Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court of the United States. In the legal system of the United States, the Supreme Court is the interpreter of federal constitutional law. The Court normally consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight justices who are nominated by the President. Once appointed, justices have life tenure unless they resign, retire, in modern discourse, the justices are often categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. Each justice has one vote, and while many cases are decided unanimously, the Court meets in the United States Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C. The Supreme Court is sometimes referred to as SCOTUS, in analogy to other acronyms such as POTUS. The ratification of the United States Constitution established the Supreme Court in 1789 and its powers are detailed in Article Three of the Constitution. The Supreme Court is the court specifically established by the Constitution.
The Court first convened on February 2,1790, by which five of its six initial positions had been filled. According to historian Fergus Bordewich, in its first session, he Supreme Court convened for the first time at the Royal Exchange Building on Broad Street and they had no cases to consider. After a week of inactivity, they adjourned until September, the sixth member was not confirmed until May 12,1790. Because the full Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the Courts full membership to make decisions, under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases, its first decision was West v. Barnes, a case involving a procedural issue. The Courts power and prestige grew substantially during the Marshall Court, the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuing his opinion seriatim, a remnant of British tradition, and instead issuing a single majority opinion. Also during Marshalls tenure, although beyond the Courts control, the impeachment, the Taney Court made several important rulings, such as Sheldon v.
Nevertheless, it is primarily remembered for its ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which helped precipitate the Civil War. In the Reconstruction era, the Chase and Fuller Courts interpreted the new Civil War amendments to the Constitution, during World War II, the Court continued to favor government power, upholding the internment of Japanese citizens and the mandatory pledge of allegiance. Nevertheless, Gobitis was soon repudiated, and the Steel Seizure Case restricted the pro-government trend, the Warren Court dramatically expanded the force of Constitutional civil liberties. It held that segregation in public schools violates equal protection and that traditional legislative district boundaries violated the right to vote
Texas v. White
Texas v. White,74 U. S.700 was a significant case argued before the United States Supreme Court in 1869. The state filed suit directly with the United States Supreme Court, on February 1,1861, the Texas secession convention drafted and approved an Ordinance of Secession. This ordinance was approved by both the state legislature and a statewide referendum. Texas had received $10 million in United States bonds in settlement of claims as part of the Compromise of 1850. While many of the bonds were sold, there were some on hand in 1861. Needing money, the legislature authorized the sale of the remaining bonds, the legislature therefore repealed the requirement for the governors endorsement in order to hide the origin of the bonds. Despite the warning,136 bonds were purchased by a brokerage owned by George W. White, although this sale probably occurred earlier, the written confirmation of the transaction was not executed until January 12,1865. The bonds were in the meantime resold to several individuals, one or more of whom were able to redeem the bonds through the United States government.
James W. Throckmorton was elected governor under this process while General Philip H. Sheridan, John Chiles, who was being sued along with White, argued that he could not be sued because Texas lacked evidence. He claimed the documents were destroyed by soldiers and that there was no way to get them back. White believed therefore, that he should not have to reimburse Texas, as the United States Treasury Department became aware of the situation regarding the bonds, it refused to redeem those bonds sold by White and Chiles. After the state realized that it was no longer in possession of the bonds, by the time the suit was filed, Republicans in Congress, led by its Radical faction, were opposing President Johnsons leadership in reconstruction policy. Increasingly Republicans were abandoning Lincolns position that the states had never left the Union and they hoped that the Supreme Court would reject jurisdiction in the case by claiming that there was no legally recognized government in Texas. Democrats, on the hand, wanted the Court to acknowledge the existence of an official state government in Texas.
Such a ruling would have the effect of accepting Texas as fully restored to its place in the Union, wall Street was concerned with the case, being opposed to any actions that threatened bondholders and investors. Twelve attorneys represented Texas and the defendants in the case. Arguments before the Supreme Court were made three days on February 5,8, and 9,1869. The complaint filed by Texas claimed ownership of the bonds and requested that the turn the bonds over to the state
The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. Its recommended unit symbol is MB, but sometimes MByte is used, the unit prefix mega is a multiplier of 1000000 in the International System of Units. Therefore, one megabyte is one million bytes of information and this definition has been incorporated into the International System of Quantities. However, in the computer and information fields, several other definitions are used that arose for historical reasons of convenience. A common usage has been to one megabyte as 1048576bytes. However, most standards bodies have deprecated this usage in favor of a set of binary prefixes, less common is a convention that used the megabyte to mean 1000×1024 bytes. The megabyte is commonly used to measure either 10002 bytes or 10242 bytes, the interpretation of using base 1024 originated as a compromise technical jargon for the byte multiples that needed to be expressed by the powers of 2 but lacked a convenient name. As 1024 approximates 1000, roughly corresponding to the SI prefix kilo-, in 1998 the International Electrotechnical Commission proposed standards for binary prefixes requiring the use of megabyte to strictly denote 10002 bytes and mebibyte to denote 10242 bytes.
By the end of 2009, the IEC Standard had been adopted by the IEEE, EU, ISO, the Mac OS X10.6 file manager is a notable example of this usage in software. Since Snow Leopard, file sizes are reported in decimal units, base 21 MB =1048576 bytes is the definition used by Microsoft Windows in reference to computer memory, such as RAM. This definition is synonymous with the binary prefix mebibyte. Mixed 1 MB =1024000 bytes is the used to describe the formatted capacity of the 1.44 MB3. 5inch HD floppy disk. Semiconductor memory doubles in size for each address lane added to an integrated circuit package, the capacity of a disk drive is the product of the sector size, number of sectors per track, number of tracks per side, and the number of disk platters in the drive. Changes in any of these factors would not usually double the size, sector sizes were set as powers of two for convenience in processing. It was an extension to give the capacity of a disk drive in multiples of the sector size, giving a mix of decimal.
Depending on compression methods and file format, a megabyte of data can roughly be, a 4 megapixel JPEG image with normal compression. Approximately 1 minute of 128 kbit/s MP3 compressed music,6 seconds of uncompressed CD audio. A typical English book volume in plain text format, the human genome consists of DNA representing 800 MB of data
United States Reports
The United States Reports are the official record of the rulings, case tables, and other proceedings of the Supreme Court of the United States. Opinions of the court in each case, prepended with a prepared by the Reporter of Decisions. For lawyers, citations to United States Reports are the reference for Supreme Court decisions. Following Bluebook, a commonly accepted citation protocol, the case Brown, et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka, for example, would be cited as, Brown v. Bd. of Educ. The early volumes of the United States Reports were originally published privately by the individual Supreme Court Reporters, as was the practice in England, the reports were designated by the names of the reporters who compiled them, Dallass Reports, Cranchs Reports, etc. The decisions appearing in the entire first volume and most of the volume of United States Reports are not decisions of the United States Supreme Court. Instead, they are decisions from various Pennsylvania courts, dating from the colonial period, alexander Dallas, a lawyer and journalist, of Philadelphia, had been in the business of reporting these cases for newspapers and periodicals.
He subsequently began compiling his case reports in a bound volume and this would come to be known as the first volume of Dallas Reports. Dallas continued to collect and publish Pennsylvania decisions in a volume of his Reports. When the Supreme Court began hearing cases, he added those cases to his reports, starting towards the end of the volume,2 Dallas Reports. Dallas went on to publish a total of four volumes of decisions during his tenure as Reporter, when the Supreme Court moved to Washington, D. C. in 1800, Dallas remained in Philadelphia, and William Cranch took over as unofficial reporter of decisions. In 1817, Congress made the Reporter of Decisions an official, salaried position, in 1874, the U. S. government began to fund the reports publication, creating the United States Reports. The earlier, private reports were retroactively numbered volumes 1–90 of the United States Reports, decisions appearing in these early reports have dual citation forms, one for the volume number of the United States Reports, and one for the set of nominate reports.
For example, the citation to McCulloch v. Maryland is 17 U. S.316