Booker T. Washington Memorial half dollar
The Booker T. Washington Memorial half dollar was designed by Isaac Scott Hathaway and minted in silver between 1946 and 1951; the obverse depicts Booker T. Washington; the reverse shows the cabin in which Washington was born, now the Booker T. Washington National Monument, the Hall of Fame for Great Americans, in which Washington is honored; the description on the reverse reads "From slave cabin to Hall of Fame." Early United States commemorative coins
Half dollar (United States coin)
The half dollar, sometimes referred to as the half for short, is a United States coin worth 50 cents, or one half of a dollar, is the largest United States circulating coin produced in both size and weight, being 1.205 inches in diameter and.085 inches in thickness, is twice the weight of the quarter. The current half dollar, the Kennedy half dollar, depicts the profile of President John F. Kennedy on the obverse and the Seal of the President of the United States on the reverse, but the design has undergone a number of changes throughout its history. Though not used today, half-dollar coins have a long history of heavy use alongside other denominations of coinage, but have faded out of general circulation for many reasons, they were produced in large quantities until the year 2002, when the U. S. Mint ceased production of the coin for general circulation; as a result of its decreasing usage, a large amount of pre-2002 half dollars remain in Federal Reserve vaults, prompting the change in production.
Presently, collector half dollars can be ordered directly from the U. S. Mint, pre-2002 circulation half dollars may be ordered through most U. S. banks. Half-dollar coins saw heavy use in the first half of the 20th century. For many years, they were used by gamblers at casinos and other venues with slot machines. Rolls of half dollars may still be kept on hand in cardrooms for games requiring 50-cent antes or bring-in bets, for dealers to pay winning naturals in blackjack, or where the house collects a rake in increments. Additionally, some concession vendors at sporting events distribute half-dollar coins as change for convenience. By the early 1960s, the rising price of silver neared the point where the bullion value of U. S. silver coins would exceed face value. In 1965, the U. S. introduced layered-composition coins made of a copper core laminated between two cupronickel outer faces. The silver content of dimes and quarters was eliminated, but the Kennedy half-dollar composition contained silver from 1965 to 1970.
With its reduced silver content, the half dollar attracted widespread interest from speculators and collectors, that interest led to widespread hoarding of half dollars dated 1970 and earlier. By the time that the coin's composition was changed to match that of the clad dimes and quarters in 1971, businesses and the public began losing interest in the half dollar and the coin began to disappear from circulation during the 1970s. Merchants stopped ordering half dollars from their banks, many banks stopped ordering half dollars from the Federal Reserve, the U. S. mints reduced production of the coins. Since 2002, half dollars have been minted only for collectors, due to large Federal Reserve and government inventories on hand of pre-2001 pieces; when the reserve supply runs low, the mint will again fill orders for circulation half dollars. It took about 18 years for the large inventory stockpile of a similar low-demand circulation coin, the $1 coin, to reach reserve levels low enough to again produce circulation pieces.
Modern-date half dollars can be purchased in proof sets, mint sets and bags from the U. S. Mint, existing inventory circulation pieces can be ordered through most U. S. banks. All collector issues since 2001 have had much lower mintages than in previous years. Although intended only for collectors, these post-2001 half dollars sometimes find their way into circulation, with examples occurring in change or as payment for small transactions. On December 1, 1794, the first half dollars 5,300 pieces, were delivered. Another 18,000 were produced in January 1795 using dies of 1794, to save the expense of making new ones. Another 30,000 pieces were struck by the end of 1801; the coin had the Heraldic Eagle, based on the Great Seal of the United States on the reverse. 150,000 were minted in 1804 but struck with dies from 1803, so no 1804 specimens exist, though there were some pieces dated 1805 that carried a "5 over 4" overdate. In 1838, half-dollar dies were produced in the Philadelphia Mint for the newly established New Orleans Mint, ten test samples of the 1838 half dollars were made at the main Philadelphia mint.
These samples were put into the mint safe along with other rarities like the 1804 silver dollar. The dies were shipped to New Orleans for the regular production of 1838 half dollars. However, New Orleans production of the half dollars was delayed due to the priority of producing half dimes and dimes; the large press for half-dollar production was not used in New Orleans until January 1839 to produce 1838 half dollars, but the reverse die could not be properly secured, only ten samples were produced before the dies failed. Rufus Tyler, chief coiner of the New Orleans mint, wrote to Mint Director Patterson of the problem on February 25, 1839; the Orleans mint samples all had a double stamped reverse as a result of this production problem and they showed dramatic signs of die rust, neither of which are present on the Philadelphia produced test samples. While eight Philadelphia minted samples survive to this day, there is only one known New Orleans minted specimen with the tell-tale double stamped reverse and die rust.
This is the famous coin that Rufus Tyler presented to Alexander Dallas Bache in the summer of 1839 and was purchased in June 1894 by A. G. Heaton, the father of mint mark coin collecting; the 1838 Philadelphia-produced half dollars are rare, with two separate specimens having sold for $632,500 in Heritage auctions in 2005 and 2008 respectively. Th
Hall of Fame for Great Americans
The Hall of Fame for Great Americans is an outdoor sculpture gallery located on the grounds of Bronx Community College in the Bronx, New York City. It is the first such hall of fame in the United States. Completed in 1900 as part of the University Heights campus of New York University, the 630-foot stone colonnade half-encircles the university library and houses 98 bronze portrait busts of a number of prominent Americans. Designed by architect Stanford White, the Beaux Arts structure was donated by Helen Gould, was formally dedicated on May 30, 1901. New York University was forced to sell the campus in 1973 to the City University of New York and it became Bronx Community College. Though the Hall's renown has itself faded, its architecture remains, it stands as a secular national shrine not just to great men and women, but to Roman ideals of fame favored at the beginning of the 20th century; the library and hall stand on the heights occupied by the British army in the autumn of 1776 during its successful attack upon Fort Washington.
Dr. Henry Mitchell MacCracken, Chancellor of New York University, was the originator of The Hall of Fame, it was the first hall of fame in the United States. "Fame" here means "renown". Chancellor MacCracken acknowledged inspiration from the Ruhmeshalle in Germany. Other monuments of a similar purpose had been built earlier. King Ludwig I of Bavaria built two: a Walhalla Ruhmes- und Ehrenhalle near Regensburg, completed in 1842, a Ruhmeshalle auf der Anhöhe, in Munich, completed in 1853. Chancellor McCracken described the evolution of the idea for the Hall of Fame: The Hall of Fame... owes its inception in large part to hard facts of physical geography. After the three buildings which were to form the west side of the quadrangle of the New York University College of Arts and Science at University Heights had been planned, it was decided, in order to enlarge the quadrangle, to push them as near as possible to the avenue above the Harlem River, but since the campus level is 170 feet above high tide, from 40 to 60 feet above the avenue, it was seen at once that the basement stories would stand out towards the avenue bare and unsightly.
In order to conceal their walls, a terrace was suggested by the architect, to be bounded at its outer edge by a parapet or colonnade. But while aesthetics compelled the architect to invent the terrace with its parapet of colonnade, the university's necessity compelled the discovery of an educational use for the architect's structure. Like most persons who have visited Germany, the chairman was acquainted with the "Ruhmes Halle," built near Munich by the King of Bavaria. Like all Americans, he admired the use made of Westminster Abbey, of the Pantheon in Paris, but the American claims liberty to adopt new and broad rules to govern him when following on the track of his Old-World ancestors. Hence it was agreed that admission to this Hall of Fame should be controlled by a national body of electors, who might, as nearly as possible, represent the wisdom of the American people; the memorial structure is an open-air colonnade, 630 feet in length with space for 102 bronze sculptures, designed in the neoclassical style by architect Stanford White.
The library is similar to Low Library at Columbia, designed by White's partner Charles Follen McKim. The colonnade runs behind the Hall of Languages to the south, the Hall of Philosophy to the north. Carved in stone on pediments of The Hall of Fame are the words "By wealth of thought, or else by mighty deed, They served mankind in noble character. In worldwide good they live forever more." The base to each sculpture holds a bronze tablet bearing the name of the person commemorated, significant dates and quotations. Each bronze bust must have been made for The Hall of Fame and must not be duplicated within 50 years of its execution; the Hall of Fame for Great Americans is forgotten. For two decades before 1997, in fact, it lacked the funds to hold new elections or to commission busts of the people it elected, including Louis Brandeis, Clara Barton, Luther Burbank, Andrew Carnegie, it took nineteen years to raise the $25,000 needed to commission the bust of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. In the late 1970s the state spent $3 million restoring the colonnade's crumbling foundation.
By that time private gifts, which were always the Hall of Fame's primary source of support, had ceased. In 2001, Bronx Community College organized a US$1 million fund-raising effort to rebuild and expand the Hall of Fame. To be eligible for nomination, a person must have been a native born or naturalized citizen of the United States, must have been dead for 25 years and must have made a major contribution to the economic, political, or cultural life of the nation. Nominees were elected by a simple majority vote, except from 1925 through 1940, when a 3/5 majority was required. In 1976 a point system replaced the majority vote. Two nominees, Constance Woolson and Orville Wright, were considered, although being dead only 6 and 17 years respectively. MacCracken wanted to make sure that the people enshrined in his Hall of Fame were famous, not just memorable. So he established a board of electors, composed of men and women who were themselves possessed of some measure of renown, ostensibly people of great character and sound judgment.
Over the years that body would include the most respected writers, histo
George Washington Carver
George Washington Carver, was an American agricultural scientist and inventor. He promoted alternative crops to cotton and methods to prevent soil depletion. While a professor at Tuskegee Institute, Carver developed techniques to improve soils depleted by repeated plantings of cotton, he wanted poor farmers to grow alternative crops, such as peanuts and sweet potatoes, as a source of their own food and to improve their quality of life. The most popular of his 44 practical bulletins for farmers contained 105 food recipes using peanuts. Although he spent years developing and promoting numerous products made from peanuts, none became commercially successful. Apart from his work to improve the lives of farmers, Carver was a leader in promoting environmentalism, he received numerous honors for his work, including the Spingarn Medal of the NAACP. In an era of high racial polarization, his fame reached beyond the black community, he was recognized and praised in the white community for his many achievements and talents.
In 1941, Time magazine dubbed Carver a "Black Leonardo". George Washington Carver was born into slavery in Diamond Grove, Newton County, near Crystal Place, now known as Diamond, some time in the early-mid 1860s; the exact date of his birth is uncertain and was not known to Carver – however it was before slavery was abolished in Missouri in January 1865 after the American Civil War. His master, Moses Carver, was a German American immigrant who had purchased George's parents and Giles, from William P. McGinnis on October 9, 1855, for $700; when George was only a week old, he, a sister, his mother were kidnapped by night raiders from Arkansas. George's brother, was rushed to safety from the kidnappers; the kidnappers sold the slaves in Kentucky. Moses Carver hired John Bentley to find them. Moses negotiated with the raiders to gain the boy's return, rewarded Bentley. After slavery was abolished, Moses Carver and his wife Susan raised George and his older brother James as their own children, they encouraged George to continue his intellectual pursuits, "Aunt Susan" taught him the basics of reading and writing.
Black people were not allowed at the public school in Diamond Grove. George decided to go to a school for black children 10 miles south in Neosho; when he reached the town, he found. He slept in a nearby barn. By his own account, the next morning he met a kind woman, Mariah Watkins, from whom he wished to rent a room; when he identified himself as "Carver's George," as he had done his whole life, she replied that from now on his name was "George Carver". George liked Mariah Watkins, her words, "You must learn all you can go back out into the world and give your learning back to the people", made a great impression on him. At the age of 13, due to his desire to attend the academy there, he relocated to the home of another foster family in Fort Scott, Kansas. After witnessing a black man killed by a group of whites, Carver left the city, he attended a series of schools before earning his diploma at Minneapolis High School in Minneapolis, Kansas. Carver applied to several colleges before being accepted at Highland University in Kansas.
When he arrived, they rejected him because of his race. In August 1886, Carver traveled by wagon with J. F. Beeler from Highland to Eden Township in Ness County, Kansas, he homesteaded a claim near Beeler, where he maintained a small conservatory of plants and flowers and a geological collection. He manually plowed 17 acres of the claim, planting rice, Indian corn and garden produce, as well as various fruit trees, forest trees, shrubbery, he earned money by odd jobs in town and worked as a ranch hand. In early 1888, Carver obtained a $300 loan at the Bank of Ness City for education. By June he left the area. In 1890, Carver started studying piano at Simpson College in Indianola, Iowa, his art teacher, Etta Budd, recognized Carver's talent for painting plants. When he began there in 1891, he was the first black student at Iowa State. Carver's Bachelor's thesis for a degree in Agriculture was "Plants as Modified by Man", dated 1894. Iowa State University professors Joseph Budd and Louis Pammel convinced Carver to continue there for his master's degree.
Carver did research at the Iowa Experiment Station under Pammel during the next two years. His work at the experiment station in plant pathology and mycology first gained him national recognition and respect as a botanist. Carver received his master of science degree in 1896. Carver taught as the first black faculty member at Iowa State. In 1896, Booker T. Washington, the first principal and president of the Tuskegee Institute, invited Carver to head its Agriculture Department. Carver taught there for 47 years, developing the department into a strong research center and working with two additional college presidents during his tenure, he taught methods of crop rotation, introduced several alternative cash crops for farmers that would improve the soil of areas cultivated in cotton, initiated research into crop products, taught generations of black students farming techniques for self-sufficiency. Carver designed a mobile classroom to take education out to farmers, he called it a "Jesup wagon" after the New York financier and philanthropist Morris Ketchum Jesup, who provided funding to support the program.
To recruit Carver to Tuskegee, Washington gave him an above average salary and two rooms for his personal use, although both concessions were resented by some other faculty. Because he had earned a master's in
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, reflectivity of any metal; the metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold and zinc refining. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many bullion coins, sometimes alongside gold: while it is more abundant than gold, it is much less abundant as a native metal, its purity is measured on a per-mille basis. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had an enduring role in most human cultures. Other than in currency and as an investment medium, silver is used in solar panels, water filtration, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, in catalysis of chemical reactions, as a colorant in stained glass and in specialised confectionery.
Its compounds are used in X-ray film. Dilute solutions of silver nitrate and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings and other medical instruments. Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two vertical neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table and gold, its 47 electrons are arranged in the configuration 4d105s1 to copper and gold. This distinctive electron configuration, with a single electron in the highest occupied s subshell over a filled d subshell, accounts for many of the singular properties of metallic silver. Silver is an soft and malleable transition metal, though it is less malleable than gold. Silver crystallizes in a face-centered cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12, where only the single 5s electron is delocalized to copper and gold. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are lacking a covalent character and are weak; this observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of silver.
Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a high polish, and, so characteristic that the name of the metal itself has become a colour name. Unlike copper and gold, the energy required to excite an electron from the filled d band to the s-p conduction band in silver is large enough that it no longer corresponds to absorption in the visible region of the spectrum, but rather in the ultraviolet. Protected silver has greater optical reflectivity than aluminium at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nm. At wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silver's reflectivity is inferior to that of aluminium and drops to zero near 310 nm. High electrical and thermal conductivity is common to the elements in group 11, because their single s electron is free and does not interact with the filled d subshell, as such interactions lower electron mobility; the electrical conductivity of silver is the greatest of all metals, greater than copper, but it is not used for this property because of the higher cost.
An exception is in radio-frequency engineering at VHF and higher frequencies where silver plating improves electrical conductivity because those currents tend to flow on the surface of conductors rather than through the interior. During World War II in the US, 13540 tons of silver were used in electromagnets for enriching uranium because of the wartime shortage of copper. Pure silver has the highest thermal conductivity of any metal, although the conductivity of carbon and superfluid helium-4 are higher. Silver has the lowest contact resistance of any metal. Silver forms alloys with copper and gold, as well as zinc. Zinc-silver alloys with low zinc concentration may be considered as face-centred cubic solid solutions of zinc in silver, as the structure of the silver is unchanged while the electron concentration rises as more zinc is added. Increasing the electron concentration further leads to body-centred cubic, complex cubic, hexagonal close-packed phases. Occurring silver is composed of two stable isotopes, 107Ag and 109Ag, with 107Ag being more abundant.
This equal abundance is rare in the periodic table. The atomic weight is 107.8682 u. Both isotopes of silver are produced in stars via the s-process, as well as in supernovas via the r-process. Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 105Ag with a half-life of 41.29 days, 111Ag with a half-life of 7.45 days, 112Ag with a half-life of 3.13 hours. Silver has numerous nuclear isomers, the most stable being 108mAg, 110mAg and 106mAg. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than an hour, the majority of these have half-lives of less than three minutes. Isotopes of silver range in relative atomic mass from 92.950 u
Carver-Washington half dollar
The George Washington Carver-Booker T. Washington Half Dollar was designed by Isaac Scott Hathaway; the obverse depicts side-portraits of George Washington Carver and Booker T. Washington and the reverse shows a simple outline map of the United States of America superimposed with the letters "U. S. A.", the words "Freedom and Opportunity for All/Americanism" around the rim. It was minted in silver from 1951 until 1954, by authority of Public Law 82-151, it was the final issue of early commemoratives. The bill authorizing the coins was pushed by the George Washington Carver National Monument Foundation, passed on September 21, 1951, authorizing the mintage of a maximum 3,415,631 coins; this odd maximum mintage number took into consideration the remaining 1,581,631 Booker T. Washington half dollars that could be melted and struck as Washington-Carver coins, with the remainder being based off the 1,834,000 unused quantity earlier authorized for the Booker T. Washington half dollar. Like the Booker T. Washington half dollar, the design for this coin was created by sculptor Isaac Scott Hathaway.
One of the reasons behind the Carver-Washington half dollar may have been to oppose the spread of Communism among African Americans. One of Hathaway's early designs for the coin featured a three quarter profile portrait of Booker T. Washington behind the profile portrait of George Washington Carver on the obverse, while the reverse featured the American Legion seal with inscriptions such as "United Against the Spread of Communism."The coin would be produced for the following three years. They were sold in three-coin sets, although large quantities of the 1951, 1952, 1953-S and 1954-S coins were struck for sale as singles; the sets were sold for between $9 and $10 each, although this would be raised to $12 per set for the 1954 coins. In 1952, an attempt was made to issue the coins through banks. By the time the program ended over a million coins had been distributed. Despite being the last early commemorative issue, little attention was paid when the program ended in 1954, as by this point most American coin collectors had become bored with commemorative coins.
Owing to the fact that the Booker T. Washington and Washington-Carver Halves were little desired at that time, thousands of those coins were returned to the Mint for melting, while thousands more still held by banks were sold to speculators for a small premium above face value; until the George Washington 250th Anniversary Commemorative Half Dollar was issued 28 years in 1982, no more commemorative coins would be issued by the United States. Any subsequent commemorative coin proposals were met by the Treasury Department with the long list of complaints that had arisen due to past abuses, such as the 1936 commemorative craze
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a soft and ductile metal with high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a pinkish-orange color. Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper is one of the few metals; this led to early human use in several regions, from c. 8000 BC. Thousands of years it was the first metal to be smelted from sulfide ores, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c. 4000 BC and the first metal to be purposefully alloyed with another metal, tin, to create bronze, c. 3500 BC. In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, the origin of the name of the metal, from aes сyprium corrupted to сuprum, from which the words derived and copper, first used around 1530.
The encountered compounds are copper salts, which impart blue or green colors to such minerals as azurite and turquoise, have been used and as pigments. Copper used in buildings for roofing, oxidizes to form a green verdigris. Copper is sometimes used in decorative art, both in its elemental metal form and in compounds as pigments. Copper compounds are used as bacteriostatic agents and wood preservatives. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs and crustaceans, copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin, replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobin in fish and other vertebrates. In humans, copper is found in the liver and bone; the adult body contains between 2.1 mg of copper per kilogram of body weight. Copper and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table; the filled d-shells in these elements contribute little to interatomic interactions, which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds.
Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in copper are lacking a covalent character and are weak. This observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of copper. At the macroscopic scale, introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice, such as grain boundaries, hinders flow of the material under applied stress, thereby increasing its hardness. For this reason, copper is supplied in a fine-grained polycrystalline form, which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms; the softness of copper explains its high electrical conductivity and high thermal conductivity, second highest among pure metals at room temperature. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature originates from scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice, which are weak in a soft metal; the maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is 3.1×106 A/m2 of cross-sectional area, above which it begins to heat excessively. Copper is one of a few metallic elements with a natural color other than silver.
Pure copper acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these shells corresponds to orange light; as with other metals, if copper is put in contact with another metal, galvanic corrosion will occur. Copper does not react with water, but it does react with atmospheric oxygen to form a layer of brown-black copper oxide which, unlike the rust that forms on iron in moist air, protects the underlying metal from further corrosion. A green layer of verdigris can be seen on old copper structures, such as the roofing of many older buildings and the Statue of Liberty. Copper tarnishes when exposed to some sulfur compounds, with which it reacts to form various copper sulfides. There are 29 isotopes of copper. 63Cu and 65Cu are stable, with 63Cu comprising 69% of occurring copper. The other isotopes are radioactive, with the most stable being 67Cu with a half-life of 61.83 hours.
Seven metastable isotopes have been characterized. Isotopes with a mass number above 64 decay by β−, whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β+. 64Cu, which has a half-life of 12.7 hours, decays both ways.62Cu and 64Cu have significant applications. 62Cu is used in 62Cu-PTSM as a radioactive tracer for positron emission tomography. Copper is produced in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust in a proportion of about 50 parts per million. In nature, copper occurs in a variety of minerals, including native copper, copper sulfides such as chalcopyrite, digenite and chalcocite, copper sulfosalts such as tetrahedite-tennantite, enargite, copper carbonates such as azurite and malachite, as copper or copper oxides such as cuprite and tenorite, respectively; the largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan, US. Native copper is a polycrystal