2014 UEFA Europa League Final
The 2014 UEFA Europa League Final was the final match of the 2013–14 UEFA Europa League, the 43rd season of Europe's secondary club football tournament organised by UEFA, the fifth season since it was renamed from the UEFA Cup to the UEFA Europa League. It was played at the Juventus Stadium in Turin, Italy on 14 May 2014, between Spanish side Sevilla and Portuguese side Benfica. Sevilla won the match 4–2 on penalties, following a 0–0 draw after extra time. Sevilla secured their third title in eight years, after winning the competition in 2006 and 2007. With this triumph, they joined Juventus and Liverpool as the teams with the most wins. Benfica lost their second consecutive UEFA Europa League final, following their defeat against Chelsea in the 2013 final. Including their runner-up finish in 1983, Benfica are the team with the most lost finals in the competition; as the winners, Sevilla earned the right to play against 2013–14 UEFA Champions League winners Real Madrid in the 2014 UEFA Super Cup.
The Juventus Stadium in Turin, was chosen as the venue of the match at a UEFA Executive Committee meeting in Istanbul, Turkey, on 20 March 2012. It is the home stadium of Juventus since 2011; this was the first time. Previous UEFA Cup finals contested over two legs have had one of their matches played in Turin; the first legs of the 1977 UEFA Cup Final and the 1990 UEFA Cup Final, both contested by Juventus, were played at the Stadio Comunale. The first leg of the 1992 UEFA Cup Final, contested by Torino, the second leg of the 1993 UEFA Cup Final, contested by Juventus, were played at the Stadio delle Alpi, demolished to make way for the Juventus Stadium. After a comeback by their opponents Valencia, who had lost the first leg 2–0, Sevilla secured their presence in the final after Stéphane Mbia's injury-time header qualified them on away goals. Sevilla had played in two UEFA Cup finals, winning both times in 2006 and 2007, were aiming to become the fourth team to win three UEFA Cup/Europa League titles, after Juventus and Liverpool.
Benfica reached their second consecutive Europa League final, after defeating Juventus 2–1 on aggregate and denying their opponents a chance to play the final at their home stadium. It was the first time a club has reached consecutive finals in the competition, having featured in the Champions League group stage on each occasion. Both of their previous UEFA Cup/Europa League finals, in 1983 and 2013, ended in defeats, they had played in seven European Cup finals. After winning successive European titles in 1961 and 1962, they had lost seven straight major European finals; the final was Sevilla's 19th match in the competition, having started their participation in the third qualifying round against Montenegrin side Mladost Podgorica. They only qualified for the competition after Málaga were banned and Rayo Vallecano were denied a UEFA license. Benfica transitioned from the Champions League group stage, after finishing third in their group, behind Paris Saint-Germain and Olympiacos, they became the first team to reach the Europa League final without conceding a defeat, registering six wins and two draws in eight knockout phase matches.
The only previous meeting between Sevilla and Benfica in European competition was in the 1957–58 European Cup preliminary round. The first leg at Estadio de Nervión, won by Sevilla 3–1, marked the European debut of both clubs; the second leg at Estádio da Luz ended 0–0, giving Sevilla the victory on aggregate, they reached the quarter-finals before losing to eventual champions Real Madrid. Note: In all results below, the score of the finalist is given first. Former Italy international and Juventus player Ciro Ferrara, who won the UEFA Cup in 1989 with Napoli, was named as the ambassador for the final. UEFA unveiled the visual identity of the final on 30 August 2013, the same day as the group stage draw; the international ticket sales phase for the general public ran from 27 February to 25 March 2014. Tickets were available in four price categories: €150, €100, €70, €45. German referee Felix Brych was named by UEFA on 7 May 2014 as the referee of the final; the rest of the refereeing team are fellow countrymen Mark Borsch and Stefan Lupp as assistant referees, Tobias Welz and Bastian Dankert as additional assistant referees, Thorsten Schiffner as reserve assistant referee, Serbia's Milorad Mažić as the fourth official.
Benfica were not able to play either Enzo Pérez or Lazar Marković, both of whom were sent off in the second leg of their semi-final. Eduardo Salvio, booked in that match, was suspended. At full-time, the game was locked at 0–0. After a further 30 minutes of extra time, both sides were still scoreless; this meant the match was the first final to end goalless and the first to be decided by penalty shoot outs. Sevilla won the penalty shoot out 4–2, their goals coming from Carlos Bacca, Stéphane Mbia and Kevin Gameiro. Lima and Luisão scored for Benfica, while Sevilla goalkeeper Beto saved goals from Óscar Cardozo and Rodrigo. Paul Gardner writing for Soccer America opined that the assistant referee standing on the goal line allowed Beto to advance too far when he saved the two goals and that Benfica should have been allowed to take the shots again. Sevilla FC in European football S. L. Benfica in European football 2013–14 UEFA Europa League 2014 final: Turin
2012 UEFA Europa League Final
The 2012 UEFA Europa League Final was the final match of the 2011–12 UEFA Europa League, the 41st season of Europe's secondary club football tournament organised by UEFA, the 3rd season since it was renamed from the UEFA Cup to the UEFA Europa League. The match was played on 9 May 2012 at the Arena Națională in Bucharest and was contested between two Spanish sides – Atlético Madrid and Athletic Bilbao; the match ended with Atlético Madrid winning 3–0, with Radamel Falcao scoring two goals and Diego scoring another. In doing so, Falcao was named man of the match, became the first player to win back-to-back Europa League titles with different teams; the winners earned the right to play against Chelsea, the winners of the 2011–12 UEFA Champions League, in the 2012 UEFA Super Cup. The Arena Națională was announced by UEFA as the venue of the 2012 final on 30 January 2010; this was the first final of a European football club competition hosted by Romania. The stadium was built on the site of the former national stadium, opened on 6 September 2011 with a UEFA Euro 2012 Group D qualifier match between Romania and France.
This was the second consecutive Europa League final contested by two teams from the same nation, the ninth time overall. The only other all-Spanish final of UEFA's second club competition was the 2007 UEFA Cup Final, when Sevilla defeated Espanyol; that was the last final where both finalist teams had played only in the UEFA Cup/Europa League in their routes to the final. Both teams have played in one previous Europa League/UEFA Cup final. Atlético Madrid won the first Europa League final after its renaming in 2010, beating Fulham 2–1 after extra time. Athletic Bilbao lost in 1977 to Juventus on away goals; the two teams have never met in European competition before. They have met each other in three Copa del Rey finals, with Athletic Bilbao winning two and Atlético Madrid winning one. In the 2011–12 La Liga season, Athletic Bilbao won their home fixture 3–0 and Atlético Madrid won their home fixture 2–1. After losing to Udinese on 20 October 2011, Atlético Madrid went on a run of 11 straight victories to the final, a record in European football, winning their remaining group games to top their group and defeating four knockout opponents both home and away.
† As a result of match-fixing allegations, Turkish club Fenerbahçe were removed from the 2011–12 UEFA Champions League and were replaced with Trabzonspor on 24 August 2011. As a result, Trabzonspor's second leg against Athletic Bilbao was cancelled, Athletic Bilbao advanced to the group stage; the two finalist teams received 9,000 tickets each for distribution to their supporters. 20,000 tickets have been sold to local football fans with a further 3,000 tickets available for sale to fans worldwide via UEFA.com, with prices between 100 RON and 500 RON. The remaining tickets are allocated to the local organising committee, UEFA’s 53 national football associations, commercial and broadcast partners. Former Romanian player Miodrag Belodedici was named as the ambassador for the final. 2011–12 UEFA Europa League 2012 UEFA Champions League Final 2012 UEFA Super Cup Athletic Bilbao in European football Atlético Madrid in European football Spanish football clubs in international competitions 2011–12 UEFA Europa League, UEFA.com 2012 final: National Stadium, Bucharest, UEFA.com
2019 UEFA Europa League Final
The 2019 UEFA Europa League Final will be the final match of the 2018–19 UEFA Europa League, the 48th season of Europe's secondary club football tournament organised by UEFA, the 10th season since it was renamed from the UEFA Cup to the UEFA Europa League. It will be played at the Olympic Stadium in Baku, Azerbaijan on 29 May 2019. Starting from this season, the Europa League final will be played in the same week as the Champions League final; the winners will earn the right to play against the winners of the 2018–19 UEFA Champions League in the 2019 UEFA Super Cup. They will qualify to enter the group stage of the 2019–20 UEFA Champions League, if they have qualified through their league performance, the berth reserved will be given to the third-placed team of the 2018–19 Ligue 1, the 5th-ranked association according to next season's access list. In March 2018, UEFA announced that a fourth substitution will be allowed in extra time and that the number of substitutes has been increased from 7 to 12.
The kick-off time has been changed from 20:45 CEST to 21:00 CEST. The match will be the first fixture of the Europa League to use the video assistant referee system. For the first time an open bidding process was launched on 9 December 2016 by UEFA to select the venues of the club competition finals. Associations had until 27 January 2017 to express interest, bid dossiers must be submitted by 6 June 2017. UEFA announced on 3 February 2017 that six associations expressed interest in hosting, confirmed on 7 June 2017 that three associations submitted bids for the 2019 UEFA Europa League Final: The following associations expressed interest in hosting but did not submit bids: Georgia: Boris Paichadze Dinamo Arena, Tbilisi Germany: Mercedes-Benz Arena, Stuttgart Scotland: Hampden Park, GlasgowThe bid evaluation report was published by UEFA on 14 September 2017; the Baku Olympic Stadium was selected as the venue by the UEFA Executive Committee on 20 September 2017. This is the first European club competition final to be held in Azerbaijan.
The stadium has been chosen as one of the host venues of UEFA Euro 2020. The final identity was unveiled on 31 August 2018 at the group stage draw. With a stadium capacity of 64,000 for the final, a total amount of 37,500 tickets are available to fans and the general public, with the two finalist teams receiving tickets each and with the other tickets being available for sale to fans worldwide via UEFA.com from 7 to 21 March 2019 in four price categories: €140, €90, €50, €30. The remaining tickets are allocated to the local organising committee, national associations, commercial partners and broadcasters, to serve the corporate hospitality programme; the first UEFA Europa League Trophy Tour will see the trophy visit eight European cities, beginning on 5 March 2019 at the Geneva Motor Show in Geneva, visiting Seville, London, Moscow and concluding at the host city Baku on 16 May 2019. The "home" team was determined by an additional draw held after the quarter-final and semi-final draws, held on 15 March 2019, 13:00 CET, at the UEFA headquarters in Nyon, Switzerland.
2019 UEFA Champions League Final 2019 UEFA Women's Champions League Final 2019 UEFA Super Cup Official website 2019 final: Baku, UEFA.com
Real Madrid CF
Real Madrid Club de Fútbol referred to as Real Madrid, is a Spanish professional football club based in Madrid. Founded on 6 March 1902 as the Madrid Football Club, the club has traditionally worn a white home kit since inception; the word real is Spanish for "royal" and was bestowed to the club by King Alfonso XIII in 1920 together with the royal crown in the emblem. The team has played its home matches in the 81,044-capacity Santiago Bernabéu Stadium in downtown Madrid since 1947. Unlike most European sporting entities, Real Madrid's members have owned and operated the club throughout its history; the club was estimated to be worth €3.47 billion in 2018, it was the highest-earning football club in the world, with an annual revenue of €750.9 million in 2018. The club is one of the most supported teams in the world. Real Madrid is one of three founding members of La Liga that have never been relegated from the top division since its inception in 1929, along with Athletic Bilbao and Barcelona.
The club holds many long-standing rivalries, most notably El Clásico with Barcelona and El Derbi with Atlético Madrid. Real Madrid established itself as a major force in both Spanish and European football during the 1950s, winning five consecutive European Cups and reaching the final seven times; this success was replicated in the league, where the club won five times in the space of seven years. This team, which consisted of players such as Alfredo Di Stéfano, Ferenc Puskás, Francisco Gento, Raymond Kopa, is considered by some in the sport to be the greatest team of all time. In domestic football, the club has won 64 trophies. In European and worldwide competitions, the club has won a record 26 trophies. In international football, they have achieved a record seven club world championships. Real Madrid was recognised as the FIFA Club of the 20th Century on 11 December 2000, received the FIFA Centennial Order of Merit on 20 May 2004; the club was awarded Best European Club of the 20th Century by the IFFHS on 11 May 2010.
In June 2017, the team succeeded in becoming the first club to win back to back Champions Leagues made it three in a row in May 2018, extending their lead atop the UEFA club rankings. Real Madrid's origins go back to when football was introduced to Madrid by the academics and students of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza, which included several Cambridge and Oxford University graduates, they founded Sky Football in 1897 known as La Sociedad as it was the only one based in Madrid, playing on Sunday mornings at Moncloa. In 1900, conflict between members caused some of them to leave and create a new club, Nueva Sociedad de Football, to distinguish themselves from Sky Football. Among the dissenters were Julián Palacios, recognized as the first Real Madrid president, Juan Padrós and Carlos Padrós, the latter two being brothers and future presidents of Real Madrid. In 1901 this new club was renamed as Madrid Football Club. Following a restructuring in 1902, Sky was renamed as "New Foot-Ball Club".
On 6 March 1902, after a new Board presided by Juan Padrós had been elected, Madrid Football Club was founded. Three years after its foundation, in 1905, Madrid FC won its first title after defeating Athletic Bilbao in the Spanish Cup final; the club became one of the founding sides of the Royal Spanish Football Federation on 4 January 1909, when club president Adolfo Meléndez signed the foundation agreement of the Spanish FA. After moving between grounds the team moved to the Campo de O'Donnell in 1912. In 1920, the club's name was changed to Real Madrid after King Alfonso XIII granted the title of Real to the club. In 1929, the first Spanish football league was founded. Real Madrid led the first league season until the last match, a loss to Athletic Bilbao, meant they finished runners-up to Barcelona. Real Madrid won its first League title in the 1931–32 season and retained the title the following year, becoming the first team to win the championship twice. On 14 April 1931, the arrival of the Second Spanish Republic caused the club to lose the title Real and went back to being named Madrid Football Club.
Football continued during the Second World War, on 13 June 1943 Madrid beat Barcelona 11–1 in the second leg of a semi-final of the Copa del Generalísimo, the Copa del Rey having been renamed in honour of General Franco. It has been suggested Barcelona players were intimidated by police, including by the director of state security who "allegedly told the team that some of them were only playing because of the regime's generosity in permitting them to remain in the country." The Barcelona chairman, Enrique Piñeyro, was assaulted by Madrid fans. However, none of these allegations have been proven and FIFA and UEFA still consider the result as legitimate. According to Spanish journalist and writer, Juan Carlos Pasamontes, Barcelona player Josep Valle denied that the Spanish security forces came before the match. Instead, at the end of the first half, Barcelona coach Juan José Nogués and all of his players were angry with the hard-style of play Real Madrid was using and with the aggressiveness of the home crowd.
When they refused to take the field, the Superior Chief of Police of Madrid appeared, identified himself, ordered the team to take the field. Santiago Bernabéu Yeste became president of Real Madrid in 1945. Under his presidency, the club, its stadium Santiago Bernabéu and its training facilities Ciudad Deportiva were rebuilt after the Spa
SV Werder Bremen
Sportverein Werder Bremen von 1899 e. V. known as Werder Bremen, is a German sports club located in Bremen in the northwest German federal state Free Hanseatic City of Bremen. The club has grown to 40,400 members, it is best known for its association football team. Bremen's football club has been a mainstay in the Bundesliga, the top league of the German football league system. Bremen has won the Bundesliga championship the DFB-Pokal six times, their latest Bundesliga championship came in 2004, when they won a double, their last win of the German cup came in 2009. Bremen has had European success, winning the 1992 European Cup Winners' Cup. Bremen reached the final match of the last edition of the UEFA Cup in 2009. During the mid-2000s, Bremen was one of the most successful teams in the Bundesliga, but the club has not played in a European competition since the 2010–11 campaign. Since 1924, Werder Bremen's stadium is the Weserstadion; the club has a rivalry with another club in northern Germany, known as the Nordderby.
The club was founded on 4 February 1899 as Fußballverein Werder by a group of 16 vocational high school students who had won a prize of sports equipment. The students took the club's name from a German word for "river peninsula", which described the riverside field on which they played their first football games; the predecessor to Bremen, known as SV Werder, played its first match on 10 September 1899 against ASC 1898 Bremen coming away with a 1–0 victory. In 1900, FV Bremen was represented at the founding of the German Football Association at Leipzig; the club enjoyed some early success, fielding competitive sides and winning a number of local championships. FV took part in the qualification play for the national championships in playoffs held by the Norddeutscher Fussball Verband, one of the seven major regional leagues after the turn of the century, but were unable to advance, they became the first club to charge spectators a fee to attend their games and to fence in their playing field.
In April 1914, the club became a department of Allgemeiner Bremer Turnverein 1860 and was known as Sportabteilung Werder des ABTV. The relationship was short-lived and the club went its own way again less than two months later. Steady growth after World War I led the club to adopt other sports and, on 19 January 1920, change their name to the current Sportverein Werder Bremen. Football remained their primary interest, so much so that in 1922, they became the first German club to hire a professional coach; the team made regular appearances in year-end NFV qualification round play through the 1920s and on into the early 1930s, but did not enjoy any success. German football was re-organized under the Third Reich in 1933 into 16 first division leagues known as Gauligen and Werder became part of the Gauliga Niedersachsen; the club scored its first real successes, capturing division titles in 1934, 1936, 1937, took part for the first time in national level playoff competition. The shape of the Gauligen changed through the course of World War II and in 1939, the Gauliga Niedersachsen was split into two divisions.
SV played in the Gauliga Niedersachsen/Nord where they captured a fourth title in 1942. As the war overtook the country, the Gauligen became progressively more local in character; the Gauliga Niedersachsen/Nord became the Gauliga Weser-Ems and the Gauliga Weser-Ems/Bremen over the next two years. Werder's 1944–45 season was cut short after just two matches. Like other organizations throughout Germany, the club was disbanded on the order of the occupying Allied authorities after the war, they re-constituted themselves on 10 November 1945 as Turn- und Sportverein Werder 1945 Bremen, changed to Sport-Club Grün-Weiß 99 Bremen on 4 February 1946. The team played in the Stadtliga Bremen, after capturing the title there, participated in the northern German championship round, advancing to the quarter-finals, they were able to reclaim the name SV Werder on 25 March 1946 before taking part in the playoffs. At the time, professionals were not permitted to play in the German game, so it was normal for football players to take on other jobs with the club's local patron.
In the case of Werder, a number of the players worked at the nearby Brinkmann tobacco factory, so the side took on the nickname Texas 11 after one of the company's popular cigarette brands. Between the end of WW2 and the formation of the Bundesliga in 1963, the club continued to do well, being recognized as one of the top two teams in northern Germany, along with Hamburger SV. In 1961, they managed, their performance was good enough to earn them a place as a charter member of the Bundesliga, in the league's second season, Werder took the championship. They earned a second-place finish in the 1967–68, but languished in the bottom half of the table for a dozen years. An attempt to improve their lot by signing high-priced talent earned the side the new, derisive nickname of the Millionaires and turned out to be an expensive failure; the club dropped out of the Bundesliga for the first and only time, being relegated to the 2nd Bundesliga-Nord for the 1980–81 season after a 17th-place finish. Werder Bremen recovered themselves under the direction of newly hired coach Otto Rehhagel, who led the side to a string of successes: Bundesliga runners-up in 1983, 1985 and 1986, champions in 1988.
In 1993, the club earned its third Bundesliga title and, in the following year, its third DFB-P
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Tottenham Hotspur F.C.
Tottenham Hotspur Football Club referred to as Tottenham or Spurs, is a professional football club in Tottenham, England, that competes in the Premier League. Tottenham Hotspur Stadium has been the club's home ground since 2019, replacing their former home of White Hart Lane, demolished to make way for the new stadium on the same site, their training ground is on Hotspur Way in Bulls Cross in the London Borough of Enfield. Tottenham have played in a first strip of white shirts and navy blue shorts since the 1898–99 season; the club's emblem is a cockerel standing upon a football, with a Latin motto Audere est Facere. Founded in 1882, Tottenham won the FA Cup for the first time in 1901, the only non-League club to do so since the formation of the Football League in 1888. Tottenham were the first club in the 20th century to achieve the League and FA Cup Double, winning both competitions in the 1960–61 season. After defending the FA Cup in 1962, in 1963 they became the first British club to win a UEFA club competition – the European Cup Winners' Cup.
They were the inaugural winners of the UEFA Cup in 1972, becoming the first British club to win two different major European trophies. They have collected at least one major trophy in each of the six decades from the 1950s to 2000s – an achievement only matched by Manchester United. In total, Spurs have won two league titles, eight FA Cups, four League Cups, seven FA Community Shields, one European Cup Winners' Cup and two UEFA Cups; the club has a long-standing rivalry with nearby club Arsenal, with head-to-head fixtures known as the North London derby. Named Hotspur Football Club, the club was formed on 5 September 1882 by a group of schoolboys led by Bobby Buckle, they were members of the Hotspur Cricket Club and the football club was formed to play sports during the winter months. A year the boys sought help with the club from John Ripsher, the Bible class teacher at All Hallows Church, who became the first president of the club and its treasurer. Ripsher helped and supported the boys through the club's formative years and found premises for the club.
In April 1884 the club was renamed "Tottenham Hotspur Football Club" to avoid confusion with another club, London Hotspur, whose post had been mistakenly delivered to North London. Nicknames for the club include "Spurs" and "the Lilywhites"; the boys played games between themselves and friendly matches against other local clubs. The first recorded match took place on 30 September 1882 against a local team named the Radicals, which Hotspur lost 2–0; the team entered their first cup competition in the London Association Cup, won 5–2 in their first competitive match on 17 October 1885 against a company's works team called St Albans. The club's fixtures began to attract the interest of the local community and attendances at its home matches increased. In 1892, they played for the first time in the short-lived Southern Alliance; the club turned professional on 20 December 1895 and, in the summer of 1896, was admitted to Division One of the Southern League. On 2 March 1898, the club became a limited company, the Tottenham Hotspur Football and Athletic Company.
Soon after, Frank Brettell became the first manager of Spurs, he signed John Cameron, who took over as player-manager when Brettell left a year later. Cameron would have a significant impact on Spurs, helping the club win its first trophy, the Southern League title in the 1899-1900 season; the following year Spurs won the 1901 FA Cup by beating Sheffield United 3–1 in a replay of the final, after the first game ended in a 2-2 draw. In doing so they became the only non-League club to achieve the feat after the formation of The Football League in 1888. In 1908, the club was elected into the Football League Second Division and won promotion to the First Division in their first season, finished runners-up in their first year in the league. In 1912, Peter McWilliam became manager. Spurs were relegated to the Second Division on the resumption of league football after the war, but returned to the First Division as Second Division champions of the 1919–20 season. On 23 April 1921, McWilliam guided Spurs to their second FA Cup win, beating Wolverhampton Wanderers 1–0 in the Cup Final.
Spurs finished second to Liverpool in the league in 1922, but would finish mid-table in the next five seasons. Spurs were relegated in the 1927–28 season after McWilliam left. For most of the 1930s and 40s, Spurs languished in the Second Division, apart from a brief return to the top flight in the 1933–34 and 1934–35 seasons. Former Spurs player Arthur Rowe became manager in 1949. Rowe developed a style of play, known as "push and run", that proved to be successful in his early years as manager, he took the team back to the First Division after finishing top of the Second Division in the 1949–50 season. In his second season in charge, Tottenham won their first top tier league championship title when they finished top of the First Division for the 1950–51 season. Rowe resigned in April 1955 due to a stress-induced illness from managing the club. Before he left, he signed one of Spurs' most celebrated players, Danny Blanchflower, who would win the FWA Footballer of the Year twice while at Tottenham.
Bill Nicholson took over as manager in October 1958. He would become the club's most successful manager, guiding the team to major trophy success three seasons in a row in the early 1960s: the Double in 1961, the FA Cup in 1962 and the Cup Winners' Cup in 1963. Nicholson signed Dave Mackay and John White in 1959, two influential players of the Double-winning team, Jimmy Greaves in 19