Fort Irwin National Training Center
Fort Irwin National Training Center is a major training area for the United States military and is a census-designated place located in the Mojave Desert in northern San Bernardino County, California. Fort Irwin is at an average elevation of 2,454 feet, it is located 37 miles northeast in the Calico Mountains. The National Training Center is part of the US Army Forces Command; the opposing force at the National Training Center is the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, the Blackhorse Cavalry, who are stationed at the base to provide an opposing force to units on a training rotation at Fort Irwin. In September 2017, a state-of-the-art hospital was opened that provides healthcare services to the Fort Irwin beneficiaries. Fort Irwin works within the R-2508 Special Use Airspace Complex; the 2010 United States census reported Fort Irwin's population was 8,845. The Fort Irwin area has a history dating back 15,000 years, when Native Americans of the Lake Mojave Period were believed to live in the area. Native American settlements and pioneer explorations in the area were first recorded when the Spanish missionary Padre Francisco Garces traveled the Mohave Trail with Mohave Indian guides in 1776.
During his travels, he noted several small bands of Indians, is believed to have been the first European to make contact with the Native Americans of the area. Jedediah Smith is thought to have been the first American to explore the area in 1826. A fur trapper, Smith was soon followed by other pioneers traveling the Old Spanish Trail between Santa Fe and Los Angeles; the trail crossed the area on the eastern edge of Fort Irwin, between Salt Spring and the Mojave River. The Old Spanish Trail passed through Silurian Valley west through the Avawatz Mountains at Red Pass and beyond the playa of Red Pass Lake, through a gap between the Soda and Tiefort Mountains to Bitter Spring in a wash in the next valley. Bitter Spring was the only reliable grazing place along the route. From Bitter Spring the trail led 18.75 miles southwest climbing Alvord Mountain to cross Impassable Pass to descend Spanish Canyon and cross the plains to the location of Fork of the Road on the north side of the Mojave River where it met the Mohave Trail.
In 1844, Captain John C. Fremont, accompanied by Kit Carson, was the first member of the US Army to visit the Fort Irwin area. Captain Fremont established a camp near Bitter Springs as he pioneered a route that served travelers on the Old Spanish Trail, the Mormon Road, linking Salt Lake City to California; this camp was to become an important water and grazing place for pioneers crossing the Mojave Desert during California's settlement and gold rush. The California Gold Rush brought unexpected trouble to the area; as California grew, more travelers and freighters used the Mormon Road to cross the territory between California and Utah and horse stealing became a problem. In 1847, the Army's Mormon Battalion patrolled the Fort Irwin area to control the raiding and horse stealing. By 1855 it became part of the route of the freight wagon road between Los Angeles and Salt Lake City. During the Bitter Spring Expedition in 1860 the Army constructed Camp Bitter Springs, a small stone fort overlooking Bitter Spring and patrolled the Fort Irwin area.
In the 1880s the area experienced an economic boom with the discovery of borax at Death Valley. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, the area began to grow tremendously as mining operations of all types flourished. Soon railroads and businesses led to the establishment of the nearby town of Barstow; the years following the Indian Wars were quiet militarily. In 1940, President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the Mojave Anti-Aircraft Range, a military reservation of 1,000 square miles in the area of the present Fort Irwin. In 1942, the Mojave Anti-Aircraft Range was renamed Camp Irwin, in honor of Major General George LeRoy Irwin, commander of the 57th Field Artillery Brigade during World War I, it was subsumed into the Desert Training Center as one of its cantonment areas and some of its ranges. Two years Camp Irwin was deactivated and placed on surplus status. Camp Irwin reopened its gates in 1951 as the Armored Combat Training Area and served as a training center for combat units during the Korean War.
Regimental tank companies of the U. S. 43d Infantry Division from Camp Pickett, Virginia were the first to train at the new facility. The post was renamed Fort Irwin. During the Vietnam buildup, many units artillery and engineer and deployed from Fort Irwin. In January 1971, the post was deactivated again and placed in maintenance status under the control of Fort MacArthur, California; the California National Guard assumed full responsibility for the post in 1972. From 1972 to late 1980, Fort Irwin was used as a training area by the Army National Guard and U. S. Army Reserve. On 9 August 1979, the Department of the Army announced that Fort Irwin had been selected as the site for the National Training Center. With over 1,000 square miles for maneuver and ranges, an uncluttered electromagnetic spectrum, airspace restricted to military use, its isolation from densely populated areas, Fort Irwin was an ideal site for this facility; the National Training Center was activated 16 October 1980, Fort Irwin was transferred from the California Army National Guard back to the Regular Army and returned to active status on 1 July 1981.
Since its activation, the National Training Center has witnessed many firsts. The first units to train against the Opposing Force at the NTC were from among others the 3rd Battalion 67th Armor 2nd Armored Divis
The US Army Garrison Camp Long is located near Wonju, South Korea. This camp was named in honor of Sergeant Charles R. Long of the US Army, who received the Medal of Honor for his actions nearby in 1951 during the Korean War. Sergeant Long was acting as a forward observer in Company M of the 38th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Infantry Division when he was killed in action. Camp Long incloses 82 acres in a suburb of Taejang 180 miles ESE of Seoul and about 50 miles south of the DMZ, in the Kwangwon-bo Province. In 2006, there were 126 buildings on site, comprising 311,919 square feet. Established in 1955, in 1970, Camp Long was organized to support tenant units at the R-401 Airfield; the unit was assigned to the 20th General Support Group under operational control of the Commanding General, First Republic of Korea Army Detachment, Korean Military Advisory Group. In 1978, it was reassigned to the 19th Support Command, Camp Page. In 1987, Camp Long and Camp Page came under the command of the 501st Corps Support Group.
In 1998, there were 500 active duty personnel and 550 civilians assigned to the base. All personnel live on post, most served a one-year unaccompanied tour of duty. "Tenant Units located on Camp Long included:Combat Support Coordination team#1, B Company, 168th Medical battalion. "Three alternate approaches for transmitting the data from Camp Long to the Pacific INTELSAT satellite were investigated: a. use of a local commercial terrestrial microwave system for Wonju to Kum San via Seoul. Of these options, installation of a nonstandard earth station at Camp Long would not be authorized by the Korean Ministry of Communications; the use of the military microwave links was not recommended due to the poor quality of the system. STRATCOM personnel in Korea stated that new radio equipment'was to be installed between Comp Long and Yongsan during the first quarter of 1974. In 2007, an article explained about the closing of the PX after a financial scandal was exposed: "The Camp Long PX is a small PX and was able to make $2.77 million in sales in 2004 and once the black marketing ring was caught and shut down sales dropped to $172,000 this year.
That is a difference of $2,598,000 dollars. Just think how much money the larger PXs and the commissaries are bringing in for the black marketers? The amounts of money being made is mind-boggling."Medical facilities include a dental clinic and dispensary. For recreational facilities, there is a bowling center, recreational center, tennis courts, racquetball court, fitness center, weight room, softball field, football field, craft shop, officers club, NCO club, enlisted club and playground. There were no on-base schools or college programs. However, Betty Jo Alexander was the "Assistant education services officer, Department of the Army, Camp Long, Korea, 1989-91." Camp personnel helped in local educational matters. "A graduate of Cattaragus Little Valley High School, Sergeant Shannon Eichenseer volunteered to help teach English to children at an orphanage in Wonju, while she was stationed at Camp Long"There was a Morale and Recreation base library operated by Nonappropriated Fund Instrumentalities.
Robert Lee Hadden was the "Supervisory librarian, USAG Camp Long, Republic of Korea, 1984—1985." On June 4, 2010, Camp Eagle and Camp Long were both closed, consolidating the installation support activities of the US Army Garrison Camp Humphreys."YONGSAN GARRISON, Republic of Korea - Eighth U. S. Army announced plans to close Camps Eagle and Long in the Wonju area Oct. 5, continuing the base relocation of U. S. forces and the return of valuable real estate to the Republic of Korea as part of the Land Partnership Plan. U. S. Army Garrison Humphreys and Area III Commander Col. Joseph P. Moore briefed the workers of both camps on the impending closures Oct. 5. Moore said his intent is that no employee will lose his or her job as a result of the closure as long as they are willing to relocate to Humphreys or, in some cases, learn a new trade or skill; the two installations are home to 386 military and civilian personnel, including 176 Korean employees. Scheduled to close in 2008, the closure is expected to occur in 2010.
The installations will be returned to the ROK government. The timeline for closure and return is still being determined. Activities being conducted at the camps will be transferred to Camp Humphreys. U. S. Army plans call for the relocation of all forces to two hubs around Pyongtaek and Daegu by 2016. Benefits of this plan include a less intrusive presence in congested urban areas, increased safety for people in communities throughout the country and consolidated installations that will promote a higher quality of life than was possible on smaller, less modern bases." List of United States Army installations in South Korea Betty Jo Alexander. N.d. Print. Marquis
Camp Bonifas is a United Nations Command military post located 400 m south of the southern boundary of the Korean Demilitarized Zone. It is 2,400 m south of the Military Demarcation Line, which forms the border between South Korea and North Korea, it was returned to the Republic of Korea in 2006. Camp Bonifas is home to the United Nations Command Security Battalion-Joint Security Area, whose primary mission is to monitor and enforce the Korean Armistice Agreement of 1953 between North and South Korea. Republic of Korea and United States Forces Korea soldiers conduct the United Nations Command DMZ Orientation Program tours of the JSA and surrounding areas; the camp has a gift shop. The camp known as Camp Kitty Hawk, was renamed on August 18, 1986, in honor of U. S. Army Captain Arthur G. Bonifas, who along with 1Lt. Mark T. Barrett, were killed by North Korean soldiers in the "Axe Murder Incident". Access to the Neutral Nations Monitors, on Camp Swiss-Swede, was through Camp Bonifas. There is a par 3 one-hole "golf course" at the camp which includes an Astroturf green and is surrounded on three sides by minefields.
Sports Illustrated called it "the most dangerous hole in golf" and there are reports that at least one shot exploded a land mine. Keith Sullivan of The Washington Post reported in 1998 that Camp Bonifas was a "small collection of buildings surrounded by triple coils of razor wire just 440 yards south of the DMZ" that, were it not for the minefields and soldiers, would "look like a big Boy Scout camp". Joint Security Area List of United States Army installations in South Korea Media related to Camp Bonifas at Wikimedia Commons Camp Bonifas & Area I Facebook page redcloud.korea.army.mil, official website of USAG Area I, Camp Red Cloud, Camp Casey & Camp Bonifas, Korea The "Axe Murder Incident" and Operation Paul Bunyan, a Veterans of Foreign Wars organization website
Yongsan Garrison, located in the Yongsan District of Seoul, South Korea, is an area which served as the headquarters for U. S. military forces stationed in South Korea, known as United States Forces Korea and as United States Army Garrison Yongsan, under the supervision of the Installation Management Command Pacific Region. From 1910 to 1945 it served as headquarters for the Imperial Japanese Army; the USFK headquarters relocated outside of Seoul to Camp Humphreys in 2018. The Yongsan Relocation Plan to redeploy much of the forces and offices of Yongsan Garrison south to Humphreys is well underway. Yongsan land had traditionally been the site of military facilities under former Korean kingdoms. In 1882, Qing troops used it during the Imo Incident. During those times and Japanese garrisons were on the outskirts of the city in undeveloped land; the Imperial Japanese Army created it as a garrison and from 1910 to 1945 it served as its headquarters. Since the city of Seoul has spread, to envelop Yongsan Garrison.
Yongsan Garrison has been used by the United States Army as Garrison Yongsan, under the supervision of the Installation Management Command Pacific Region. In November 1992 some 297,000 square meters of land, including a golf course, was given back to the City of Seoul to become Yongsan Family Park and the site of the opened National Museum of Korea; the opening of the completed National Museum was delayed several years while the fate of a U. S. Army helicopter landing facility was decided. In April 2003 South Korea and the United States agreed on the early relocation of Yongsan garrison outside of central Seoul. In August 2008, U. S. President George W. Bush spoke to U. S. and South Korean military personnel, their families, civilian employees at Yongsan Garrison's Collier Field House, 6 as part of his final visit to Asia. During his speech, Bush said,"Fifty-five years have passed since the guns went quiet and the cease-fire was signed on this peninsula, since that time our forces have kept the peace.
Our nations have built a robust alliance.” He said that the U. S. would keep its military in South Korea, while returning some bases to South Korean control. In February 2009, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visited senior U. S. and South Korean military leaders at the Combined Forces Command headquarters at Yongsan Garrison on her first official trip overseas as the United States' Secretary of State. In 2009 The Korea Times reported that defense ministry officials said that South Korea and the United States have agreed to complete the relocation of the U. S. military headquarters in Yongsan to an expanded military base in Pyeongtaek, Gyeonggi Province, by 2014. The plan was delayed to 2018; the 2018 estimates place the relocation completing in 2019 or 2020. South Korea had traditionally regarded this garrison as insurance against the U. S. Army abandoning Seoul, located only about 65 km from the DMZ; as part of the relocation and the planned withdrawal of U. S. troops near the DMZ, all American troops would be pulled back from north of the Han River.
A December 2014 agreement between the South Koreans and the U. S. declared that one U. S. Army brigade would be allowed to remain "north of the Han River". S. Army Camp Casey in Dongducheon City; the Embassy of the United States in Seoul may build a new Chancery on part of the land planned to be vacated by the U. S. Army, most on Camp Coiner. Most of the U. S. Embassy officials live in an Embassy housing compound in an area completely enveloped by Yongsan Garrison, with direct access to it. Many of the older, dark-colored brick buildings on the base are former Japanese Army buildings and are used by U. S. most notably the Eighth Army headquarters building. Directly across from Eighth Army headquarters is the Combined Forces Command and U. S. Forces Korea headquarters, a structure built in the early 1970s; the building is home to the Commanding General, United Nations Command, Combined Forces Command and U. S. Forces Korea. Facilities include multiple family housing areas, a large commissary and Post Exchange, Army Family and Morale and Recreation facilities, restaurants and outdoor sports complexes, a library, a bowling alley, a skateboard park, a miniature golf complex, a hospital, a dental clinic, three Department of Defense Dependent Schools, a United Service Organization, child development centers and outdoor swimming pools, an automotive care center, a self-service gas station.
The garrison is home to the Dragon Hill Lodge, a hotel, operated as an Armed Forces Recreation Center by the U. S. Army in support of personnel assigned or employed by the U. S. Forces Korea, their family members, guests; the garrison consists of two main parts: Main Post and South Post, which are physically divided by Itaewon-ro, a four-lane city boulevard. In 2003, a two-lane overpass bridge was constructed over this boulevard to solve traffic congestion; the garrison provides installation support for K-16 Air Base, Camp Kim, Sungnam Golf Course, Camp Coiner. Camp Coiner, covering 50 acres on Yongsan Garrison's northern edge, is named after 2nd Lt. Randall Coiner, a Korean War Silver Star recipient; until 2014, it an supported an outlying U. S. Army housing area called Hannam Village in Hannam-dong. After the Korean War it served as Korea's primary in-processing facility for Army troops. (As of 2008, the 1st Replacement Company, a part of the Yongsan Readiness Center, serves as th
Camp Red Cloud
Camp Red Cloud is a United States Army camp located in the city of Uijeongbu, between Seoul and the Korean Demilitarized Zone. CRC is being returned to the Korean government; the installation was renamed after Medal of Honor recipient Corporal Mitchell Red Cloud Jr. on Armed Forces Day, May 18, 1957 from its earlier name of Camp Jackson. The tenant units moved to Camp Humphreys, Korea in 2018. Camp Red Cloud covers over 164 acres of land in the northwestern edge of the city of Uijeongbu and serves as the Headquarters of 2nd Infantry Division. Camp Red Cloud is the home of several military units including,: 55th MP company, United States Air Force Tactical Air Control Party unit, U. S. Army explosive ordnance disposal detachment, Division command staff, hospital staff, finance staff, ROK/KATUSA headquarters. D-company, HQ-company, the 122d Signal Battalion were retired in 2005, the remaining soldiers formed the new Division Special Troops Battalion, now the largest unit on the camp, it is a support battalion made up of A CO, B CO, HHSC, 2X.
The 2nd Infantry Division Band was deactivated in August 2015. In the summer of 1998, the region of South Korea where CRC lies was subjected to severe rains that caused deadly flooding and damage to CRC. Although no US service members lost their lives during the floods, many Korean nationals and domestic livestock perished in the flood waters. A large portion of the hill behind CRC washed away. A massive mudslide devastated the southern half of CRC. For weeks, Camp Red Cloud went without a main PX. Several barracks were leveled in the destruction along with the golf Pro Shop located adjacent to the helipad; the 2ID museum suffered severe damage in the torrent of mud and water. Camp Red Cloud has been the site of various protests and demonstrations against the US presence in Korea; the largest such protest was in 2002 when Korean protesters tossed Molotov cocktails and cut holes in the fences around the post. This demonstration was in reaction to the Yangju highway incident in which a US military vehicle had run over two school girls.
Fences around the post have since been replaced with concrete walls. Current commander is COL Jack Haefner. June 2018 Camp Red Cloud conducted a deactivation ceremony, one of the first steps for turning the area over to the Republic of Korea Army; the final transfer will happen sometime in 2019. The historic 2ID museum is scheduled to be moved to area III on Camp Humphreys. List of United States Army installations in South Korea Official website facebook.com, Camp Red Cloud & Area I Facebook page Camp Red Cloud, US Army Garrison Red Cloud entry at GlobalSecurity.org
Not to be confused with Camp A. A. Humphreys in Virginia, now known as Fort Belvoir. Camp Humphreys known as United States Army Garrison-Humphreys, is a United States Army garrison located near Anjeong-ri and Pyeongtaek metropolitan areas in South Korea. Camp Humphreys is home to Desiderio Army Airfield, the busiest U. S. Army airfield with an 8,124-foot runway. In addition to the airfield, there are several U. S. Army direct support and tactical units located there, including the Combat Aviation Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division; the garrison cost US$11 billion. Camp Humphreys is the largest U. S. overseas military base, housing some 500 buildings and amenities. In 2004, an agreement was reached between the United States and South Korean governments to move all U. S. forces to garrisons south of the Han River and relocate the United States Forces Korea and United Nations Command Headquarters to Camp Humphreys. Those movements were expected to be completed by 2016 to transform Camp Humphreys into the largest U.
S. Army garrison in Asia, but as of 2018 this has not yet happened. Under that plan, the 28,500 U. S. troop presence in South Korea will be consolidated by 2016 and United States Forces Korea will move from Yongsan Garrison in Seoul to Camp Humphreys. Camp Humphreys is 40 miles south of the former base in Seoul and about 60 miles from the Demilitarized Zone that divides North and South Korea; that puts the base about twice as far from North Korea as its predecessor, one of the main reasons for the move. The town of Anjeong-ri is located adjacent to the Camp Humphreys main gate. Smaller farming villages are located along the perimeter; the installation covers an area of 1,210 acres. As part of the Yongsan Relocation Plan, that number will grow by 2,328 acres to 3,538 acres; the immediate area around Camp Humphreys is agricultural and consists of rice fields. There are some rolling hills in the vicinity, but for the most part the elevations are less than 150 feet. There is a small mountain range about seven miles south of Camp Humphreys, with peaks reaching 958 feet in elevation.
Larger mountains are located to the northeast and southwest, all within 20 miles with peaks reaching to 2,293 feet in elevation to the south and 1,000 feet in elevation to the southeast. Urban areas are situated to the northeast of the airfield. Seoul is located 55 miles northeast; the Ansong River flows from the east to west toward the West Sea and passes three miles northwest of the airfield. About 12 miles west of Camp Humphreys, the river widens and empties into the Asan Bay, near Koon-ni Range; the numerous areas of water around Camp Humphreys has an effect on the weather. The abundant moisture is responsible for stratus which occurs in the area; this is true from the spring through fall. The history of Camp Humphreys dates back to the beginning of the 20th century when, in 1919 the Japanese military built the Pyeongtaek Airfield. During the Korean War, Pyeongtaek Airfield was named K-6 after being repaired and enhanced by the U. S. Air Force to accommodate a U. S. Marine Air Group and the 614th Tactical Control Group.
In 1962, the base was renamed Camp Humphreys in honor of Chief Warrant Officer Benjamin K. Humphreys, a pilot assigned to the 6th Transportation Company, who died in a helicopter accident. In 1964, Humphreys District command was activated as a separate installation command of the Eighth U. S. Army providing all direct support and maintenance, storage of all conventional ammunition in Korea, Adjutant General publications and training aides and the Eighth U. S. Army Milk Plant. In 1974, with the activation of the 19th Support Brigade, Camp Humphreys was redesignated as U. S. Army Garrison, Camp Humphreys. USAG-Camp Humphreys was still responsible for all affairs affecting personnel stationed at Camp Humphreys, but the 19th Support Command was responsible for all support activities vital to the Eighth U. S. Army and its subordinate units; those units reporting to the 23rd Direct Support Group reported to the 19th Support Command in Daegu. Only the basic functions remained with USAG Camp Humphreys.
The 23rd Direct Support Group and 19th Support were renamed 23rd Support Group and 19th Theater Army Area Command. On 17 June 1996 the United States Army Support Activity Area III was established and made responsible for the peacetime support mission for Camp Humphreys, Camp Long, Camp Eagle and U. S. Army units assigned to Suwon Airbase. On 1 June 2005, the U. S. Army announced that Camps Long would close. Both camps were later closed on 4 June 2010, consolidating installation support activities on Camp Humphreys; the Daechuri Protests were a series of large protests against the South Korean and American governments' plan to expand Camp Humphreys to make it the main base for most U. S. troops in South Korea. It concluded when residents of Daechuri and other small villages near Pyeongtaek agreed to a government settlement to leave their homes in 2006 and allow for the base expansion. Compensation for the land averaged 600 million won per resident. Under a 2004 land-swap pact, the U. S. promised to return a combined 170 square kilometers of land housing 42 military bases and related facilities to South Korea and move U.
S. military forces from garrisons in and north of Seoul to Camp Humphreys. With the creation of the Installation Management Command on 24 October 2006, U. S. Army Support Activity Area III was redesignated as U. S. Army Garrison Humphreys and Area III on 15 March 2007. On 13 November 2007, USFK and South Korean officials conducted a groundbreaking ceremony for the expansion of Camp Humphreys. Under th
Camp Hovey is a United States Army military base in Dongducheon, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. It was named after Master Sergeant Howard Hovey, killed in action at Pork Chop Hill during the Korean War; the camp is adjacent to the larger Camp Casey connected by a road known as "Hovey Cut". The nearest city to Camp Hovey is Dongducheon, 15 miles from the Korean Demilitarized Zone. There is a south gate into Camp Hovey from Gwangam-dong village, but not as many things to do as outside Camp Casey's main gate. Prior to the deactivation of the 1st ABCT, Camp Hovey was home to 1st ABCT Headquarters. C Co 1st Bn 503rd Infantry. Camp Hovey has an AAFES shoppette, Hovey Lanes Bowling Alley, Iron Triangle All-Ranks Club, DOD Community Bank, post office, athletic fields, Hovey Gym/indoor Swimming Pool, Troop Medical Center, Military Clothing Store, Barber Shop, Dry Cleaners, New Car Sales, LG U+ Phone/Internet Store, Furniture Store, Tailor Shop, Mini-Mall, Bedding Store, Anthony's Pizza, AAFES American Cafe, Krispy Kreme Donuts, KATUSA snack bar and a DFAC.
Camp Hovey is one of the camps north of Seoul authorized Hardship Duty Pay of $150 per month as of 1 January 2001 It is part of an area containing many installations known as the "Casey Enclave". Camp Hovey, together with other U. S. Army camps north of Seoul, is scheduled for closure in the 2019 time frame, with units moving to Camp Humphreys. List of United States Army installations in South Korea Second Infantry Division website www.facebook.com/usagrc, Camp Hovey & Area I Facebook page redcloud.korea.army.mil, official website of USAG Area I, Camp Red Cloud, Camp Casey & Camp Hovey, Korea