San Francisco Mint
The San Francisco Mint is a branch of the United States Mint and was opened in 1854 to serve the gold mines of the California Gold Rush. It outgrew its first building and moved into a new one in 1874; this building, the Old United States Mint known affectionately as The Granite Lady, is one of the few that survived the great 1906 San Francisco earthquake. It served until 1937. Within the first year of its operation, the San Francisco mint turned $4 million in gold bullion into coins; the second building, completed in 1874, was designed by Alfred B. Mullett in a conservative Greek Revival style with a sober Doric order; the building had a central pedimented portico flanked by projecting wings in an E-shape. The building sat on a concrete and granite foundation, designed to thwart tunneling into its vaults, which at the time of the 1906 fire held $300 million a third of the United States' gold reserves. Heroic efforts by Superintendent of the Mint, Frank A. Leach, his men preserved the building and the bullion that backed the nation's currency.
The mint resumed operation soon thereafter, continuing until 1937. In 1961 the Old Mint, as it had become known, was designated a National Historic Landmark, it became a California Historical Landmark in 1974. The given name of "The Granite Lady" is somewhat of a misnomer as most of the building is made from sandstone. While the base/basement of the building is made of granite, the entire external and upper stories are made of sandstone; the Granite Lady was a marketing term given in the 1970s. The Old Mint was open to visitors until 1993. In 2003 the federal government sold the structure to the City of San Francisco for one dollar—an 1879 silver dollar struck at the mint— for use as a historical museum to be called the San Francisco Museum at the Mint. In the fall of 2005, ground was broken for renovations that would turn the central court into a glass-enclosed galleria. In 2006 Congress created the San Francisco Old Mint Commemorative Coin, the first coin to honor a United States mint; the first phase of renovations were completed in 2011.
In 2014, the San Francisco Museum and Historical Society began raising money for the second phase, which would have included permanent exhibitions. In 2015, the City of San Francisco looked for a new tenant to renovate and program the space with Activate San Francisco Events being selected as an interim tenant; as the City's 2016 public re-opening event, continuing the tradition of a similar event from past years, on the first weekend in March, the Old Mint hosted a "San Francisco History Days" event with over sixty participating historic organizations. Until a new tenant is found, the Old Mint will continue to be used for special events, some open to the public. In April 2016, the California Historical Society agreed to undertake the restoration of the building and its preservation as a public space; the new Mint was opened in 1937. Beginning in 1955, circulating coinage from San Francisco was suspended for 13 years. In 1968, it took over most proof coinage production from the Philadelphia Mint, but continued striking a supplemental circulating coinage from 1968 through 1974.
From 1975 to 2012, the San Francisco Mint has been used only for proof coinage, with the exception of the Susan B. Anthony dollar from 1979–81 and a portion of the mintage of cents in the early 1980s; the dollars bear a mintmark of an "S", but the cents are otherwise indistinguishable from those minted at Philadelphia. In 2012, the San Francisco mint started to mint circulation strike quarters in the America the Beautiful quarter series, marked with an "S" mintmark and only issued for collectors. From 1962 to 1988, the San Francisco Mint was an assay office; the San Francisco Mint only admits visitors on rare exception. On May 15, 1987, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Mint, a limited number of people were allowed to tour the facility; this tour was advertised in the San Francisco Chronicle newspaper, with a phone number to call to reserve a spot. In 2006, the United States Mint released a gold five dollar commemorative coin which commemorates the 100th year after the old San Francisco mint survived an earthquake.
The mint played a part in the city's recovery after the earthquake, providing shelter for many as it was one of the few buildings left standing. The coin was minted as both a proof coin and an uncirculated coin, is no longer available directly from the United States Mint. On June 15, 2006 President George W. Bush signed Public Law 109-230, legislation authorizing the production of the 2006 San Francisco $5 commemorative gold coin as well as its $1 silver counterpart; the production of the $5 denomination was limited to a maximum mintage of 100,000 coins, but separate mintage figures for each of the proof and uncirculated coins have not yet been released. The $1 silver version was limited to only 500,000 coins, both in proof and uncirculated products, but distinct mintage figures for both products has not been stated; the obverse was sculpted by Joseph Menna. Features Coin Finishes: proof, uncirculated Maximum Mintage: 100,000 - The final mintages were 16,938 uncirculated, 47,275 proof. United States Mint Facility: San Francisco Public Law: 109-230 In 2006, t
Half dollar (United States coin)
The half dollar, sometimes referred to as the half for short, is a United States coin worth 50 cents, or one half of a dollar, is the largest United States circulating coin produced in both size and weight, being 1.205 inches in diameter and.085 inches in thickness, is twice the weight of the quarter. The current half dollar, the Kennedy half dollar, depicts the profile of President John F. Kennedy on the obverse and the Seal of the President of the United States on the reverse, but the design has undergone a number of changes throughout its history. Though not used today, half-dollar coins have a long history of heavy use alongside other denominations of coinage, but have faded out of general circulation for many reasons, they were produced in large quantities until the year 2002, when the U. S. Mint ceased production of the coin for general circulation; as a result of its decreasing usage, a large amount of pre-2002 half dollars remain in Federal Reserve vaults, prompting the change in production.
Presently, collector half dollars can be ordered directly from the U. S. Mint, pre-2002 circulation half dollars may be ordered through most U. S. banks. Half-dollar coins saw heavy use in the first half of the 20th century. For many years, they were used by gamblers at casinos and other venues with slot machines. Rolls of half dollars may still be kept on hand in cardrooms for games requiring 50-cent antes or bring-in bets, for dealers to pay winning naturals in blackjack, or where the house collects a rake in increments. Additionally, some concession vendors at sporting events distribute half-dollar coins as change for convenience. By the early 1960s, the rising price of silver neared the point where the bullion value of U. S. silver coins would exceed face value. In 1965, the U. S. introduced layered-composition coins made of a copper core laminated between two cupronickel outer faces. The silver content of dimes and quarters was eliminated, but the Kennedy half-dollar composition contained silver from 1965 to 1970.
With its reduced silver content, the half dollar attracted widespread interest from speculators and collectors, that interest led to widespread hoarding of half dollars dated 1970 and earlier. By the time that the coin's composition was changed to match that of the clad dimes and quarters in 1971, businesses and the public began losing interest in the half dollar and the coin began to disappear from circulation during the 1970s. Merchants stopped ordering half dollars from their banks, many banks stopped ordering half dollars from the Federal Reserve, the U. S. mints reduced production of the coins. Since 2002, half dollars have been minted only for collectors, due to large Federal Reserve and government inventories on hand of pre-2001 pieces; when the reserve supply runs low, the mint will again fill orders for circulation half dollars. It took about 18 years for the large inventory stockpile of a similar low-demand circulation coin, the $1 coin, to reach reserve levels low enough to again produce circulation pieces.
Modern-date half dollars can be purchased in proof sets, mint sets and bags from the U. S. Mint, existing inventory circulation pieces can be ordered through most U. S. banks. All collector issues since 2001 have had much lower mintages than in previous years. Although intended only for collectors, these post-2001 half dollars sometimes find their way into circulation, with examples occurring in change or as payment for small transactions. On December 1, 1794, the first half dollars 5,300 pieces, were delivered. Another 18,000 were produced in January 1795 using dies of 1794, to save the expense of making new ones. Another 30,000 pieces were struck by the end of 1801; the coin had the Heraldic Eagle, based on the Great Seal of the United States on the reverse. 150,000 were minted in 1804 but struck with dies from 1803, so no 1804 specimens exist, though there were some pieces dated 1805 that carried a "5 over 4" overdate. In 1838, half-dollar dies were produced in the Philadelphia Mint for the newly established New Orleans Mint, ten test samples of the 1838 half dollars were made at the main Philadelphia mint.
These samples were put into the mint safe along with other rarities like the 1804 silver dollar. The dies were shipped to New Orleans for the regular production of 1838 half dollars. However, New Orleans production of the half dollars was delayed due to the priority of producing half dimes and dimes; the large press for half-dollar production was not used in New Orleans until January 1839 to produce 1838 half dollars, but the reverse die could not be properly secured, only ten samples were produced before the dies failed. Rufus Tyler, chief coiner of the New Orleans mint, wrote to Mint Director Patterson of the problem on February 25, 1839; the Orleans mint samples all had a double stamped reverse as a result of this production problem and they showed dramatic signs of die rust, neither of which are present on the Philadelphia produced test samples. While eight Philadelphia minted samples survive to this day, there is only one known New Orleans minted specimen with the tell-tale double stamped reverse and die rust.
This is the famous coin that Rufus Tyler presented to Alexander Dallas Bache in the summer of 1839 and was purchased in June 1894 by A. G. Heaton, the father of mint mark coin collecting; the 1838 Philadelphia-produced half dollars are rare, with two separate specimens having sold for $632,500 in Heritage auctions in 2005 and 2008 respectively. Th
The Denver Mint is a branch of the United States Mint that struck its first coins on February 1, 1906. The mint is still operating and producing coins for circulation, as well as mint sets and commemorative coins. Coins produced at the Denver Mint bear a D mint mark; the Denver Mint is the single largest producer of coins in the world.. The predecessors of the Denver Mint were the men of Clark and Company. During the Pikes Peak Gold Rush, they coined gold dust brought from the gold fields by the miners. In 1858, Austin M. Clark, Milton E. Clark and Emanuel Henry Gruber founded a brokerage firm in Leavenworth and established an office in Denver at the beginning of the Colorado Gold Rush. Desiring to save on shipping and insurance costs associated with shipping gold back east, the firm opened a private mint. On 25 July 1860, the mint opened in a two-story brick building on the corner of Market and 16th Streets, minting $10 gold pieces at the rate of "fifteen or twenty coins a minute". "On the face is a representation of the peak, its base surrounded by a forest of timber and'Pikes Peak Gold' encircling the summit.
Under its base is the word'Denver', beneath it'Ten D.'. On the reverse is the American Eagle encircled by the name of the firm'Clark, Gruber & Co.', beneath the date,'1860'."A $20 gold coin was added, "the weight will be greater, but the value the same as the United States coin of like denomination". A $5 and a $2.5 gold coin were added, with production reaching $18,000 per week. On the front was the "head of the Goddess of Liberty surrounded by thirteen stars, with "Clark & Company" in the tiara. "Pikes's Peak Gold, Denver" was on the other side, with "5D." or "2 1/2 D."In the three years of operation, they minted $594,305 worth of Pike's Peak Gold in the form of gold coins. Additionally, they purchased 77,000 troy ounces of raw gold, shipped "large amounts of dust" to the Philadelphia Mint; the building and minting equipment was formally bought by the US Treasury in April 1863. Clark, Gruber & Co. remained a bank until bought by the First National Bank of Denver in 1865. Established by an Act of Congress on April 21, 1862, the United States Mint at Denver opened for business in late 1863 as a United States Assay Office.
Operations began in the facilities of Clark and Company, located at 16th and Market Streets and acquired by the government for $25,000, which it was able to print off at the location. Unlike Clark and Company, the Denver plant performed no coinage of gold as first intended. One reason given by the Director of the Mint for the lack of coinage at Denver was, "…the hostility of the Indian tribes along the routes, doubtless instigated by rebel emissaries and bad white men." Gold and nuggets brought there by miners from the surrounding area were accepted by the Assay Office for melting and stamping of cast gold bars. The bars were returned to the depositors as imparted bars stamped with the weight and fineness of the gold. Most of the gold came from the rich beds of placer gold found in the streams and first discovered in 1858, the same year Denver was founded; when the supply of gold was exhausted from the streams, the emphasis turned to lode mining, uncovering veins of ore with a high percentage of gold and silver.
By 1859, the yearly value of the gold and silver deposited at the Assay Office was over $5.6 million. During its early years as an Assay Office, the Denver plant was the city's most substantial structure; the United States Treasury did not expand its smelting and refining operations at the same rate as the discovery and production of gold. In 1872 a group of businessmen led by Judge Hiram Bond, Joseph Miner and Denver Mayor Joseph E. Bates set up a firm Denver Smelting and Refining Works which built an independent complementary plant which processed ore into ingots which were assayed and stamped by the Denver Mint. There was new hope for branch mint status when Congress provided for the establishment of a mint at Denver for gold and silver coin production; the site for the new mint at West Colfax and Delaware streets was purchased on April 22, 1896, for $60,000. Construction began in 1897. Appropriations to complete and equip the plant were insufficient, the transfer of assay operations to the new building were delayed until September 1, 1904.
Coinage operations began on February 1, 1906, advancing the status of the Denver facility to Branch Mint. In addition, before the new machinery to be used at the Mint was installed for use, it was first sent to the St. Louis Exposition of 1904 for display. Silver coins were minted in Denver for the first time in 1906. During the first year, 167 million coins were produced, including $20 gold coins, $10 gold coins, $5 gold coins, assorted denominations of silver coins; the Denver Mint is mentioned in The Andy Griffith Show episode "A Black Day for Mayberry". The Denver Mint is featured in the 1993 Sylvester Stallone film Cliffhanger, as the production point of the money stolen in the film, the departure point for the plane; the Mint is mentioned in both the title and lyrics of the Jimmy Eat World song "Lucky Denver Mint". The Denver Mint appears anachronistically in the 1870s in the 1967 The Wild Wild West episode "The Night of the Circus of Death". To above, The Mint is anachronistically set in the 1870s in the 1960 Shotgun Slade episode "The Missing Train".
The 1960 episode "Cold Hard Cash" of The Rifleman, set a few ye
United States Bicentennial coinage
The United States Bicentennial coinage was a set of circulating commemorative coins, consisting of a quarter, half dollar and dollar struck by the United States Mint in 1975 and 1976. Regardless of when struck, each coin bears the double date 1776–1976 on the normal obverses for the Washington quarter, Kennedy half dollar and Eisenhower dollar. No coins dated 1975 of any of the three denominations were minted. Given past abuses in the system, the Mint advocated against the issuance of commemorative coins starting in the 1950s. Beginning in 1971, members of Congress introduced bills to authorize coins to honor the United States Bicentennial, which would occur in 1976; the Mint, through its director, Mary Brooks opposed such proposals, but supported them, Congress passed legislation requiring the temporary redesign of the reverse of the quarter, half dollar and dollar. A nationwide competition resulted in designs of a Colonial drummer for the quarter, Independence Hall for the half dollar and the Liberty Bell superimposed against the moon for the dollar.
All three coins remain common today due to the quantity struck. Circulation pieces were in copper nickel; the Mint sold over half of the part-silver coins before melting the remainder after withdrawing them from sale in 1986. Commemorative coins had been struck for a number of events and anniversaries by the United States Mint since 1892. Organizations would get Congress to authorize a coin and would be allowed to buy up the issue, selling it to the public at a premium; the final issue among these commemoratives, half dollars honoring Booker T. Washington and George Washington Carver were struck over a number of years, were discontinued in 1954. Priced at $3.50, they were discounted. The promoter of these issues, S. J. Phillips, mishandled the distribution and lost $140,000; the negative publicity caused the Department of the Treasury, of which the Mint is a part, to oppose subsequent commemorative coin proposals, until the 1970s, Congress passed none. In 1966, Congress established the American Revolutionary Bicentennial Commission to plan and coordinate activities connected with the 1976 bicentennial of American Independence.
In February 1970, the ARBC established Medals Advisory Committee. The committee's initial report, in July 1970, called for the production of a commemorative half dollar for the Bicentennial. In December 1970, the committee called for special designs for all denominations of US coinage for the Bicentennial; the Treasury, opposed the change, following its longstanding position against commemorative coins. Several proposals for Bicentennial coins were introduced in Congress in 1971 and 1972, but did not pass. Mint Director Mary Brooks had attended the Advisory Committee meetings. At one meeting, she supported having a 1776–1976 double date on circulating coins to mark the anniversary in 1976, although accommodating two dates on the obverse would involve production difficulties. However, in a newspaper interview she termed the idea of changing the six circulating coins "a disaster", she felt if any Bicentennial coin was issued, it should be non-circulating a half cent or a gold piece. Brooks believed that such a coin would not disrupt the Mint in the production of coins for circulation.
During 1972, she retreated from that position, by the end of the year had persuaded Treasury Secretary George Shultz to support a Bicentennial coin bill. In January 1973, Texas Representative Richard C. White introduced legislation for commemorative dollars and half dollars. Oregon Senator Mark Hatfield put forward a bill, calling for a $25 gold piece. On March 2, 1973, the Treasury announced its support for Bicentennial coin legislation for design changes to the reverses of the circulating dollars and half dollars, sent proposed legislation to Congress three days later. Hearings before a subcommittee in the House of Representatives were held on May 2, 1973. Brooks testified, supporting the limited redesign in the bill, but opposing a more extensive coin redesign. Separately from the Bicentennial matter, she asked for authority to strike US coins at the West Point Bullion Depository, where space was available to install older coinage presses. Brooks deprecated the Hatfield proposal, stating that the coin would have to be.667 pure or less to avoid hoarding.
As a result of the hearings, several additional bills were introduced, additional hearings were held before a Senate subcommittee on June 6. Brooks testified again, responding to criticism that only the two least popular denominations were to be changed, indicated her support for a Bicentennial quarter as well. On June 13, a bill, S. 1141 which provided for a circulating Bicentennial quarter, half dollar and dollar, gave permission for coins to be struck at West Point and allowed for 40% silver clad versions of the new coins for collectors was reported favorably by the Senate Banking Committee. It passed the Senate on July 13. However, amendments authorizing US citizens to own gold, to implement the Hatfield proposal were attached to the bill. A similar bill passed the House of Representatives on September 12, differing from the Senate bill in lacking any provision relating to gold, in not authorizing silver versions of the new coins. Members of the two houses met in a conference committee on September 19 in a session described by onlookers as "fairly hot and heavy".
The resulting bill had no gold provisions, but authorized changes to the reverses of the quarter, half dollar and dollar for the Bicenten
The Liberty Bell is an iconic symbol of American independence, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Once placed in the steeple of the Pennsylvania State House, the bell today is located in the Liberty Bell Center in Independence National Historical Park; the bell was commissioned in 1752 by the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly from the London firm of Lester and Pack, was cast with the lettering "Proclaim LIBERTY Throughout all the Land unto all the Inhabitants Thereof", a Biblical reference from the Book of Leviticus. The bell first cracked when rung after its arrival in Philadelphia, was twice recast by local workmen John Pass and John Stow, whose last names appear on the bell. In its early years the bell was used to summon lawmakers to legislative sessions and to alert citizens about public meetings and proclamations. Although no immediate announcement was made of the Second Continental Congress's vote for independence, so the bell could not have rung on July 4, 1776, related to that vote, bells were rung on July 8 to mark the reading of the United States Declaration of Independence.
While there is no contemporary account of the Liberty Bell ringing, most historians believe it was one of the bells rung. After American independence was secured, the bell fell into relative obscurity until, in the 1830s, the bell was adopted as a symbol by abolitionist societies, who dubbed it the "Liberty Bell"; the bell acquired its distinctive large crack some time in the early 19th century—a widespread story claims it cracked while ringing after the death of Chief Justice John Marshall in 1835. The bell became famous after an 1847 short story claimed that an aged bellringer rang it on July 4, 1776, upon hearing of the Second Continental Congress' vote for independence. Despite the fact that the bell did not ring for independence on that July 4, the tale was accepted as fact by some historians. Beginning in 1885, the city of Philadelphia that owns the bell, allowed it to go to various expositions and patriotic gatherings; the bell attracted huge crowds wherever it went, additional cracking occurred and pieces were chipped away by souvenir hunters.
The last such journey occurred in 1915. After World War II, Philadelphia allowed the National Park Service to take custody of the bell, while retaining ownership; the bell was used as a symbol of freedom during the Cold War and was a popular site for protests in the 1960s. It was moved from its longtime home in Independence Hall to a nearby glass pavilion on Independence Mall in 1976, to the larger Liberty Bell Center adjacent to the pavilion in 2003; the bell has been featured on coins and stamps, its name and image have been used by corporations. Philadelphia's city bell had been used to alert the public to proclamations or civic danger since the city's 1682 founding; the original bell hung from a tree behind the Pennsylvania State House and was said to have been brought to the city by its founder, William Penn. In 1751, with a bell tower being built in the Pennsylvania State House, civic authorities sought a bell of better quality that could be heard at a greater distance in the expanding city.
Isaac Norris, speaker of the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly, gave orders to the colony's London agent, Robert Charles, to obtain a "good Bell of about two thousands pound weight". We hope and rely on thy care and assistance in this affair and that thou wilt procure and forward it by the first good oppo as our workmen inform us it will be much less trouble to hang the Bell before their Scaffolds are struck from the Building where we intend to place it which will not be done'till the end of next Summer or beginning of the Fall. Let the bell be cast by the best workmen & examined before it is Shipped with the following words well shaped around it. By Order of the Assembly of the Povince of Pensylvania for the State house in the City of Philada 1752 and Underneath Proclaim Liberty thro' all the Land to all the Inhabitants thereof.-Levit. XXV. 10. The inscription on the bell reads: At the time, "Pensylvania" was an accepted alternative spelling for "Pennsylvania." That spelling was used by Alexander Hamilton, a graduate of King's College, in 1787 on the signature page of the United States Constitution.
Robert Charles dutifully ordered the bell from Thomas Lester of the London bellfounding firm of Lester and Pack for the sum of £150 13s 8d, including freight to Philadelphia and insurance. It arrived in Philadelphia in August 1752. Norris wrote to Charles that the bell was in good order, but they had not yet sounded it, as they were building a clock for the State House's tower; the bell was mounted on a stand to test the sound, at the first strike of the clapper, the bell's rim cracked. The episode would be used to good account in stories of the bell. Philadelphia authorities tried to return it by ship, but the master of the vessel that had brought it was unable to take it on board. Two local founders, John Pass and John Stow, offered to recast the bell. Though they were inexperienced in bell casting, Pass had headed the Mount Holly Iron Foundry in neighboring New Jersey and came from Malta that had a tradition of bell casting. Stow, on the other hand, was only four years out of his apprenticeship as a brass founder.
At Stow's foundry on
Two-cent piece (United States)
The two-cent piece was produced by the Mint of the United States for circulation from 1864 to 1872 and for collectors in 1873. Designed by James B. Longacre, there were decreasing mintages each year, as other minor coins such as the nickel proved more popular, it was abolished by the Mint Act of 1873. The economic turmoil of the American Civil War caused government-issued coins the non-silver Indian Head cent, to vanish from circulation, hoarded by the public. One means of filling this gap was private token issues made of bronze; the cent at that time was struck of a copper-nickel alloy, the same diameter as the Lincoln cent, but somewhat thicker. The piece was difficult for the Philadelphia Mint to strike, Mint officials, as well as the annual Assay Commission, recommended the coin's replacement. Despite opposition from those wishing to keep the metal nickel in the coinage, led by Pennsylvania Congressman Thaddeus Stevens, Congress passed the Coinage Act of 1864, authorizing bronze cents and two-cent pieces.
Although popular in the absence of other federal coinage, the two-cent piece's place in circulation was usurped by other non-precious metal coins which Congress subsequently authorized, the three-cent piece and the nickel. It was abolished in 1873. Two-cent pieces remain inexpensive by the standards of 19th-century American coinage. A two-cent piece had been proposed in 1806 by Connecticut Senator Uriah Tracy, along with a twenty-cent piece or "double dime". Reflecting the then-prevalent view that coins should contain their value in metal, Tracy's bill provided that the two-cent piece be made of billon, or debased silver; the bill was opposed by Mint Director Robert Patterson, as it would be difficult to refine the silver from melted-down pieces. Although Tracy's legislation passed the Senate twice, in 1806 and 1807, it failed in the House of Representatives. Patterson sent a brass button with two of the billon planchets that would have been used for the coin to Tracy, showing how hard it would be to prevent counterfeiting.
The Mint considered a two-cent piece in 1836, experiments were conducted by Second Engraver Christian Gobrecht and Melter and Refiner Franklin Peale. The piece was to be again of billon, provision for the coin was included in early drafts of the Mint Act of 1837, but the proposal was dropped when Peale was able to show that the coin could be counterfeited; until 1857, the cent coin was a large copper piece. These coins were unpopular, in 1857, after receiving congressional approval, the Mint began issuing the Flying Eagle cent, of the diameter of the Lincoln cent, but somewhat thicker and made of copper-nickel alloy; these pieces circulated, although the design did not strike well and was replaced by the Indian Head cent in 1859, the coins were used until all federal coinage vanished from circulation in much of the United States in 1861 and 1862, during the economic turmoil of the American Civil War. This happened because many Northerners feared that if the war went poorly, paper money and government bonds might become worthless.
The gap was filled by, among other things, private token issues, sometimes in copper-nickel approximating the size of the cent, but thinner pieces in bronze. This fact did not escape government officials, when, in 1863, they attempted to restore coins to circulation, the use of bronze coins, which would not contain their face values in metal, was considered. In his annual report submitted October 1, 1863, Mint Director James Pollock noted that "whilst people expect a full value in their gold and silver coins, they want the inferior money for convenience in making exact payments", he observed that the private cent tokens had sometimes contained as little as a fifth of a cent in metal, yet had still circulated. He proposed. Pollock wanted to eliminate nickel as a coinage metal. On December 8, Pollock wrote to Treasury Secretary Salmon P. Chase, proposing a bronze cent and two-cent piece, enclosing pattern coins of the two-cent piece that he had had prepared. According to numismatist Neil Carothers, a two-cent piece was most proposed in order to get as much dollar value in small change into circulation in as short a time as possible, as the Mint could strike a two-cent piece as as a cent.
On March 2, 1864, Pollock wrote urgently to Chase, warning him that the Mint was running out of nickel and that demand for cents was at an all-time high. He informed the Secretary that the United States Assay Commission, composed of citizens and officials who had met the previous month to test the nation's silver and gold coinage, had recommended the use of French bronze as a coinage metal for the cent and a new two-cent piece. Three days Chase sent Pollock's December letter and draft legislation for bronze one- and two-cent pieces to Maine Senator William P. Fessenden, chairman of the Senate Finance Committee. Fessenden took no immediate action, on March 16, Pollock wrote again to Chase, warning that the Mint was going to run out of nickel, much of, imported. Chase forwarded his letter to Fessenden. Legislation was introduced by New Hampshire Senator Daniel Clark on March 22; the domestic supply of nickel was at that time produced by a mine at Gap, owned by industrialist Joseph Wharton. On March 19, Pollock wrote to Chase that they had no more nickel, nor was any available from o
John F. Kennedy
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician and journalist who served as the 35th president of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963. He served at the height of the Cold War, the majority of his presidency dealt with managing relations with the Soviet Union. A member of the Democratic Party, Kennedy represented Massachusetts in the U. S. House of Representatives and Senate prior to becoming president. Kennedy was born in Brookline, the second child of Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. and Rose Kennedy. He graduated from Harvard University in 1940 and joined the U. S. Naval Reserve the following year. During World War II, he commanded a series of PT boats in the Pacific theater and earned the Navy and Marine Corps Medal for his service. After the war, Kennedy represented the 11th congressional district of Massachusetts in the U. S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953, he was subsequently elected to the U. S. Senate and served as the junior Senator from Massachusetts from 1953 to 1960.
While in the Senate, he published his book Profiles in Courage, which won a Pulitzer Prize for Biography. In the 1960 presidential election, Kennedy narrowly defeated Republican opponent Richard Nixon, the incumbent vice president. At age 43, he became the second-youngest man to serve as president, the youngest man to be elected as U. S. president, as well as the only Roman Catholic to occupy that office. He was the first president to have served in the U. S. Navy. Kennedy's time in office was marked by high tensions with communist states in the Cold War, he increased the number of American military advisers in South Vietnam by a factor of 18 over President Dwight D. Eisenhower. In April 1961, he authorized a failed joint-CIA attempt to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro in the Bay of Pigs Invasion, he subsequently rejected Operation Northwoods plans by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to orchestrate false flag attacks on American soil in order to gain public approval for a war against Cuba.
However his administration continued to plan for an invasion of Cuba in the summer of 1962. In October 1962, U. S. spy planes discovered. Domestically, Kennedy presided over the establishment of the Peace Corps and supported the civil rights movement, but was only somewhat successful in passing his New Frontier domestic policies. On November 22, 1963, Kennedy was assassinated in Texas. Pursuant to the Constitution, Vice President Lyndon Johnson automatically became president upon Kennedy's death. Marxist Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested for the state crime, but he was killed by Jack Ruby two days and so was never prosecuted. Ruby was sentenced to death and died while the conviction was on appeal in 1967. Both the FBI and the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald had acted alone in the assassination, but various groups challenged the findings of the Warren Report and believed that Kennedy was the victim of a conspiracy. After Kennedy's death, Congress enacted many of his proposals, including the Civil Rights Act and the Revenue Act of 1964.
Kennedy continues to rank in polls of U. S. presidents with historians and the general public. His personal life has been the focus of considerable public fascination following revelations regarding his lifelong health ailments and alleged extra-marital affairs, his average approval rating of 70% is the highest of any president in Gallup's history of systematically measuring job approval. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born on May 29, 1917, at 83 Beals Street in suburban Brookline, Massachusetts, to businessman/politician Joseph Patrick "Joe" Kennedy and philanthropist/socialite Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald Kennedy, his paternal grandfather P. J. Kennedy was a member of the Massachusetts state legislature, his maternal grandfather and namesake John F. Fitzgerald served as a U. S. Congressman and was elected to two terms as Mayor of Boston. All four of his grandparents were children of Irish immigrants. Kennedy had an elder brother, Joseph Jr. and seven younger siblings: Rosemary, Eunice, Robert and Edward.
As of 2019, he has been the only Catholic U. S. President. Kennedy lived in Brookline for the first ten years of his life and attended the local St. Aidan's Church, where he was baptized on June 19, 1917, he was educated at the Edward Devotion School in Brookline, the Noble and Greenough Lower School in nearby Dedham and the Dexter School through the 4th grade. His father's business had kept him away from the family for long stretches of time, his ventures were concentrated on Wall Street and Hollywood. In September 1927, the family moved from Brookline to the Riverdale neighborhood of New York City. Young John attended the lower campus of Riverdale Country School, a private school for boys, from 5th to 7th grade. Two years the family moved to suburban Bronxville, New York, where Kennedy was a member of Boy Scout Troop 2 and attended St. Joseph's Church; the Kennedy family spent summers and early autumns at their home in Hyannis Port and Christmas and Easter holidays at their winter retreat in Palm Beach, Florida purchased in 1933.
In September 1930, Kennedy—then 13 years old—attended the Canterbury School in New Milford, for 8th grade. In April 1931, he had an appendectomy, after which he withdrew from Canterbury and recuperated at home. In September 1931, Kennedy started attending Choate, a prestigious board