The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
2004 United States Senate election in Illinois
The 2004 United States Senate election in Illinois was held on November 2, 2004. Incumbent Republican U. S. Senator Peter Fitzgerald decided to retire after one term; the Democratic and Republican primary elections were held in March, which included a total of 15 candidates who combined to spend a record total of over $60 million seeking the open seat. State Senator Barack Obama won Jack Ryan won the Republican primary. Three months Ryan announced his withdrawal from the race four days after the Chicago Tribune persuaded a California court to release records from Ryan's divorce case, which included allegations that Ryan had pressured his then-wife actress Jeri Ryan to perform sexual acts in public. Six weeks the Illinois Republican State Central Committee chose former Diplomat Alan Keyes to replace Ryan as the Republican candidate; the election was the first for the U. S. Senate in which both major party candidates were African American. Obama won by 43%, the largest margin of victory in the state history of U.
S. Senate elections, served in the Senate for four years until he was elected President in 2008; the inequality in the candidates spending for the fall elections – $14,244,768 by Obama and $2,545,325 by Keyes – is among the largest in history in both absolute and relative terms. Gery Chico, President of the Chicago Board of Education Blair Hull, businessman Daniel Hynes, State Comptroller Barack Obama, State Senator and future President of the United States Maria Pappas, Cook County Treasurer Nancy Skinner, radio personality Joyce Washington, health care executive Estella Johnson Hunt Matt O'Shea, Mayor of Metamora, Illinois, he withdrew December 2003 due to poor polling numbers. He endorsed Gery Chico. Source: Fitzgerald's predecessor, Democrat Carol Moseley Braun, declined to run. Barack Obama, a member of the Illinois Senate since 1997 and an unsuccessful 2000 Democratic primary challenger to four-term incumbent U. S. Rep. Bobby Rush for Rush's U. S House seat, launched a campaign committee at the beginning of July 2002 to run for the U.
S. Senate, 21 months before the March 2004 primary, two months had David Axelrod lined up to do his campaign media. Obama formally announced his candidacy on January 21, 2003, four days after former U. S. Sen. Carol Moseley Braun announced she would not seek a rematch with U. S. Sen. Peter Fitzgerald. On April 15, 2003, with six Democrats running and three Republicans threatening to run against him, incumbent Fitzgerald announced he would not seek a second term in 2004, three weeks popular Republican former Governor Jim Edgar declined to run, leading to wide open Democratic and Republican primary races with 15 candidates, including 7 millionaires, in the most expensive Senate primary in U. S. history. Obama touted his legislative experience and early public opposition to the Iraq War to distinguish himself from his Democratic primary rivals. Illinois Comptroller Dan Hynes won the endorsement of the AFL-CIO. Obama succeeded in obtaining the support of three of the state's largest and most active member unions: AFSCME, SEIU, the Illinois Federation of Teachers.
Hynes and multimillionaire former securities trader Blair Hull each won the endorsements of two of the nine Democratic Illinois members of the US House of Representatives. Obama had the endorsements of four: Jesse Jackson, Jr. Danny Davis, Lane Evans, Jan Schakowsky. Obama surged into the lead after he began television advertising in Chicago in the final three weeks of the campaign, expanded to downstate Illinois during the last six days of the campaign; the ads included strong endorsements by the five largest newspapers in Illinois—the Chicago Tribune, Chicago Sun-Times, Daily Herald, The Rockford Register Star, Peoria Journal Star—and a testimonial by Sheila Simon that Obama was "cut from that same cloth" as her father, the late former U. S. Senator Paul Simon, who had planned to endorse and campaign for Obama before his unexpected death in December 2003. On March 16, 2004, Obama won the Democratic primary by an unexpected landslide—receiving 53% of the vote, 29% ahead of his nearest Democratic rival, with a vote total that nearly equaled that of all eight Republican candidates combined—which overnight made him a rising star in the national Democratic Party, started speculation about a presidential future, led to the reissue of his memoir, Dreams from My Father.
The Democratic primary election, including seven candidates who combined to spend over $46 million, was the most expensive U. S. Senate primary election in history. John Borling, Air Force veteran Norm Hill, Army veteran Chirinjeev Kathuria, businessman Andrew McKenna, businessman Jim Oberweis, businessman Steve Rauschenberger, State Senator Jack Ryan, businessman Jonathan C. Wright, former State Representative GOP frontrunner Jack Ryan had divorced actress Jeri Ryan in 1999, the records of the divorce were sealed at their mutual request. Five years when Ryan's Senate campaign began, the Chicago Tribune newspaper and WLS-TV, the local ABC affiliate, sought to have the records released. On March 3, 2004, several of Ryan's GOP primary opponents urged Ryan to release the records. Both Ryan and his wife agreed to make their divorce records public, but not make the child custody records public, claiming that the custody records could be harmful to their son if released. Ryan went on to win the GOP primary on March 16, 2004 defeating his nearest competitor, Jim Oberweis, by twelve percentage points.
Ryan was a proponent of across-the-board tax cuts and tort reform, an effort to limit payout in medical malpractice lawsuits. He was a proponent of school choice and supported vouchers for private school students
The Democratic-Republican Party was an American political party formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison around 1792 to oppose the centralizing policies of the new Federalist Party run by Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury and chief architect of George Washington's administration. From 1801 to 1825, the new party controlled the presidency and Congress as well as most states during the First Party System, it began in 1791 as one faction in Congress and included many politicians, opposed to the new constitution. They called themselves Republicans after republicanism, they distrusted the Federalist tendency to centralize and loosely interpret the Constitution, believing these policies were signs of monarchism and anti-republican values. The party splintered in 1824, with the faction loyal to Andrew Jackson coalescing into the Jacksonian movement, the faction led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay forming the National Republican Party and some other groups going on to form the Anti-Masonic Party.
The National Republicans, Anti-Masons, other opponents of Andrew Jackson formed themselves into the Whig Party. During the time that this party existed, it was referred to as the Republican Party. To distinguish it from the modern Republican Party, political scientists and pundits refer to this party as the Democratic-Republican Party or the Jeffersonian Republican Party; when the modern Republican Party was founded in 1854, it deliberately chose to name itself after the Jeffersonians. In response, contemporary Democrats embraced the name Democratic-Republican to reinforce their party's claim to the party's pre-Jacksonian history. Modern Democratic politicians continue to claim Jefferson as their founder; the party arose from the Anti-Administration faction which met secretly in the national capital to oppose Alexander Hamilton's financial programs. Jefferson denounced the programs as leading to subversive of republicanism. Jefferson needed to have a nationwide party to challenge the Federalists, which Hamilton was building up with allies in major cities.
Foreign affairs took a leading role in 1794–1795 as the Republicans vigorously opposed the Jay Treaty with the United Kingdom, at war with France. Republicans saw France as more democratic after its Revolution while the United Kingdom represented the hated monarchy; the party denounced many of Hamilton's measures as unconstitutional the national bank. The party was weakest in the Northeast, it demanded states' rights as expressed by the "Principles of 1798" articulated in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions that would allow states to nullify a federal law. Above all, the party stood for the primacy of the yeoman farmers. Republicans were committed to the principles of republicanism, which they feared were threatened by the supposed monarchical tendencies of the Hamiltonian Federalists; the party came to power in 1801 with the election of Jefferson in the 1800 presidential election. The Federalists—too elitist to appeal to most people—faded away and collapsed after 1815. Despite internal divisions, the Republicans dominated the First Party System until partisanship itself withered away during the Era of Good Feelings after 1816.
The party selected its presidential candidates in a caucus of members of Congress. They included James Madison and James Monroe. By 1824, the caucus system had collapsed. After 1800, the party dominated most state governments outside New England. By 1824, the party was split four ways and lacked a center as the First Party System collapsed; the emergence of the Second Party System in the 1820s and 30s realigned the old factions. One remnant followed Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren into the new Democratic Party by 1828. Another remnant, led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay, formed the National Republican Party in 1824 while some remaining smaller factions formed the Anti-Masonic Party, which along with some National Republican groups developed into the Whig Party by 1836. Most remaining National Republicans would soon after go on to be a part of the Free Soil and modern Republican parties in the 1840s and 1850s. Congressman James Madison started the party among Representatives in Philadelphia as the "Republican Party".
He, Jefferson and others reached out to include state and local leaders around the country New York and the South. The precise date of founding is disputed, but 1791 is a reasonable estimate and some time by 1792 is certain; the new party set up newspapers that made withering critiques of Hamiltonianism, extolled the yeoman farmer, argued for strict construction of the Constitution, favored the French Revolution opposed the United Kingdom and called for stronger state governments than the Federalist Party was proposing. The elections of 1792 were the first ones to be contested on anything resembling a partisan basis. In most states, the congressional elections were recognized—as Jefferson strategist John Beckley put it—as a "struggle between the Treasury department and the republican interest". In New York, the candidates for governor were a Federalist. Four states' electors voted for Clinton and one for Jefferson for Vice President in opposition to incumbent John Adams as well as casting their votes for President Washington.
Before 1804, electors cast two votes together wi
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
Richard Joseph Durbin is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Illinois, a seat he was first elected to in 1996. He has been the Senate Democratic Whip since 2005, the second-highest position in the Democratic leadership in the U. S. Senate. Durbin was born in Illinois, he graduated from the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service and Georgetown University Law Center. Working in state legal counsel throughout the 1970s, he made an unsuccessful run for Lieutenant Governor of Illinois in 1978, he was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1982, representing the Springfield-based 20th congressional district. In 1996, he won election to the U. S. Senate by an unexpected 15-point margin, he has served as Senate Democratic Whip since 2005, for a period of eight years served as the Senate Majority Whip. He is dean of the Illinois congressional delegation, as he has served in Congress since 1983 as a U. S. Representative from Illinois 20th Congressional District, from 1997 as a U.
S. Senator from Illinois. Durbin now serves as the Senate Minority Whip following the 2014 midterm elections, where the Republicans gained a majority in the U. S. Senate and when he won reelection, defeating Republican Jim Oberweis, by a margin of 53.55% to 42.69%. Durbin was born in East St. Louis, Illinois, to an Irish-American father, William Durbin, a Lithuanian-born mother, Anna, he graduated from Assumption High School in East St. Louis in 1962. During his high school years he worked at a meatpacking plant, he earned a B. S. from the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University in 1966. He was an intern in the office of Senator Paul Douglas of Illinois during his senior year in college. Durbin earned his J. D. from Georgetown University Law Center in 1969 and was admitted to the Illinois bar that year. After graduating from law school, Durbin started a law practice in Springfield, he was legal counsel to Lieutenant Governor Paul Simon from 1969 to 1972, legal counsel to the Illinois State Senate Judiciary Committee from 1972 to 1982.
Durbin was an unsuccessful Democratic candidate for a seat in the Illinois State Senate in 1976. He ran for Lieutenant Governor in 1978 as the running mate of State Superintendent of Schools Michael Bakalis, they were defeated by Republican incumbents Jim Dave O'Neal. Durbin worked as an adjunct professor at the Southern Illinois University School of Medicine for five years while maintaining his law practice. In 1982, Durbin won the Democratic nomination for the now-eliminated 20th congressional district, which included Macon and most of Springfield, he scored a 1,400 vote victory, defeating 22-year incumbent Paul Findley, a U. S. Navy veteran, whose district lines had been redrawn to remove rural farms and add economically depressed Macon, replacing 35-percent of the voters and include more Democrats as part of the decennial redistricting. Durbin's campaign emphasized unemployment and financial difficulties facing farmers, told voters that electing him would send "a message to Washington and to President Reagan that our economic policies are not working."
Durbin benefited from donations by pro-Israel groups from around the United States, in particular, concentrated support from AIPAC supporters, that were opposed to Findley's advocacy on behalf of the Palestine Liberation Organization in the year prior to the election. Durbin was re-elected six times facing serious opposition, winning more than 55% of the vote in each election except 1994. In 1996, Durbin defeated Pat Quinn to become the Democratic Party's nominee to replace the retiring Democratic incumbent, Senator Paul Simon, a long-time friend, he faced Republican State Representative Al Salvi in the November general election. Although the election had been expected to be competitive, Durbin benefited from Bill Clinton's 18-point win in Illinois that year and was able to capture a 15-point margin over his opponent, he has since been re-elected in 2002, 2008 and 2014, each time by at least 10%. Committee on Appropriations Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development and Drug Administration, Related Agencies Subcommittee on Defense Subcommittee on Financial Services and General Government Subcommittee on Labor and Human Services and Related Agencies Subcommittee on State, Foreign Operations, Related Programs Subcommittee on Transportation and Urban Development, Related Agencies Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution Subcommittee on Crime and Drugs Subcommittee on Immigration and Border Security Subcommittee on Terrorism and Homeland Security Subcommittee on Human Rights and the Law Committee on Rules and Administration Bi-Cameral High-Speed & Intercity Passenger Rail Caucus Caucus on International Narcotics Control International Conservation Caucus Senate Diabetes Caucus Senate Hunger Caucus Senate Science, Technology and Math Education Caucus Sportsmen's Caucus Congressional COPD Caucus Senate Ukraine Caucus Afterschool Caucuses Congressional NextGen 9-1-1 Caucus In November 1998, Senate Minority Leader Tom Daschle appointed Durbin as his Assistant Democratic Whip.
Following the 2004 election, Durbin became the Democratic Whip in the 109th Congress. He became the first senator from Illinois to serve as a Senate Whip since Everett Dirksen did so in the late 1950s, the fifth to serve in Senate Leadership. Durbin served as Assistant Minority Leader from 2005 until 2007, when the Democrats became the Majority Party in the Senate, he assumed the role of Assistant Majority Leader, or Majority Whip. In a
19th United States Congress
The Nineteenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1825, to March 4, 1827, during the first two years of the administration of U. S. President John Quincy Adams; the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fourth Census of the United States in 1820. The Senate had a majority of Jackson Men. March 4, 1825: John Quincy Adams inaugurated as President of the United States October 26, 1825: The Erie Canal opened, providing passage from Albany, New York, to Buffalo and Lake Erie. July 4, 1826: Both Thomas Jefferson and John Adams died on the 50th Anniversary of America's Independence November 7, 1825: Treaty of St. Louis: 1,400 Missouri Shawnees were forcibly relocated from Missouri to Kansas January 24, 1826: Treaty of Washington between the United States government and the Creek National Council, in which they ceded much of their land in Georgia The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this congress.
Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section. President: John C. Calhoun President pro tempore: John Gaillard, until December 4, 1825 Nathaniel Macon, from May 20, 1826 Speaker: John W. Taylor This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed by Class and Representatives are listed by district. Skip to House of Representatives, below Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, facing re-election in 1826/1827; this count reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 7 Anti-Jacksonian: 3-seat net gain Jacksonian: no net change deaths: 4 resignations: 6 interim appointments: 4 Total seats with changes: 13 replacements: 11 Anti-Jackson: 1 seat net gain Jackson Men: 1 seat net loss deaths: 5 resignations: 10 contested election: 1 Total seats with changes: 16 Lists of committees and their party leaders.
Agriculture Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Bankruptcy Claims Commerce Debt Imprisonment Abolition Distributing Public Revenue Among the States District of Columbia Finance Foreign Relations French Spoilations Georgia and the Creek Indians Indian Affairs Judiciary Manufactures Military Affairs Militia Naval Affairs Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Private Land Claims Public Lands Roads and Canals Tariff Regulation Whole Accounts Agriculture American Colonization Society Apportionment of Representatives Bills of Exchange Claims Commerce District of Columbia Elections Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Foreign Affairs Indian Affairs Manufactures Military Affairs Military Pensions Naval Affairs Post Office and Post Roads Public Expenditures Public Lands Revisal and Unfinished Business Revolutionary Claims Rules Standards of Official Conduct Territories Ways and Means Whole Enrolled Bills Police and Preservation of the Capital Architect of the Capitol: Charles Bulfinch Librarian of Congress: George Watterston Chaplain: William Staughton, elected December 12, 1825 William Ryland, elected December 8, 1826 Secretary of the Senate: Charles Cutts, until December 12, 1825 Walter Lowrie, elected December 12, 1825 Sergeant at Arms: Mountjoy Bayly Chaplain: Reuben Post Clerk: Matthew St. Clair Clarke Doorkeeper: Benjamin Birch Reading Clerks: Sergeant at Arms: John O. Dunn United States elections, 1824 United States presidential election, 1824 United States Senate elections, 1824 and 1825 United States House of Representatives elections, 1825 United States elections, 1826 United States Senate elections, 1826 and 1827 United States House of Representatives elections, 1826 Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Statutes at Large, 1789-1875 Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress Biographical Directory of the U. S. Congress U. S. House of Representatives: House History U. S. Senate: Statistics and Lists
24th United States Congress
The Twenty-fourth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1835, to March 4, 1837, during the seventh and eighth years of Andrew Jackson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fifth Census of the United States in 1830. Both chambers had a Jacksonian majority. December 28, 1835: The Second Seminole War began. Seminole fighter Osceola and his warriors attack government agent Thompson outside Fort King in central Florida. 1835: Toledo War fought between Ohio and Michigan Territory over the city of Toledo and the Toledo Strip. February 3, 1836: United States Whig Party held its first convention in Albany, New York. February 23, 1836: Siege of the Alamo began in San Antonio, Texas. July 11, 1836: President Andrew Jackson issued the Specie Circular, beginning the failure of the land speculation economy that would lead to the Panic of 1837.
July 13, 1836: U. S. patent #1 was granted after filing 9,957 unnumbered patents. November 3 - December 7, 1836: 1836 presidential election: Martin Van Buren defeated William Henry Harrison, but Virginia's electors refused to vote for Van Buren's running mate, thereby denying victory to any Vice Presidential candidate. December 4, 1836: Whig Party held its first national convention, in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. December 15, 1836: The U. S. Patent Office burned in Washington, DC. February 8, 1837: Richard Mentor Johnson became the first and only Vice President of the United States elected by the United States Senate; the Senate was required to choose between Richard Johnson and Francis Granger as the next vice-president. Johnson was elected in a single ballot by 33 to 16: December 29, 1835: Treaty of New Echota signed, ceding all the lands of the Cherokee east of the Mississippi to the United States June 15, 1836: Arkansas admitted as the 25th state 5 Stat. 50 January 26, 1837: Michigan admitted as the 26th state 5 Stat. 144.
During this congress one House seat was added for each of the new states of Michigan. President: Martin Van Buren President pro tempore: William R. King Speaker: James K. Polk This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed by class, Representatives are listed by district. Skip to House of Representatives, below Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 1838; the names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers. The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 11 Anti-Jacksonians: 5-seat net loss Jacksonians: 10-seat net gain Deaths: 3 Resignations: 8 Interim appointments: 0 Seats of newly admitted states: 4 Total seats with changes: 16 Replacements: 18 Anti-Jacksonians: 5-seat net gain Anti-Masonics: 1-seat net loss Jacksonians: 2-seat net loss Nullifiers: No net change Deaths: 5 Resignations: 13 Contested election: 0 Seats of newly admitted states: 2 Total seats with changes: 24 Lists of committees and their party leaders.
Agriculture Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Claims Commerce Constitution of the State of Arkansas Distributing Public Revenue Among the States District of Columbia Finance Foreign Relations Incendiary Publications Indian Affairs Judiciary Letter from Mr. Poindexter Manufactures Mileage of Members of Congress Military Affairs Militia Naval Affairs Ohio-Michigan Boundary Patent Office Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Private Land Claims Public Lands Purchasing Boyd Reilly's Gas Apparatus Revolutionary Claims Roads and Canals Sale of Public Lands Tariff Regulation Whole Accounts Agriculture Amendment to the Constitution Banks of the District of Columbia Claims Commerce District of Columbia Elections Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Foreign Affairs Indian Affairs Invalid Pensions Manufactures Military Affairs Militia Naval Affairs Post Office and Post Roads Public Expenditures Public Lands Revisal and Unfinished Business Revolutionary Claims Roads and Canals Rules Standards of Official Conduct Territories Ways and Means Whole Enrolled Bills Librarian of Congress: John Silva Meehan Chaplain: Edward Y.
Higbee, elected December 23, 1835 John R. Goodman, elected December 28, 1836 Secretary: Walter Lowrie until December 11, 1836 Asbury Dickens, elected December 12, 1836 Sergeant at Arms: John Shackford Chaplain: Thomas H. Stockton, elected December 7, 1835 Oliver C. Comstock, elected December 5, 1836 Clerk: Walter S. Franklin Doorkeeper: Overton Carr Sergeant at Arms: Roderick Dorsey, elected December 15, 1835 Reading Clerks: Postmaster: William J. McCormick United States elections, 1834 Uni