United Nations Security Council Resolution 1874
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1874 was adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council on 12 June 2009. The resolution, passed under Chapter VII, Article 41, of the UN Charter, imposes further economic and commercial sanctions on the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and encourages UN member states to search North Korean cargo, in the aftermath of an underground nuclear test conducted on 25 May 2009; the provisions of the resolution include: Authorizing member states to inspect, "in accordance with their national authorities and legislation, consistent with international law", North Korean cargo on land and air, to destroy any goods suspected of being connected to the DPRK's nuclear programme. Requiring the North Korean government to return to the six-party talks and renounce its announcement of withdrawal from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Preventing financial services that could contribute to the nuclear or ballistic missile related programmes. Instructing member states not to provide financial assistance to the DPRK nuclear programme, or enter into loans with the country, except for humanitarian or developmental reasons.
Extending the arms embargo on North Korea by banning all weapons exports from the country and most imports, with an exception to small arms, light weapons and related material – though member states must notify the Security Council five days prior to selling the weapons. Demanding that North Korea halt its nuclear weapons program and conduct no further nuclear or missile tests. Asking member states to notify the Council of steps they are taking to implement the sanctions within 45 days. Affirming the Security Council's commitment to a peaceful, diplomatic resolution to the situation. Adopting the resolution unanimously, the Council condemned the nuclear test, in "violation and flagrant disregard" of previous Council resolutions 1695 and 1718; the resolution is now binding under international law. China: Ambassador Zhang Yesui said China voted in favor of the resolution as actions by North Korea were in "disregard for the international community’s common objective". However, he stressed that the diplomatic means should be employed rather than imposing sanctions, the resolution should not "adversely impact the country’s development, or humanitarian assistance to it".
He urged against the use of force when inspecting North Korean cargo. France: Ambassador Jean-Maurice Ripert remarked that the DPRK had been "engaged in a secret nuclear programme" which increased its threat, he said that the country had increased tensions in the region by firing missiles and the Security Council had responded to that by imposing tough sanctions on the regime, though he mentioned that the Council was concerned about the population. Russia: Permanent Representative Vitaly Churkin said the measures adopted were "substantive and targeted in nature", "clearly tied to ending the DPRK programme to create nuclear missiles", he insisted the sanctions did not target the North Korean people, a key issue with his delegation. He insisted that any sanctions be lifted once North Korea cooperates. United Kingdom: Deputy Ambassador Philip Parham said the adoption of the resolution shows that "the international community is united in condemning North Korea's proliferation activities". United States: Envoy Rosemary DiCarlo said that the resolution created "markedly stronger sanctions" against Pyongyang to persuade it to abandon its nuclear weapons program.
This was followed by U. S. Ambassador to the UN Susan Rice who claimed the resolution was "unprecedented" and has "teeth that will bite"; the resolution was a "strong and united international response" to the testing of the nuclear device. Austria: Ambassador Thomas Mayr-Harting said the resolution was a "clear and unequivocal" response to North Korea's actions, he called for the country to rejoin the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Burkina Faso: Deputy Representative Paul Robert Tiendrébéogo supported the resolution emphasising his country's aspiration for a nuclear-free world and the right to peaceful use of nuclear energy, he called on North Korea to cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency, six-party talks and other institutions stressing that the country should "choose dialogue". Croatia: Ambassador Ranko Vilović mentioned that the sanctions were not targeted towards the North Korean population, but called on North Korea to accede to the CTBT and six-party talks. Costa Rica: Permanent Representative Jorge Urbina echoed the views of the rest of the Council, urged the country to return to international systems of dialogue.
Japan: Permanent Representative Yukio Takasu welcomed the resolution, describing the DPRK's actions as an "irresponsible act" which constituted a threat to his country. He hoped; the Japanese Prime Minister Taro Aso urged North Korea to take the resolution "seriously". Libya: Permanent Representative Abdurrahman Mohamed Shalgham said the world would not enjoy security until all nuclear weapons were eliminated, he said the international community had failed to reward Libya for ceasing its nuclear programme and hoped similar sanctions would be applied to Israel. Shalgham said that while his country did not support sanctions which harm the population, in this case this was the best way forward to bring about a solution to the situation. Mexico: Ambassador Claude Heller said the resolution was a "clear message" that North Korea's actions were unacceptable to the international community, he remarked that recent actions by the DPRK were in violation of Security Council resolutions which undermined aspirations for a nuclear-free world and urged North Korea to "completely and p
North Korea and weapons of mass destruction
North Korea has a military nuclear weapons program and has a significant quantity of chemical and biological weapons. As of 2003, North Korea is no longer a party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; the country has come under sanctions after conducting a number of nuclear tests, beginning in 2006. The nuclear program can be traced back to about 1962, when North Korea committed itself to what it called "all-fortressization", the beginning of the hyper-militarized North Korea of today. In 1963, North Korea was refused; the Soviet Union agreed to help North Korea develop a peaceful nuclear energy program, including the training of nuclear scientists. China, after its nuclear tests rejected North Korean requests for help with developing nuclear weapons. Soviet engineers took part in the construction of the Yongbyon Nuclear Scientific Research Center and began construction of an IRT-2000 research reactor in 1963, which became operational in 1965 and was upgraded to 8 MW in 1974.
In 1979, North Korea began to build a second research reactor in Yongbyon, as well as an ore processing plant and a fuel rod fabrication plant. North Korea's nuclear weapons program dates back to the 1980s. Focusing on practical uses of nuclear energy and the completion of a nuclear weapon development system, North Korea began to operate facilities for uranium fabrication and conversion, conducted high-explosive detonation tests. In 1985 North Korea ratified the NPT but did not include the required safeguards agreement with the IAEA until 1992. In early 1993, while verifying North Korea's initial declaration, the IAEA concluded that there was strong evidence this declaration was incomplete; when North Korea refused the requested special inspection, the IAEA reported its noncompliance to the UN Security Council. In 1993, North Korea announced its withdrawal from the NPT, but suspended that withdrawal before it took effect. Under the 1994 Agreed Framework, the U. S. government agreed to facilitate the supply of two light water reactors to North Korea in exchange for North Korean disarmament.
Such reactors are considered "more proliferation-resistant than North Korea's graphite-moderated reactors", but not "proliferation proof". Implementation of the Agreed Framework foundered, in 2002 the Agreed Framework fell apart, with each side blaming the other for its failure. By 2002, Pakistan had admitted that North Korea had gained access to Pakistan's nuclear technology in the late 1990s. Based on evidence from Pakistan and multiple confessions from North Korea itself, the United States accused North Korea of noncompliance and halted oil shipments. By the end of 2002, the Agreed Framework was abandoned. In 2003, North Korea again announced its withdrawal from the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty. In 2005, it vowed to close the nuclear program. On October 9, 2006, North Korea announced it had conducted its first nuclear test. An underground nuclear explosion was detected, its yield was estimated as less than a kiloton, some radioactive output was detected. On January 6, 2007, the North Korean government further confirmed.
On March 17, 2007, North Korea told delegates at international nuclear talks that it was preparing to shut down its main nuclear facility. The agreement was reached following a series of six-party talks, involving North Korea, South Korea, Russia and the United States begun in 2003. According to the agreement, a list of its nuclear programs would be submitted and the nuclear facility would be disabled in exchange for fuel aid and normalization talks with the United States and Japan; this was delayed from April due to a dispute with the United States over Banco Delta Asia, but on July 14, International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors confirmed the shutdown of North Korea's Yongbyon nuclear reactor and North Korea began to receive aid. This agreement fell apart following a North Korean satellite launch. In April 2009, reports surfaced that North Korea has become a "fully fledged nuclear power", an opinion shared by International Atomic Energy Agency Director General Mohamed ElBaradei. On May 25, 2009, North Korea conducted a second nuclear test, resulting in an explosion estimated to be between 2 and 7 kilotons.
The 2009 test, like the 2006 test, is believed to have occurred at Mantapsan, Kilju County, in the north-eastern part of North Korea. This was found by an earthquake occurring at the test site. In February 2012, North Korea announced that it would suspend uranium enrichment at the Yongbyon Nuclear Scientific Research Center and not conduct any further tests of nuclear weapons while productive negotiations involving the United States continue; this agreement included a moratorium on long-range missile tests. Additionally, North Korea agreed to allow IAEA inspectors to monitor operations at Yongbyon; the United States reaffirmed that it had no hostile intent toward the DPRK and was prepared to improve bilateral relationships, agreed to ship humanitarian food aid to North Korea. The United States called the move "important, if limited", but said it would proceed cautiously and that talks would resume only after North Korea made steps toward fulfilling its promise. However, after North Korea conducted a long-range missile test in April 2012, the United States decided not to proceed with the food aid.
On February 11, 2013, the U. S. Geological Survey detected a magnitude 5.1 seismic disturbance, reported to be a third underground nuclear test. North Korea has reported it as a successful nuclear test with a lighter warhead that delivers mo
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1718
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1718 was adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council on October 14, 2006. The resolution, passed under Chapter VII, Article 41, of the UN Charter, imposes a series of economic and commercial sanctions on the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the aftermath of that nation's claimed nuclear test of October 9, 2006. UNSCR 1718 banned a range of imports and exports to North Korea and imposed an asset freeze and travel ban on persons involved in the country’s nuclear program; this trade ban included “battle tanks, armoured combat vehicles, large caliber artillery systems, combat aircraft, attack helicopters, missiles or missile systems.” The resolution prohibited imports of luxury goods to the country. Large-scale arms, nuclear technology, related training on nuclear weapons development were prohibited from being provided to North Korea. All states were to cooperate in inspecting cargo suspected of trafficking nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons into the country.
In practice, not all states supported this and China, an ally of North Korea, did not inspect cargo to and from the country and continued to support the North Korean regime. Sanctions limiting trade and instituting travel bans were included. Stipulations required states to freeze the assets of individuals suspected of being involved with North Korea’s nuclear program. Special provisions were included that allowed money transfers and travel ban exemptions for humanitarian purposes to be reviewed on a case-by-case basis; the resolution's provisions include: North Korea must "not conduct any further nuclear test or launch of a ballistic missile", "suspend all activities related to its ballistic missile programme" and "abandon all nuclear weapons and existing nuclear programmes in a complete and irreversible manner". The DPRK must "return to the six-party talks without precondition". Shipments of cargo going to and from North Korea may be stopped and inspected for weapons of mass destruction or associated items.
A ban is placed on imports and exports of "battle tanks, armoured combat vehicles, large calibre artillery systems, combat aircraft, attack helicopters, missiles or missile systems", "related materiel including spare parts" and any other items identified by the sanctions committee. UN member states must freeze the overseas assets of individuals and companies involved with the DPRK's weapons programmes. An international travel ban is placed on programme employees and their families. UN members are banned from exporting luxury goods to North Korea; the resolution established a committee to gather more information, specify the sanctions, monitor them, issue recommendations. Subsequently, in 2009 a Panel of Experts was established in support of this Committee. While the resolution does invoke Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter which allows for enforcement, it does not provide for any use of military force to back up these demands; the UN Security Council had earlier determined to present a united front on this resolution in order to make clear to Pyongyang its condemnation of the reclusive nation's nuclear aspirations, but there remain differences of opinion about the implementation of the resolution.
Both China and Russia are concerned about how cargo inspections could provoke confrontations with the North Korean Navy, China declared after passage of the resolution that it will not perform such inspections. The United States compromised on its initial desire to block all imports of military equipment; the final vote on the sanction was delayed by the attempts to change the wording. On 16 November 2006, under the terms of the resolution, French officials in the French territory of Mayotte in the Indian Ocean searched a North Korean ship. North Korea's UN envoy Pak Gil Yon walked out of the chamber after saying Pyongyang "totally rejects" the "unjustifiable" resolution, he said it was "gangster-like" for the Security Council to have adopted a "coercive resolution" while neglecting US pressure on North Korea: "If the United States increases pressure on the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the DPRK will continue to take physical countermeasures considering it as a declaration of war."The United States ambassador at the time, John Bolton, said that it was the second time in three months that the representative of North Korea had rejected a unanimous resolution of the Security Council and walked out.
He went on to add: "It is the contemporary equivalent of Nikita Khrushchev pounding his shoe on the rostrum of the General Assembly."On October 17, 2006, North Korea said the United Nations had declared war on the country when it imposed sanctions for the country's nuclear test. The DPRK foreign ministry said North Korea was not afraid of war. A statement carried by the official Korean Central News Agency said that North Korea will "mercilessly strike" if its sovereignty is violated. 2006 North Korean nuclear test List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1701 to 1800 North Korea and weapons of mass destruction United Nations Security Council Resolution 1874 UN video feeds of Security Council vote Text of the Resolution at undocs.org D'Amato, Anthony. "Pyongyang and Proliferation: The UN North Korea Resolution". JURIST. Archived from the original on 8 February 2012. UN Sanction Search Tool UN Security Council Committee Established Pursuant to Resolution 1718 (Reports issued by the UN Panel of Experts, established to support of the Sanctions Committee in carrying out its mandate as specified in paragraph
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1985
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1985, adopted unanimously on June 10, 2011, after recalling resolutions 825, 1540, 1695, 1718, 1874, 1887, 1928 on the topics of North Korea and nuclear weapons, the Council extended the mandate of an expert panel monitoring sanctions against the country until June 12, 2012. China had blocked the release of the previous report of the expert panel after it accused North Korea of violating the sanctions; the Security Council determined that the proliferation and delivery of nuclear and biological weapons constituted a threat to international peace and security. It recalled that reports from the expert panel had to make credible and objective assessments and recommendations. Acting under Article 41 of Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Council extended the mandate of the expert panel established in Resolution 1874 to monitor the newly strengthened sanctions regime against North Korea, imposed after an underground nuclear test conducted in May 2009.
The panel was requested to provide a report by November 12, 2011 and a second report 30 days prior to the termination of its current mandate with its findings and recommendations. All states, United Nations agencies and others were urged to co-operate with the Committee of the Security Council established in Resolution 1718 and the expert panel. 2009 North Korean nuclear test List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1901 to 2000 North Korea and weapons of mass destruction Nuclear power in North Korea Text of the Resolution at undocs.org
United States Ambassador to the United Nations
The United States Ambassador to the United Nations is the leader of the U. S. delegation, the U. S. Mission to the United Nations; the position is more formally known as the "Permanent Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations, with the rank and status of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Representative of the United States of America in the Security Council of the United Nations". S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations. There is a Deputy Ambassador who assumes the duties of the ambassador in his or her absence. Like all United States ambassadors, the ambassador to the UN and the deputy ambassador are nominated by the U. S. President and confirmed by the Senate; the Ambassador serves at the pleasure of the President. The U. S. Permanent Representative is charged with representing the United States on the U. N. Security Council and during all plenary meetings of the General Assembly, except in the rare situation in which a more senior officer of the United States is present.
Jonathan Cohen, the deputy permanent representative since June 8, 2018, a career diplomat, became the Acting U. S. Ambassador on January 1, 2019, after the resignation of Nikki Haley came into effect. On December 7, 2018, President Donald Trump named Heather Nauert to become the Permanent Ambassador, subject to Senate confirmation. On February 16, 2019, after a lengthy period where Nauert had retreated from the public gaze, it was announced that she had withdrawn her name from consideration. On February 22, 2019, President Trump nominated Kelly Knight Craft to become the Ambassador. Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. a leading moderate Republican who lost his seat in the United States Senate to John F. Kennedy in the 1952 elections, was appointed ambassador to the United Nations in 1953 by Dwight D. Eisenhower in gratitude for the defeated senator's role in the new president's defeat of conservative leader Robert A. Taft for the 1952 Republican nomination and subsequent service as his campaign manager in the general election.
The Ambassadorship continued to hold this status through the Ford and Reagan administrations but was removed from cabinet rank by George H. W. Bush, who had held the position himself, it was restored under the Clinton administration. It was not a cabinet-level position under the George W. Bush administration, but was once again elevated under the Obama administration, retained as such by the Trump administration. Former UN Ambassador John R. Bolton has publicly opposed the granting of cabinet-level status to the office, stating "One, it overstates the role and importance the U. N. should have in U. S. foreign policy, you shouldn't have two secretaries in the same department". In December 2018, it was reported by several news organizations that along with the nomination of Heather Nauert to replace Nikki Haley, the Trump administration would once again downgrade the position to non-Cabinet rank; the following is a chronological list of those who have held the office: As of April 2019, there are twelve living former U.
S. Ambassadors to the United Nation, the oldest being Edward J. Perkins; the most recent Ambassador to die was George H. W. Bush, on November 30, 2018. Living former U. S. Ambassadors to the United Nations Diplomatic Security Service Residence of the United States Ambassador to the United Nations Official website
United Nations Security Council Resolution 2270
The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 2270 on March 2, 2016, with approval of all the five permanent members and the ten non-permanent members in response to North Korea’s fourth nuclear test on January 6, 2016, its launch of a long-range missile carrying what it said was a satellite on February 7, 2016. North Korea conducted its third nuclear test on February 12, 2013, in response, the UN Security Council convened to discuss sanctions against the country. North Korea made its first announcement about a fourth nuclear test during the March 31st Plenary Meeting of the Central Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea, where the leadership adopted the policy of ‘parallel development of economy and nuclear power’. Since North Korea has continued development tests of various missiles, such as intercontinental ballistic missiles designed for nuclear weapons delivery and submarine-launched ballistic missiles, while concentrating on miniaturization, weight-reduction and diversification of nuclear weapons.
Members of the international community such as the UN had been enhancing broader sanctions against North Korea after the country’s third nuclear test, by adopting and implementing United Nations Security Council Resolution 2094, which targeted illicit activities of North Korean diplomats, bulk cash transfers, financial relationships. North Korea pushed ahead with its fourth nuclear test on January 6, 2016, to which the UN Security Council responded by convening to discuss North Korea sanctions. North Korea continued to launch a long-range missile on February 7, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 2270 with approval of all the council members. Thirty-five countries have submitted an implementation report in accordance with the resolution, including China, which presented its implementation report on June 8. While the Security Council’s previous sanctions against North Korea targeted North Korea’s development of weapons of mass destruction, Resolution 2270 contains exceptionally comprehensive sanctions against North Korea beyond responses to the development of WMD, which are expected to have a profound impact across many facets of North Korea.
The main provisions of the resolution include weapons transactions, proliferation of nuclear activities and air transport, export control of WMD, foreign trade, financial transactions. The resolution affirms that any transfer of weapons for the purpose of maintenance and services constitutes violations, it designates a number of North Korean bodies to be subject to sanctions, including the National Aerospace Development Administration, the Ministry of Atomic Energy Industry, the Munitions Industry Department, the Reconnaissance General Bureau, Office No. 39. Furthermore, members of the international community, including South Korea and the European Union, began to impose independent embargoes on North Korea, trying to fill gaps in the current sanctions. South Korea’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs said on April 5, 2016, about a month after the adoption of the resolution, that “There has been visible progress on various fronts, such as the ban on port entry of the sanctioned vessels of Offshore Marine Management, registration cancellation of UN members’ vessels carrying the North Korean flag of convenience, enhanced inspection of North Korean cargo, expulsion of North Koreans involved in illicit activities, cancellation of teaching or training of North Koreans.
Yonhap News Agency of South Korea reported on April 3, 2016, a month after the adoption of Resolution 2270, that the effects of sanctions were being detected in North Korea as seen in the soaring market prices and the food shortage affecting members of the National Security Agency. The sanctions of the resolution, if faithfully implemented by member states, are expected to deal a severe blow against the illicit arms smuggling and the foreign currency earnings of the North Korean regime, forcing the regime onto the path of change. Spokespersons of the North Korean government and the Minister of Foreign Affairs announced statements on March 4, 2016, about 40 hours after the adoption of Resolution 2270, in North Korea’s first response to the adoption, which read “North Korea flatly rejects the UN Security Council Resolution 2270 and will take countermeasures.” Earlier on March 3, Kim Jong-un, the First Chairman of the National Defense Commission of North Korea, said "We have to get our nuclear warheads deployed for national defense ready to be launched anytime."He visited Wonsan, a naval base in Kangwon Province and watched the firing of six rounds of a new multiple rocket launcher on the day of the adoption of the resolution in an apparent show of power.
On the same day, Kim Jong-un said "North Korea will shift all military responses to preemptive mode", while he denounced the resolution and the joint US-South Korea military exercise scheduled to take place from March 7 and slammed South Korean President Park Geun-hye by name. On April 3, a month after the adoption of the resolution, North Korea delivered more threatening messages through its state agencies and channels. Korean Central Television, for instance, reported “North Korea condemns the vicious resolution of the UN Security Council as the most heinous provocation against our Republic, a dignified sovereign state, flatly opposes the resolution.” Demanding an apology from the South Korean president, North Korea threatened an attack on Cheong Wa Dae by saying "The apology will the last chance for the evil Cheong Wa Dae and reactionary authorities to avoid being engulfed in the flames of nuclear inferno."In response to joint US-South Korea military drills, North Korea posed a military threat of ‘Seoul liberation operatio