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List of United States Navy enlisted rates

In the United States Navy, a rate is the military rank of an enlisted sailor, indicating where an enlisted sailor stands within the chain of command, defining one's pay grade. However, in the U. S. Navy, only officers carry the term rank, while it is proper to refer to an enlisted sailor's pay grade as rate. A similar term is rating, which refers to one's area of occupational specialization within the enlisted Navy. Associated with the enlisted pay grades is a numbering system from the most junior enlisted sailor to the most senior enlisted sailor; this enlisted numbering system is the same across all five branches of the U. S. military. All E-1 through E-3 are known as seamen. E-4 through E-6 are called petty officers. All E-7s are called chief petty officer, E-8s senior chief petty officer, E-9s master chief petty officer. Rates are displayed on a rating badge, a combination of rate and rating. E-2s and E-3s have color-coded group rate marks based on their career field. Personnel in pay grade E-1, since 1996, do not have an insignia to wear.

Ratings are earned through "A" schools, which are attended before deployment and after undergoing initial basic training at Recruit Training Command, Great Lakes, Illinois, or by "striking" for a rating through on-the-job training in the Fleet. Some sailors may undergo additional training in a "C" school either before or after a tour of duty. Upon completion, they are assigned a four-digit Navy Enlisted Classification code, which identifies a specific skill within their standard rating; this defines. For example, some billets might not only require a hospital corpsman first class, but might specify that he/she has NEC 8402, NEC 8403, or any other of several NECs depending upon the billet's requirements. On September 29, 2016, the United States Navy discontinued enlisted ratings after 241 years of use in an effort to modernize the classification system. Naval sailors were thereafter to be referred to by their rate and would hold a Navy Operations Specialty instead of a rating; the rating symbols depicted for each rating badge listed below is boatswain's mate.

However, the decision was reversed and the rating system was restored in December 2016. Sailors in pay grades E-1 through E-3 are considered to be in apprenticeships, they are divided into five definable groups, with colored group rate marks designating the group to which they belong: Seaman, airman and hospitalman. One of three apprentice devices may be worn above the rank insignia, which denotes the sailor is an apprentice in a particular field and is in search of a rating to join. Sailors who have gone directly to a base, station, or ship without any specialized training are eligible to select a career field, through correspondence courses and extensive on-the-job training, may qualify for a rating; this process is called "striking for a rating". If a sailor has qualified for a rate, but has not yet become a petty officer, he is called a designated striker, is identified by a striker's badge that displays the sailor's rating, along with his group rate marks; the serviceperson is addressed by one's group designation.

Those that have completed the "A" school for hospital corpsman wear their caduceus above their stripes and substitute the word "Hospitalman" for "Seaman" in their rating titles. In the September 2016 rating change, it was announced that only the "seaman" group would remain as the rate title for E1–E3, with the others being retired. However, the Navy reversed this new policy three months and reinstated the traditional rating system. E-4 to E-6 are non-commissioned officers, are called petty officers in the Navy. Petty officers perform not only the duties of their specific career field but serve as leaders to junior enlisted personnel, they must take responsibility for their subordinates, address grievances, inform the chain of command on matters pertaining to good order and discipline, may have to place personnel on report. The title petty officer comes from the French word petit. In medieval England, villages had several "petite" or "petty" officers who were subordinate to major officials. Thus, petty officers are assistants to senior officers.

Petty officers have been an important part of the U. S. Navy since its beginning, they were appointed by the ship's captain and held such appointments while serving under the captain who selected them. The petty officers of this time did not have a rank insignia. In 1841 a rate badge was assigned, consisting of a sleeve device displaying an eagle perched on an anchor. Rating marks did not appear until 1866. From 1885 to 1894, the Navy recognized three classes of petty officers – first and third; these noncommissioned officers were authorized to wear a "rate" insignia consisting of chevrons pointing down under a spread eagle and a rating mark. Unlike the current rate badge, the eagle faced right instead of left; the current insignia for petty officers came about in 1894, is a perched eagle with spread wings facing left atop a rating mark, with chevrons denoting their rank below. The Eagle faced left or right on the rating emblem depending on which sleeve the badge was worn to the wearer's front

Hércules Florence

Antoine Hercule Romuald Florence was a Monegasque-Brazilian painter and inventor, known as the isolate inventor of photography in Brazil, three years before Daguerre, using the matrix negative/positive, still in use. According to Kossoy, who examined Florence's notes, he referred to his process, in French, as photographie in 1834, at least four years before John Herschel coined the English word photography. Hercules Florence was born on February 29, 1804 in Nice, the son of Arnaud Florence, a tax collector, Augustine de Vignolis, a minor noblewoman; as a child he manifested interest for drawing and the sciences, as well as for the voyages of the great explorers to the New World and as a 14-year-old boy he worked as a calligrapher and draftsman in Monaco, where his parents had been living since 1807. After a period of wandering and working on board of warships and merchant ships, Hércules Florence set sail to Brazil as a crew member of the French warship Marie Thérèze, arriving in the port of Rio de Janeiro on May 1, 1824, two years after the declaration of independence from Portugal.

He was an accomplished draftsman and painter with considerable talent and many scientific interests in the natural sciences and ethnography. Soon after his arrival, he got a job in a women's fashion store and as a lithographer in a bookstore and printing shop, owned by his compatriot Pierre Plancher. Florence's life changed when he decided to respond to a newspaper advertisement put by Baron von Langsdorff, the consul general of the Russian Empire in Brazil, a German-born physician and naturalist, organizing on behalf of the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences a scientific expedition to the Amazon, he was hired as an illustrator and topographic draftsman, together with German painter Johann Moritz Rugendas and the young French illustrator Adrien Taunay. In the year of 1825 they travelled by sea from Rio to the village of Santos. While they waited for the set day of departure to the Amazon and other members of the scientific expedition spent their days exploring the coastal lowland areas, such as Cubatão, the high-rising plateau beyond the imposing Serra do Mar: they visited the towns of São Paulo, Jundiai and Campinas.

In Porto Feliz, the town by the Tietê River, located 80 km northwest of São Paulo, where the departure would take place, Florence was hosted for a while by surgeon and politician Francisco Álvares Machado e Vasconcellos. From 1826 to 1829 he accompanied Langsdorff's expeditionary party through its many vicissitudes and disease, was the only artist to arrive at Belém and return unscathed to Rio, his vivid and detailed illustrations and watercolors picturing the local flora and fauna, the landscapes, the many inhabitants and Indians met during the voyage. Back to Rio, Florence left the manuscript of his diary of the expedition, with 84 pages with Félix Taunay, the brother of his companion Adrien; the manuscript was translated to Portuguese and published by the son of Félix, the historian Alfredo D'Escragnolle Taunay more than 40 years in 1875. In 1849, Florence completed his description of the fabulous adventure, published for the first time in 1977, under the title "A Fluvial Voyage from Tietê to Amazon Rivers, through the Brazilian Provinces of São Paulo, Mato Grosso and Grand-Pará".

Soon after the end of the expedition, in 1830, Florence married Maria Angélica de Vasconcellos, the daughter of his acquaintance and benefactor Francisco Álvares Machado, went to live with her in the city of Campinas, in the province of São Paulo. There he became a successful farmer and owner of the first printer in the town, in Campinas, he remained for the next 49 years until his death in 1879. Maria died in 1850. Together they founded in 1863 a school for girls, the Florence College, moved to Jundiai after Hercule's death, he fathered a total of 20 children, being 13 with 7 with Carolina. Soon after settling in Campinas, Hércules Florence began a prolific career as inventor and businessman. During the Langsdorff expedition, he had developed a new system of using musical notation to record the songs of birds and vocalizations of other animals, which he named "zoophonia". In 1830, when he was searching for a simplified way of printing his more than 200 illustrations performed during the Langsdorff Expedition, other than using expensive and time-consuming engravings on wood and metal, he invented a new process, similar to the mimeograph, which he named "polygraphia", began using this commercially in his printing office.

As his technique evolved, he was able to combine colors, to produce uncounterfeitable bank notes. In 1832, with the help of a pharmacist friend, Joaquim Correa de Mello, Florence began to study ways of permanently fixing camera obscura images, which he named "photographia". In 1833, they settled on silver nitrate on paper, a combination, the subject of experiments by Thomas Wedgwood around the year 1800. Unlike Wedgwood, unable to make photographs of real-world scenes with his camera or render the photograms that he did produce light-fast, Florence's notebooks indicate that he succeeded in doing both; because he never published his invention adequately because he was an obscure inven

Frank Bergin

Frank S. Bergin was an American football player and official, he played college football as a quarterback at Princeton University from 1907 to 1909. Bergin was the head football coach at Bowdoin College from 1910 to 1912 and Middlebury College in 1913, compiling a career college football coaching record of 12–14–3, he refereed college football games for several years after World War I. Bergin was served in the Connecticut Senate, representing the 10th district in New Haven, was the chairman of Connecticut Liquor Control Commission, he died on November 11, 1971, at the age of 85. Bergin was born on July 1886, in New Haven, Connecticut, he graduated from Phillips Exeter Academy in 1906, Princeton in 1910, Columbia Law School in 1913


Pozantı is a town and a district in the Adana Province of Turkey. The town is the at the highlands of Çukurova, is the major gateway to the Mediterranean coasts. Pozantı stands at the bottom of a rare pass through these high mountains; the mayor is Mustafa Çay. Pozantı has had a number of names. In antiquity it was Pendosis. To the Arabs El Bedendum and Bozantı and Pozantı in Turkish. Standing at the entrance to a pass across the Taurus Mountains, Pendonsis was a city of strategic importance, the gateway between the high plain of Anatolia and the low plain of Cilicia or Çukurova and thus the Middle East. Pozantı has successively passed through the hands of Hittites, Alexander the Great and Byzantium. In the period of the Abbasids the armies of Islam moved through, and following the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 the Turks made took over. During the Crusades, control of the pass was returned to the Byzantines the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, the Mamluks and was brought under Ottoman control by Selim I in his campaign of 1517.

Pozantı is windy and bleak and for most of this history was a fort and a road-house, but when the railway was put through in 1917 more people began to live here permanently. But still the place lives from the passing trade on the road. Pozantı was occupied by French forces at the end of World War I. For many, Pozantı is a place to have a break after the hard journey across the Taurus. At the spring of Şekerpınar, where there is a plant for bottling the spring water, there are motels and well-known roadside restaurants specializing in barbecued meats. For many stopping here to relax on a carpeted bench grilling large quantities of lamb chops or shish kebab is an essential part of the journey to Adana. If you've come all the way over the mountains dodging around slow-moving trucks.. As the road from the city is a modern motorway Pozantı is the easiest retreat from the city of Adana, residents drive up here to picnic and escape from the summer heat. New investment for 5 stars hotel Pendosis Vacation Club having 84 rooms and many luxury possibilities will enhance the tourism activities during the whole 12 months.

Pozantı Gar is the railway station of Pozantı, served by three Main Line services, connecting Pozantı to Adana, Niğde, Kayseri and Karaman. As being the gateway to Çukurova, Pozantı is a stopover for several coach companies that serves from Central Anatolia to Çukurova and further east; the only historical building in the city center is the mosque and fountain of Ottoman general Cemal Paşa, built in 1919. At the entrance to the pass are the old and new castles of Anahşa. On the hill called Tekir, next to the modern highway D.750, the Casemates of İbrahim Pasha, the remains of a 19th-century fort are situated. Near the village of Aşçıbekirli lie the ruins of the Byzantine town of Fenese. More ruins have been found near the village of Kamışlı in the high meadows of Asar. Padyandus Belemedik

Harrow College

Harrow College is the largest college in the London Borough of Harrow. It opened in 1999 following a merger of two local sixth-from colleges, Greenhill College and Weald College in the neighbouring town of Harrow Weald. More than 2,000 full-time and 7,000 part-time, students join Harrow College for sixth form and adult courses. Teaching takes place at the Harrow on the Hill campus on Lowlands Road and at the Harrow Weald campus in Harrow Weald as well as two smaller, dedicated construction-focused units. In 2015, the College opened two new buildings: The Enterprise Centre at the Harrow on the Hill campus and Spring House for supported learning at the Harrow Weald campus. Harrow College has been awarded a Centre of Excellence for the Hearing Impaired, the only centre of its kind in North West London; the college is a member of the Westminster Centre of Excellence in Teacher Training. It holds the Pre School Learning Alliance kite mark. Harrow College provides academic and vocational courses for young people and a range of professional and non-professional programmes for adult students.

The college is regarded for its ESOL and EFL courses. The EFL programmes are accredited by the British Council; the Learning Links programme has set a standard in the community for providing courses for students with learning disabilities and difficulties. The list includes former students of Weald College. Jon Foo and martial artist Shami Chakrabarti, former director of Liberty Tom Fletcher, guitarist in McFly Richard Hounslow, British slalom canoeist Matt Lucas, comedian Faye McClelland, British triathlete Mark Ramprakash, English cricketer Master Shortie, rapper Paul Staines, political blogger under the name Guido Fawkes Jordanne Whiley, paralympian Michael Annals, costume designer Sir John Baker CBE, former Chief Executive from 1990–95 and Chairman from 1995-97 of National Power Ken Follett, spy novel author Robert Glenister, actor Gareth Hadley, Chairman of the General Optical Council Christopher Isham, theoretical physicist at Imperial College London, who investigates quantum gravity Prof Anne Jones FRSA, Professor of Lifelong Learning from 1995-2001 at Brunel University Prof Roger Kain CBE, Montefiore Professor of Geography at the School of Advanced Study Ronald Lacey, who played Harris in Porridge Prof David Pearce, Professor of Economics from 1983-2004 at UCL Merlyn Rees, Home Secretary from 1976–79 and Labour MP from 1962-83 for Leeds South and from 1983-92 for Morley and Leeds South Michael Rosen, author Prof Anthony Thirlwall, Professor of Applied Economics from 1976-2004 at the University of Kent, known for Thirlwall's Law Nigel Waymouth, designer James N. Britton, taught English at Harrow Weald GS from 1933–38 Harold Rosen Harrow College website The Matrix Standard

Eastern Illinois University

Eastern Illinois University is a public university in Charleston, Illinois. Established in 1895 as the Eastern Illinois State Normal School, a teacher's college offering a two-year degree, Eastern Illinois University expanded into a comprehensive university with a broad curriculum, including bachelor's and master's degrees in education, arts and humanities. Eastern Illinois Normal School was established by the Illinois State Legislature in 1895 "to train teachers for the schools of East Central Illinois." A 40-acre campus was acquired in Charleston and the first building was commissioned. When the school began classes in 1899, there were an 18-member faculty; the first building was finished in 1899 and is called Old Main, though it is formally named the Livingston C. Lord Administration Building in honor of EIU's first president, who served from 1899 to 1933. Built of Indiana limestone in a heavy Gothic revival style with turrets and battlements, its distinctive outline is the official symbol of the school.

Old Main is one of "Altgeld's castles", five buildings built in the 1890s at the major Illinois state colleges. Governor John Peter Altgeld was instrumental in funding the Illinois university system, he was fond of the Gothic style. Eastern's "Old Main" and Illinois State University's Cook Hall are the only schools where the "castle" is not named after Altgeld. Other original Gothic Revival buildings include Blair Hall. Blair Hall was restored after a disastrous fire in 2004. In fall 2008, the university opened the newly constructed Doudna Fine Arts Center, designed by international architect Antoine Predock; the 138,000-square-foot complex houses the music and visual arts departments. Through the twentieth century, the school changed its name several times in order to reflect its transition from a teachers college into a multi-purpose institution that could be of wider service to Illinois. Thus, Eastern Illinois State Normal School became Eastern Illinois State Teachers College in 1921, which became Eastern Illinois State College in 1947.

In 1957, the Illinois General Assembly changed the name of the institution to Eastern Illinois University. Eastern Illinois University has 7,800 students. Admission is selective. Tuition is $8,880 per year for residents of Illinois and other bordering states, while it is $11,110 for non-residents. Additional fees amount to $2,923.48. The university estimates its average cost-of-attendance to be $24,640 per academic year. There are prominent Communication Disorders and Sciences and Biological Sciences programs, though the College of Education remains the largest department; the university has an endowment of $82 million. The current president is David Glassman. In the US News & World Report college rankings, EIU is classified as a regional public university and fits into one of four regions: the Midwest Region. In the publication's 2019 rankings, EIU ranks No. 5 among its peers in that region. EIU's Business Program is ranked No. 405 as Best Undergraduate Business Programs. Eastern Illinois University is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education.

Eastern Illinois offers 51 undergraduate degree programs. Eastern is divided into four colleges: College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Lumpkin College of Business and Technology College of Education College of Health and Human ServicesOther academic divisions include The Graduate School and Jack Pine Honors College, the School of Continuing Education; the Graduate School was founded in 1951 and has an enrollment of 1,800 full and part-time students with more than 300 faculty holding graduate faculty status. The university includes the Center for Academic Support and Achievement, the Office of Inclusion and Academic Engagement, the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs, the Office of Study Abroad; the university's Booth Library hosts yearly exhibits, the Ballenger Teachers Center, numerous digital collections. The main university art museum, the Tarble Arts Center, maintains a 1,000-piece permanent collection, including a 500-piece collection of late 20th-century Illinois folk arts and related archival information.

A majority of the holdings are concentrated on art from the state of Illinois and the Midwest region. Eighty-eight percent of graduates find work in a field related to their major within six months after graduation. Eastern Illinois University offers over 170 student organizations, ranging from religious, service, Greek, governing, social and political organizations; the school's daily newspaper is The Daily Eastern News, founded on Nov. 5, 1915 and is one of only three universities in the United States to run its own newspaper printing press and is one of the smallest universities in the country to have a daily newspaper. Eastern Illinois has a student-run radio station, Hit-Mix 88.9 WEIU, WEIU. The radio station can be heard across Coles County and surrounding counties on 88.9 FM, as well as online through their website. WEIU-TV is a PBS station on the campus of Eastern Illinois University. WEIU-TV airs adult and kids PBS programming as well as a student-produced 30 minute nightly newscast.

WEIU covers Champaign, Clark, Crawford, Douglas, Effingham, Macon, Piatt, Sangamon and Vermilion counties in Illinois and Vigo County in Indiana. Eleven on-campus residence halls include seven co-ed, three female-only, one male-only. Throughout the year the residence halls participate in competitions and various community se