New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
Badlands are a type of dry terrain where softer sedimentary rocks and clay-rich soils have been extensively eroded by wind and water. They are characterized by steep slopes, minimal vegetation, lack of a substantial regolith, high drainage density, they can resemble a terrain of volcanic rock. Canyons, gullies, mesas and other such geologic forms are common in badlands, they are difficult to navigate by foot. Badlands have a spectacular color display that alternates from dark black/blue coal stria to bright clays to red scoria. Badlands are characterized by their thin to nonexistent regolith layers; the regolith profiles of badlands in arid climates are to resemble one another. In these regions, the upper layer is composed of silt and sand; this layer can form either a compact crust or a looser, more irregular aggregation of "popcorn" fragments. Located beneath the top layer is a sublayer, below which can be found a transitional shard layer, formed of loose disaggregated shale chips, which in turn gives way to a layer of unweathered shale.
Badlands such as those found in the Mancos Shale, the Brule Formation, the Chadron Formation, the Dinosaur Provincial Park can be said to fit this profile. In less arid regions, the regolith profile can vary considerably; some badlands have no regolith layer whatsoever. Others have a regolith with a clay veneer, still others have a biological crust of algae or lichens. In addition to lacking significant regolith, they lack much vegetation; the lack of vegetation could well be a result of the lack of a substantial regolith. The formation of badlands is a result of two processes: erosion; the process of deposition describes the accumulation, over time, of layers of mineral material. Different environments such as seas, rivers, or tropical zones, deposit different sorts of clays and sand. For instance, the badlands formations in Badlands National Park, South Dakota, United States underwent a 47-million year period of deposition which spanned three major geologic periods, resulting in clear, distinct layers of sediment which serve as a dramatic display of the law of superposition.
Once the deposited sediments have solidified, the sedimentary material becomes subject to erosion. It is sometimes erroneously taught that badlands erode at a steady rate of about one inch or 25 millimetres per year. In actuality, the precise processes by which the erosion responses take place vary depending on the precise interbedding of the sedimentary material. In 2010, researchers at Badlands National Park initiated a three-year project to learn more about the actual erosion rate of the specific badlands found in that park; some of the best-known badland formations can be found in the United States. In the U. S. Makoshika State Park in Montana and Badlands National Park in South Dakota together form a series of extensive badland formations. Located in this region is Theodore Roosevelt National Park, a United States National Park composed of three geographically separated areas of badlands in western North Dakota named after former U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt. Petrified Forest National Park in Arizona, part of Navajo County encompasses numerous bad lands that abuts the Navajo Indian Reservation and is directly North of Joseph City, Arizona.
Many dinosaurs are believed to be buried in the immediate area and exploration has been ongoing since the early 20th century. Among the Henry Mountains area in Utah, about 1,500 m above sea level and Jurassic aged shales are exposed. Another popular area of badland formations is Toadstool Geologic Park in the Oglala National Grassland located in northwestern Nebraska. Dinosaur National Monument in Colorado and Utah are badlands settings, along with several other areas in southern Utah, such as the Chinle Badlands in Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. A small badland called Hell's Half-Acre is present in Wyoming. Additional badlands exist in various places throughout southwest Wyoming, such as near Pinedale and in the Bridger Valley near the towns of Lyman and Mountain View, near the high Uintah Mountains. Pinnacles National Park in California has areas of badlands, as does the Mojave Desert in eastern California. El Malpais National Monument in western New Mexico is named after the Spanish word malpaís, meaning bad lands.
The Big Muddy Badlands in Saskatchewan, gained notoriety as a hideout for outlaws. There is a large badland area in Alberta in the valley of the Red Deer River, where Dinosaur Provincial Park is located, as well as in Drumheller, where The Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology is located. A well-known badlands formation in New Zealand – the Putangirua Pinnacles, formed by the erosion of the conglomerate of an old alluvial fan – is located at the head of a small valley near the southern tip of the North Island. Other badlands can be found in Italy, known as "Calanchi"; some examples include Aliano and Crete Senesi, Tuscany. The Bardenas Reales near Tudela and the Tabernas Desert in Tabernas, Almería, possible Los Monegros in Aragon, all of them in Spain, are examples in Europe; the Valle de la Luna is one of many examples of badland formations in midwestern Argentina. This geologic formation is the only place in the world where nearly all of the Triassic is represented in an undisturbed sequence of rock deposits.
Although most badland scenery is natural, there are some examples
Figure was a small bay stallion owned by Justin Morgan. The stallion was born in West Springfield, Massachusetts in 1789; the small, dark colt is believed to have been sired by an English Thoroughbred stallion named "True Briton" known as "Beautiful Bay" and "Traveller", foaled in 1768. Figure's dam was of "Wild-Air" breeding, foaled in 1784 in West Springfield; the dam was bred by Justin Morgan. Figure is thought to have stood about 14 hh, to have weighed about 950 lb, he was known for his prepotency, passing on his distinctive looks, conformation and athleticism. In 1792, Figure was advertised for stud before he was given as payment for a debt to Justin Morgan, a singing teacher and one-time Randolph, Town Clerk. Morgan owned Figure from 1792-1795, advertising him for stud in Randolph and Lebanon, New Hampshire, Royalton and Williston and Hinesburg, Vermont, he leased Figure to Robert Evans in the fall of 1795 to clear land for a Mr. Fisk at a rate of $15.00 a year. Morgan traded the horse to Samuel Allen for land in Moretown, Vermont.
Allen sold the stallion that year to William Rice of Woodstock, Vermont. In 1796, Figure raced in a sweepstakes in Brookfield, beating New York horses to win $50; that year, he was advertised at stud by Johnathan Shepard of Montpelier, who raced him in several match races in which he did well. Figure became known as the "Justin Morgan horse." Figure was traded again in 1797, along with a blacksmith shop, to James Hawkins. In 1801 he was recorded. Evans owned the horse until 1804, using the stallion for logging and breeding, until he fell into debt to Colonel John Goss. Goss collected the horse as part of the debt, used him to review troops, he entered the horse in a pulling bee. In 1805, Goss traded Figure for a mare owned by his brother David. David Goss owned Figure from 1805-1811, where he worked on the farm for 10 months, was used for breeding for two months each year, he was sold in 1811 to Philip Goss for the breeding season. Philip Goss sold Figure to Jacob Sanderson. Langmeade used the horse to haul freight, is thought to have abused the aging stallion.
Langmeade sold Figure to Joel Goss and Joseph Rogers at the end of 1811. Figure stood at stud for several years, before he was sold to Samuel Stone in 1817. Stone exhibited the stallion in the Randolph fair. Figure was used as a parade mount by President James Monroe that year. In 1819, Figure was sold to Levi Bean of Chelsea, Vermont. Toward the end of his life, Figure was put out to pasture, he died in 1821 from an injury to the flank, caused by a kick, at the age of 32. Figure is now buried in Vermont. Many myths developed Justin Morgan; the popular children's book, Justin Morgan Had a Horse by Marguerite Henry, is a fictionalized account of Figure and his early life. A movie about the pair was made by Walt Disney Studios, released in 1972, which took liberties with known events
The Nokota horse is a feral and semi-feral horse breed located in the badlands of southwestern North Dakota in the United States. The breed developed in the 19th century from foundation bloodstock consisting of ranch-bred horses produced from the horses of local Native Americans mixed with Spanish horses, harness horses and related breeds; the Nokota was wiped out during the early 20th century when ranchers, in cooperation with state and federal agencies, worked together to reduce competition for livestock grazing. However, when Theodore Roosevelt National Park was created in the 1940s, a few bands were inadvertently trapped inside, thus were preserved. In 1986, the park sold off a large number of horses, including herd stallions, released several stallions with outside bloodlines into the herds. At this point, brothers Leo and Frank Kuntz began purchasing the horses with the aim of preserving the breed, founded the Nokota Horse Conservancy in 1999 beginning a breed registry through the same organization.
A second, short-lived, registry was begun by another organization in Minnesota. In 2009, the North Dakota Badlands Horse Registry was created, which registers the different type of horses which have been removed from the park in recent years. Today, the park conducts regular thinning of the herd to keep numbers between 70 and 110, the excess horses are sold off; the Nokota horse has an angular frame, is blue roan in color, exhibits an ambling gait called the "Indian shuffle". The breed is separated into two sections, the traditional and the ranch type, which differ in conformation and height, they are used including endurance riding, western riding and English disciplines. The Nokota horse has an angular frame with prominent withers, a sloped croup, a low set tail. Members of the breed are blue roan, a color rare in other breeds, although black and gray are common. Less common colors include red roan, chestnut, dun and palomino. Pinto patterns such as overo and sabino occur occasionally. There are two general types of the Nokota horse.
The first is the traditional Nokota, known by the registry as the National Park Traditional. They tend to be smaller, more refined, closer in type to the Colonial Spanish Horse, stand between 14 and 14.3 hands high. The second type is known as the ranch-type or National Park Ranch, more resemble early "foundation type" Quarter Horses, stand from 14.2 to 17 hands. Members of the breed exhibit an ambling gait, once known as the "Indian shuffle." Nokota horses are described as intelligent. Members of the breed have been used in endurance racing and western riding, a few have been used in events such as fox hunting, three-day eventing and show jumping. Sources vary on the etymology of the breed's name, with one source stating that the Nokota derives its name from the Nakota people who inhabited North and South Dakota, while another says that the name was a combination of North Dakota created by the Kuntz brothers; the Nokota horse developed in the southwestern corner of North Dakota, in the Little Missouri River Badlands.
Feral horses were first encountered by ranchers in the 19th century, horses from domestic herds mingled with the original feral herds. Ranchers crossbred local Indian ponies, Spanish horses from the southwest, various draft, harness and stock horses to make hardy, useful ranch horses. Theodore Roosevelt, who ranched in the Little Missouri area between 1883 and 1886, wrote: In a great many —indeed in most— localities there are wild horses to be found, although invariably of domestic descent, being either themselves runaways from some ranch or Indian outfit, or else claiming such for their sires and dams, yet are quite as wild as the antelope on whose domain they have intruded. In 1884, the HT Ranch, located near Medora, North Dakota, bought 60 mares from a herd of 250 Native American-bred horses confiscated from the Lakota leader Sitting Bull and sold at Fort Buford, North Dakota in 1881; some of these mares were bred to the Thoroughbred racing stallion Lexington owned by the HT Ranch. By the early 20th century, the feral horse herds became the target of local ranchers looking to limit grazing competition for their livestock.
Many horses were rounded up, either used as ranch horses, sold for slaughter, or shot. From the 1930s through the 1950s, federal and state agencies worked with ranchers to remove horses from western North Dakota. However, when Theodore Roosevelt National Park was established in the 1940s, during construction, a few bands of horses were accidentally enclosed within the Park fence, by 1960 these bands were the last remaining feral horses in North Dakota. Nonetheless, the park sought to eliminate these horses; the National Park Service was declared exempt from the Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971 that covered free-roaming horses and burros on other federal lands. This allowed them to view the herds as nuisances and deal with them as such, including sending many to slaughter. In the late 1970s, growing public opposition to the removal of feral horses prompted management strategy changes, today the herds within the Theodore Roosevelt National Park are managed for the purposes of historical demonstration.
However, in 1986 the park added outside bloodlines with the aim of modifying the appearance of the Nokota. Park management felt that the horses created with the outside bloodlines would sell better at subsequent auctions; the dominant herd stallions were removed and replaced with two feral stallions from Bureau of Land Management Mustang herds, a crossbred
Flag and coat of arms of New Jersey
The coat of arms of the state of New Jersey includes: A shield with three plows, representative of New Jersey's agricultural tradition. A forward-facing helmet. A horse's head as the crest of the helmet; the female figures representative of the state's motto. Liberty is holding a staff supporting a "liberty cap"; the streamer at the foot of the emblem contains the State Motto of New Jersey, "Liberty and Prosperity", the year of statehood, 1776. It was designed by Pierre Eugene du Simitiere in 1777 and was modified in 1928; the seal is the central motif in the flag of New Jersey and the great seal of the state of New Jersey. The coat of arms contains a horse's head; the two Goddesses represent the state motto, "Liberty and Prosperity". Liberty is on the left, she is holding a staff with a liberty cap on it, the word liberty underneath her. The goddess on the right is goddess of agriculture, she is holding a cornucopia with prosperity written below her. According to the minutes of the New Jersey General Assembly for May 11, 1896, the date on which the Assembly approved the flag as the state emblem, the buff color is due indirectly to George Washington, who had ordered on September 14, 1779, that the uniform coats of the New Jersey Continental Line be dark blue, with buff facings.
Buff-colored facings had until been reserved only for his own uniform and those of other Continental generals and their aides. On February 14, 1780 the Continental War Officers in Philadelphia directed that the uniform coat facings of all regiments were to be the same as the background color of the regiments' state flag; the seal is described in New Jersey statute Title 52, §2-1: The great seal of this state shall be engraved on silver, which shall be round, of two and a half inches in diameter and three-eighths of an inch thick. The Goddess Liberty to carry in her dexter hand a pole, surmounted by a cap gules, with band azure at the bottom, displaying on the band six stars, argent. Ceres: Same as Liberty, save overdress, gules. Shield surmounted by six bars, or. Crest: A horse's head, proper. Underneath the shield and supporting the goddesses, a scroll azure, bordered with tenne, in three waves or folds; these words to be engraved round the arms, viz. "The Great Seal of the State of New Jersey".
In 2015 a circular letter issued by the State of New Jersey Department of the Treasury addressed the issue of unapproved and incorrect versions of "The Great Seal of the State of New Jersey". Many incorrectly show the underskirt in blue and not argent; the flag of the state of New Jersey includes the coat of arms of the state on a buff-colored background. In a 1965 law, the specific color shades of Jersey blue and buff were defined by the state. Using the Cable color system developed by The Color Association of the United States, Jersey blue was defined as Cable No. 70087. Coats of arms of the U. S. states Seals of the U. S. states New Jersey – State symbols Broad Seal War The Great Seal of the State of New Jersey Minutes of the New Jersey General Assembly for March 11, 1896
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State"; the state tree is the longleaf pine, the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery; the largest city by population is Birmingham. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s.
Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one based on agriculture to one with diversified interests; the state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education and technology. The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo; the suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. The word's spelling varies among historical sources; the first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu in transliterations of the term.
As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the word's meaning; some scholars suggest the word comes from amo. The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or "herb gatherers", referring to clearing land for cultivation or collecting medicinal plants; the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact.
The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, the center of the culture. Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently; the Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people. While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama.
The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. More than 160 years the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702; the city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane. After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783. After the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States and Spain; the latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. S. forces on April 13, 1813. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri