kingdom. Idaho was eventually admitted to the Union on July 3,1890, forming part of the Pacific Northwest, Idaho is divided into several distinct geographic and climatic regions. In the states north, the relatively isolated Idaho Panhandle is closely linked with Eastern Washington, the states south includes the Snake River Plain, while the south-east incorporates part of the Great Basin.
Idaho is quite mountainous, and contains several stretches of the Rocky Mountains, around 38 percent of Idahos land is held by the United States Forest Service, the most of any state. Industries significant for the economy include manufacturing, mining, forestry. Idahos agricultural sector supplies a number of different products, but the state is best known for its potato crop, the official state nickname is the Gem State, which references Idahos reputation for gemstones and, more broadly, its many wilderness areas. The exact origin of the remains a mystery. Willing claimed that he had invented the name. Congress ultimately decided to name the area Colorado Territory when it was created in February 1861, thinking they would get a jump on the name, locals named a community in Colorado Idaho Springs. However, the name Idaho did not fall into obscurity, the same year Congress created Colorado Territory, a county called Idaho County was created in eastern Washington Territory. The county was named after a steamship named Idaho, which was launched on the Columbia River in 1860 and it is unclear whether the steamship was named before or after Willings claim was revealed.
Regardless, a portion of Washington Territory, including Idaho County, was used to create Idaho Territory in 1863. Despite this lack of evidence for the origin of the name, the name Idaho may be derived from the Plains Apache word ídaahę́, which means enemy. The Comanches used this word to refer to the Idaho Territory, a 1956 Idaho history textbook says, Idaho is a Shoshoni Indian exclamation. The word consists of three parts, the first is Ee, which in English conveys the idea of coming down
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Picea sitchensis, the Sitka spruce, is a large, evergreen tree growing to almost 100 m tall, and with a trunk diameter at breast height that can exceed 5 m. It is by far the largest species of spruce and the fifth-largest conifer in the world, the Sitka spruce is one of the few species documented to reach 91 m in height. Its name is derived from the community of Sitka, the bark is thin and scaly, flaking off in small, circular plates 5–20 cm across. The crown is conic in young trees, becoming cylindric in older trees. The shoots are very pale buff-brown, almost white, and glabrous, the cones are pendulous, slender cylindrical, 6–10 cm long and 2 cm broad when closed, opening to 3 cm broad. They have thin, flexible scales 15–20 mm long, the bracts just above the scales are the longest of any spruce, occasionally just exserted and they are green or reddish, maturing pale brown 5–7 months after pollination. The seeds are black,3 mm long, with a slender, more than a century of logging has left only a remnant of the spruce forest.
The largest trees were cut long before careful measurements could be made, the Queets Spruce is the largest in the world with a trunk volume of 337 m3, a height of 75.6 m, and a 4.55 m dbh. It is located near the Queets River in Olympic National Park, Sitka spruce is a long-lived tree, with individuals over 700 years old known. Because it grows rapidly under favorable conditions, large size may not indicate exceptional age, the Queets Spruce has been estimated to be only 350 to 450 years old, but adds more than a cubic meter of wood each year. Living in a wet climate, the Sitka spruce has a shallow root system with long lateral roots. Despite the prevalence of Sitka spruce in cool, wet climates, its thin bark, DNA analysis has shown that only Picea breweriana has a more basal position than Sitka spruce to the rest of the spruce. The other 33 species of spruce are more derived, which suggests that Picea originated in North America, Sitka spruce is native to the west coast of North America, with its northwestern limit on Kenai Peninsula and its southeastern limit near Fort Bragg in northern California.
It is closely associated with the rain forests and is found within a few kilometers of the coast in the southern portion of its range. North of Oregon, its range extends inland along river floodplains, Sitka spruce is of major importance in forestry for timber and paper production. It is naturalized in parts of Ireland and Great Britain. Sitka spruce is planted extensively in Denmark, Norway, in Norway, Sitka spruce was introduced in the early 1900s. An estimated 50,000 hectares have been planted in Norway and it is more tolerant to wind and saline ocean air, and grows faster than the native Norway spruce
Pandanus is a genus of monocots with some 750 accepted species. They are palm-like, dioecious trees and shrubs native to the Old World tropics and subtropics, common names include pandan, screw palm, and screw pine. They are classified in the order Pandanales, family Pandanaceae, often called pandanus palms, these plants are not closely related to palm trees. The species vary in size from small shrubs less than 1 m tall, to medium-sized trees 20 m tall, typically with a canopy, heavy fruit. The trunk is stout, wide-branching, and ringed with leaf scars. Depending on the species, the trunk can be smooth, the roots forms a pyramidal tract to hold the trunk. They commonly have many thick prop roots near the base, which provide support as the tree grows top-heavy with leaves and these roots are adventitious and often branched. The top of the plant has one or more crowns of strap-shaped leaves that may be spiny and they are dioecious, with male and female flowers produced on different plants. The flowers of the tree are 2–3 cm long and fragrant, surrounded by narrow.
The female tree produces flowers with round fruits that are bract-surrounded, the fruit changes from green to bright orange or red as it matures. The fruits can stay on the tree for more than 12 months and these plants grow from sea level to 3,300 m. Pandanus trees are of cultural and economic importance in the Pacific and they grow wild mainly in seminatural vegetation in littoral habitats throughout the tropical and subtropical Pacific, where they can withstand drought, strong winds, and salt spray. They propagate readily from seed, but are widely propagated from cuttings by local people. Species growing on exposed headlands and along beaches have thick prop roots as anchors in the loose sand. Those prop roots emerge from the stem, usually close to but above the ground, other species are adapted to mountain habitats and riverine forests. The tree is grown and propagated from shoots that form spontaneously in the axils of lower leaves, Pandanus fruit are eaten by animals including bats, crabs and monitor lizards, but the vast majority of species are dispersed primarily by water.
Its fruit can float and spread to other islands without help from man, craftsmen collect the pandan leaves from plants in the wild. Only the mature leaves are cut so the plant will naturally regenerate, the leaves are sliced in fine strips and sorted for further processing
Ilex opaca is a medium-sized broadleaved evergreen tree growing to 10–20 m tall, exceptionally up to 30 m tall, with a trunk diameter typically up to 50 cm, exceptionally 120 cm. The bark is gray, roughened by small warty lumps. The branchlets are stout, green at first and covered with rusty down, the winter buds are brown, obtuse or acute. The leaves remain on the branches for two to three years, finally falling in the spring when pushed off by growing buds. The flowers are white, borne in late spring in short pedunculate cymes from the axils of young leaves or scattered along the base of young branches. The calyx is small, four-lobed, imbricate in the bud, margins ciliate, the corolla is white, with four petal-like lobes united at the base, spreading, imbricate in bud. The flower stem is hairy with a minute bract at base, like all hollies, it is dioecious, with separate male and female plants, only female plants produce the characteristic red berries. One male can pollenize several females, the pistil on female flowers has a superior ovary, four-celled, rudimentary in staminate flowers, style wanting, stigma sessile, four-lobed, ovules one or two in each cell.
The fruit is a red drupe 6–12 mm diameter containing four seeds. Subspecies and varieties Ilex opaca subsp, arenicola A. E. Murray Ilex opaca var. laxiflora Nutt. Opaca Ilex opaca var. opaca Ilex opaca typically grows as a tree in moist forests of the east-central, southeastern. It is found in numbers in the northern part of its range from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. It is abundant further south on the Gulf and Atlantic lowlands, the branches are short and slender. The roots are thick and fleshy and it will grow in both dry and swampy soil, but grows slowly. Ilex opaca var. arenicola, or scrub holly, is found as a component in xeric scrub habitats of the Florida peninsula. The flowers are pollinated by insects, including bees, ants, the berries are reputedly poisonous to humans, but are important survival food for birds, who will eat the berries after other food sources are exhausted. The tree forms a canopy which offers protection for birds from predators. Songbirds including thrushes, catbirds and thrashers frequently feed on the berries, the wood is very pale, close-grained, takes a good polish, and is used for whip-handles, engraving blocks and cabinet work
The blue spruce, green spruce, white spruce, Colorado spruce, or Colorado blue spruce, with the scientific name Picea pungens, is a species of spruce tree. It is native to the Rocky Mountains of the United States, the blue spruce has blue coloured needles and is a coniferous tree. In the wild, Picea pungens grows to about 23 m and it is a columnar or conical evergreen conifer with densely growing horizontal branches. It has scaly grey bark on the trunk with yellowish-brown branches, waxy grey-green leaves, up to 3 cm long, are arranged radially on the shoots which curve upwards. The pale brown cones are up to 10 cm long, the specific epithet pungens means sharply pointed, referring to the leaves. The blue spruce is the State Tree of Colorado, Picea pungens and its many cultivars are often grown as ornamental trees in gardens and parks. It is grown for the Christmas tree industry, the blue spruce is attacked by two species of Adelges, an aphid-like insect that causes galls to form. Nymphs of the gall adelgid form galls at the base of twigs which resemble miniature pineapples.
The larva of the spruce budworm eat the buds and growing shoots while the spruce needle miner hollows out the needles and makes them coalesce in a webbed mass, mites can infest the blue spruce, especially in a dry summer, causing yellowing of the oldest needles. Another insect pest is the beetle which bores under the bark. It often first attacks trees which have blown over by the wind, the blue spruce is susceptible to several needle casting diseases which cause the needles to turn yellow, mottled or brown before they fall off. Various rust diseases affect the tree causing yellowing of the needles as well as needle fall, canker caused by Cytospora attacks one of the lower branches first and progressively makes its way higher up the tree. The first symptom is the needles turning reddish-brown and falling off, patches of white resin appear on the bark and the branch eventually dies. In traditional medicine, an infusion of the needles is used to treat colds and this liquid is used externally for rheumatic pains.
Early people used their wood for building
Such a name is called a binomial name, a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name, more informally it is called a Latin name. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs, for example, humans belong to the genus Homo and within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. The formal introduction of system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus. Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. Similarly, both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a name is usually given, at least when it is first mentioned. In zoology Patella vulgata Linnaeus,1758, the original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica, the parentheses indicate that the species is now considered to belong in a different genus.
The ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, in botany Amaranthus retroflexus L. – L. is the standard abbreviation used in botany for Linnaeus. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica, Rothmaler transferred it to the genus Hyacinthoides, the ICN does not require that the dates of either publication be specified. Prior to the adoption of the binomial system of naming species. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature and these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, and second, to be a diagnosis or description, such polynomial names may sometimes look like binomials, but are significantly different. For example, Gerards herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort, The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort, is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia. The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels, the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words.
The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné. It was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word trivial name together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as an epithet or specific name
Quercus coccinea, the scarlet oak, is an oak in the red oak section Quercus sect. The scarlet oak can be mistaken for the pin oak, the black oak, on scarlet oak the sinuses between lobes are C-shaped in comparison to pin oak, which has U-shaped sinuses and the acorns are half covered by a deep cap. Scarlet oak is native to the central and eastern United States, from southern Maine west to Wisconsin and Missouri, and south as far as Louisiana, Alabama. It occurs on dry, usually acidic soils and it is often an important canopy species in an oak-heath forest. Quercus coccinea is a deciduous tree growing to 20–30 m tall with an open. The leaves are green, 7–17 cm long and 8–13 cm broad, with seven lobes. Each lobe has 3-7 bristle-tipped teeth, the common English name is derived from the autumn coloration of the foliage, which generally becomes bright scarlet, in contrast, pin oak foliage generally turns bronze in autumn. The acorns are ovoid, 7–13 mm broad and 17–31 mm long, a third to a half covered in a cup, green maturing pale brown about 18 months after pollination.
Scarlet oak is planted as an ornamental tree, popular for its bright red fall color, although the tree is less commonly seen in cultivation than Q. rubra. The cultivar Splendens has gained the Royal Horticultural Societys Award of Garden Merit, the wood is generally marketed as red oak, but is of inferior quality, being somewhat weaker and not forming as large a tree. In Burns, Russell M. Honkala, Barbara H. Hardwoods, United States Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture. 2 – via Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry, natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. Quercus coccinea images from Vanderbilt Unitersity Interactive Distribution Map of Quercus coccinea photo of herbarium specimen at Missouri Botanical Garden, collected in Missouri in 1932
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Connecticut is often grouped along with New York and New Jersey as the Tri-State Area and it is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, and Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital city is Hartford, and its most populous city is Bridgeport, the state is named for the Connecticut River, a major U. S. river that approximately bisects the state. The word Connecticut is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for long tidal river, Connecticut is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous, and the fourth most densely populated of the 50 United States. It is known as the Constitution State, the Nutmeg State, the Provisions State, and it was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States. Connecticuts center of population is in Cheshire, New Haven County, Connecticuts first European settlers were Dutch.
They established a small, short-lived settlement in present-day Hartford at the confluence of the Park, half of Connecticut was a part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware rivers. The first major settlements were established in the 1630s by England, the Connecticut and New Haven Colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in North America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a charter, making Connecticut a crown colony. This colony was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution, the Connecticut River, Thames River, and ports along the Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state has a history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford. As of the 2010 Census, Connecticut features the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index, and median household income in the United States.
Landmarks and Cities of Connecticut Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York, on the north by Massachusetts, and on the east by Rhode Island. The state capital and third largest city is Hartford, and other cities and towns include Bridgeport, New Haven, Waterbury, Danbury, New Britain, Greenwich. Connecticut is slightly larger than the country of Montenegro, there are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut. The highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state, the highest point is just east of where Connecticut and New York meet, on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. At the opposite extreme, many of the towns have areas that are less than 20 feet above sea level. Connecticut has a maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront
Sabal palmetto, known as cabbage-palm, cabbage palmetto, blue palmetto, Carolina palmetto, common palmetto, swamp cabbage and sabal palm, is one of 15 species of palmetto palm. It is native to the deep southern United States, as well as Cuba, the Turks & Caicos Islands, and The Bahamas. In the United States the native range of Sabal palmetto is the plain of the lower East Coast from southeast North Carolina southward to Florida. Sabal palmetto grows up to 65 feet or 20 metres, starting at ½ to ⅔ the height the tree develops into a rounded, costapalmate fan of numerous leaflets. A costapalmate leaf has a definite costa unlike the typical palmate or fan leaf, but the leaflets are arranged radially like in a palmate leaf. All costapalmate leaves are about 0.20 inches or 5.1 millimetres across, produced in large panicles up to 8.2 feet or 2.5 metres in radius. The fruit is a drupe about.5 inches or 1.3 centimetres long containing a single seed. It is extremely salt-tolerant and is seen growing near both the Atlantic Ocean coast and the Gulf of Mexico coast.
Sabal palmetto is hardy to USDA zone 8, and has reported to have some cold hardness down to −13 °C or 8.6 °F. Maintenance of the Cabbage Palm tree is easy and very adaptable. The cabbage palmetto is known to tolerate drought, standing water, even though this palm is drought-tolerant, it thrives on regular light watering and regular feeding. It is highly tolerant of winds, but not saltwater flooding. The cabbage-like terminal bud has been eaten as hearts of palm, the bristles on the sheaths of young leaves have been made into scrubbing brushes. The trunks have been used as wharf piles, on June 28,1776, Charleston patriots under William Moultrie made a fort of palmetto trunks and from it defended successfully against the British in the Revolutionary War. Sabal palmetto is a landscape plant known for its tolerance of salt spray. Because of their relatively long establishment period and prevalence on ranchlands, instead, established plants are dug in the wild with small rootballs since virtually all the severed roots die and must be replaced by new roots in the new location.
Most leaves are removed at this time to reduce transpiration and it is the state tree of South Carolina and Florida. Most references rate the species as hardy to USDA hardiness zone 7b or 8a, Cabbage palms have excellent hurricane resistance, but are frequently over-pruned for a variety of reasons
United States territory
United States territory is any extent of region under the sovereign jurisdiction of the federal government of the United States, including all waters and all U. S. naval vessels. The United States asserts sovereign rights for exploring, exploiting and this extent of territory is all the area belonging to, and under the dominion of, the United States federal government for administrative and other purposes. The United States total territory includes a subset of political divisions, the United States territory includes any geography under the control of the United States federal government. Various regions and divisions are under the supervision of the United States federal government, the United States territory includes clearly defined geographical area and refers to an area of land, air, or sea under jurisdiction of United States federal governmental authority. The extent of territory is all the area belonging to, and under the dominion of, under Article IV of the U. S. Constitution, territory is subject to and belongs to the United States.
This includes tracts of land or water not included within the limits of any State, Congress possesses power to set territorial governments within the boundaries of the United States. The power of Congress over such territory is exclusive and universal, congressional legislation is subject to no control, unless in the case of ceded territory. The U. S. Congress is granted the exclusive and universal power to set a United States territorys political divisions, all territory under the control of the federal government is considered part of the United States for purposes of law. From 1901–1905, the U. S. Supreme Court in a series of known as the Insular Cases held that the Constitution extended ex proprio vigore to the territories. However, the Court in these cases established the doctrine of territorial incorporation, a Supreme Court ruling from 1945 stated that the term United States can have three different meanings, in different contexts, The term United States may be used in any one of several senses.
It may be merely the name of a sovereign occupying the position analogous to that of sovereigns in the family of nations. It may designate the territory over which the sovereignty of the United States extends, or it may be the name of the states which are united by. The United States Department of the Interior is charged with managing federal affairs within U. S. territory, the Interior Department has a wide range of responsibilities. The contiguous United States and Alaska are divided into administrative regions. These are called counties in 48 of the 50 states, and they are called boroughs in Alaska, a county can include a number of cities and towns, or just a portion of either type. These counties have varying degrees of political and legal significance, a township in the United States refers to a small geographic area. Territories are subdivided into legally administered tracts—e. g, geographic areas that are under the authority of a government. The District of Columbia and territories are under the authority of Congress