Philip John Schuyler was a general in the American Revolution and a United States Senator from New York. He is known as Philip Schuyler, while his son is known as Philip J. Schuyler. Born in Albany, Province of New York, into the prosperous Schuyler family, Schuyler fought in the French and Indian War, he won election to the New York General Assembly in 1768 and to the Continental Congress in 1775. He planned the Continental Army's 1775 Invasion of Quebec, but poor health forced him to delegate command of the disastrous invasion to Richard Montgomery, he prepared the Continental Army's defense of the 1777 Saratoga campaign, but was replaced by General Horatio Gates as the commander of Continental forces in the theater. Schuyler resigned from the Continental Army in 1779. Schuyler served in the New York State Senate for most of the 1780s and supported the ratification of the United States Constitution, he represented New York in the 1st United States Congress but lost his state's 1791 Senate election to Aaron Burr.
After a period in the state senate, he won election to the United States Senate again in 1797, affiliating with the Federalist Party. He resigned due to poor health the following year, he was the father of Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton and the father-in-law of Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton. Philip John Schuyler was born on November 20 1733 in Albany, New York, to Cornelia Van Cortlandt and Johannes Schuyler Jr. the third generation of the Dutch family in America. Before his father died on the eve of his eighth birthday, Schuyler attended the public school at Albany. Afterward, he was educated by tutors at the Van Cortlandt family estate at New Rochelle. In 1748 he began to study with Reverend Peter Strouppe at the New Rochelle French Protestant Church, where he learned French and mathematics. While he was at New Rochelle he joined numerous trade expeditions where he met Iroquois leaders and learned to speak Mohawk, he joined the British forces in 1755 during the French and Indian War, raised a company, was commissioned as its Captain by his cousin, Lt.
Governor James Delancey. In that war, he served as a quartermaster, purchasing supplies and organizing equipment. Philip was related to many illustrious contemporaries, including: Peter Schuyler, a cousin who commanded the Jersey Blues. From 1761 to 1762, Schuyler made a trip to England to settle accounts from his work as quartermaster, he began construction on his home in Albany called Schuyler Mansion, during this time. He began construction of his country estate, at Saratoga. In 1768, Schuyler began his political career as a member of the New York Assembly, serving in that body until 1775. During that time, his views came to be more opposed to the colonial government in matters of trade and currency, he was made a colonel in the militia for his support of Governor Henry Moore. Schuyler was elected to the Continental Congress in 1775, served until he was appointed a major general of the Continental Army in June. General Schuyler took command of the Northern Department, planned the Invasion of Canada.
His poor health required him to place Richard Montgomery in command of the invasion. As department commanding general, he was active in preparing a defense against the Saratoga Campaign, part of the "Three Pronged Attack" strategy of the British to cut the American Colonies in two by invading and occupying New York State in 1777. In the summer of that year General John Burgoyne marched his British army south from Quebec over the valleys of Lakes Champlain and George. On the way he invested the small Colonial garrison occupying Fort Ticonderoga at the nexus of the two lakes; when General St. Clair abandoned Fort Ticonderoga in July, the Congress replaced Schuyler with General Horatio Gates, who had accused Schuyler of dereliction of duty. In 1778, Schuyler and Arthur St. Clair were court-martialed for the loss of Ticonderoga, but were both acquitted; the British offensive was stopped by Continental Army under the command of Gates and Benedict Arnold in the Battle of Saratoga. That victory, the first wholesale defeat of a large British force, marked a turning point in the revolution, for it convinced France to enter the war on the American side.
When Schuyler demanded a court martial to answer Gates' charges, he was vindicated but resigned from the Army on April 19, 1779. He served in two more sessions of the Continental Congress in 1779 and 1780. Schuyler was an original member of the New York Society of the Cincinnati. After the war, he expanded his Saratoga estate to tens of thousands of acres, adding slaves, tenant farmers, a store, mills for flour and lumber, his flax mill for the making of linen was the first one in America. He built several schooners on the Hudson River, named the first Saratoga, he was a member of the New York State Senate from 1780 to 1784, at the same time New York State Surveyor General from 1781 to 1784. Afterwards he returned to the State Senate from 1786 to 1790, where he supported the adoption of the United States Constitution. In 1789, he was elected a U. S. Senator from New York t
4th United States Congress
The Fourth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met at Congress Hall in Philadelphia, from March 4, 1795, to March 4, 1797, during the last two years of George Washington's presidency; the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the First Census of the United States in 1790. The Senate had a Federalist majority, the House had a Democratic-Republican majority. September 17, 1796: Washington's Farewell Address warned against partisan politics and foreign entanglements. June 24, 1795: Treaty of London March 7, 1796: Treaty of Madrid June 1, 1796: Tennessee admitted as a state. 1, ch. 47, 1 Stat. 1 - 491 491 This was the first Congress to have organized political parties. Details on changes are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section. President: John Adams President pro tempore: Henry Tazewell, first elected December 7, 1795 Samuel Livermore, first elected May 6, 1796 William Bingham, first elected February 16, 1797 Speaker: Jonathan Dayton This list is arranged by chamber by state.
Senators are listed by class, Representatives are listed by district. Skip to House of Representatives, below Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1796; the count below reflects changes from the beginning of this Congress There were 10 resignations, 2 new seats, 1 election to replace an appointee. There was a 1-seat gain for the Democratic-Republicans. There were 9 resignations, 1 death of a Representative-elect, 1 new seat. There was a 1-seat gain for the Democratic-Republicans. Lists of committees and their party leaders. Whole Claims Commerce and Manufactures Elections Revisal and Unfinished Business Rules Ways and Means Whole Enrolled Bills Architect of the Capitol: William Thornton Chaplain: William White, Episcopalian Doorkeeper: James Mathers of New York Secretary: Samuel A. Otis of Massachusetts Chaplain: Ashbel Green, elected December 7, 1795 Clerk: John Beckley of Virginia, elected December 7, 1795 Doorkeeper: Thomas Claxton, elected December 7, 1795 Reading Clerks: Sergeant at Arms: Joseph Wheaton of Rhode Island, elected December 7, 1795 United States elections, 1794 United States Senate elections, 1794 and 1795 United States House of Representatives elections, 1794 United States elections, 1796 United States presidential election, 1796 United States Senate elections, 1796 and 1797 United States House of Representatives elections, 1796 Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Statutes at Large, 1789-1875 Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress Biographical Directory of the U. S. Congress U. S. House of Representatives: House History U. S. Senate: Statistics and Lists
2016 United States Senate election in New York
The 2016 United States Senate election in New York was held November 8, 2016, to elect a member of the United States Senate to represent the State of New York, concurrently with the 2016 U. S. presidential election, as well as other elections to the United States Senate in other states and elections to the United States House of Representatives and various state and local elections. The primaries took place on June 28. Incumbent Democratic Senator Chuck Schumer won re-election to a fourth term in office; this was considered by many polling aggregate groups to be one of the safest Democratic seats in the nation for this cycle. The prediction turned out to be true, with Schumer winning around 71% of the vote and all but 5 of the state's 62 counties, his final vote total of 5,221,945 makes him the largest vote-getter in the history of statewide elections in New York. Chuck Schumer, incumbent U. S. Senator Wendy Long and nominee for the U. S. Senate in 2012 Richard L. Hanna, U. S. Representative Larry Kudlow, television personality and columnist Adele Malpass, Chairwoman of the Manhattan Republican Party and wife of 2010 Senate candidate David Malpass Alex Merced, activist Robin Laverne Wilson Complete video of debate, October 30, 2016 Official campaign websitesChuck Schumer for Senate Wendy Long for Senate Alex Merced for Senate Robin Laverne Wilson for Senate
Kirsten Elizabeth Gillibrand is an American attorney and politician serving as the junior United States Senator from New York since 2009. A member of the Democratic Party, she served as a member of the U. S. House of Representatives from 2007 to 2009. Born and raised in upstate New York to two attorney parents, Gillibrand graduated from Dartmouth College and from the UCLA School of Law. After holding attorney positions in government and private practice and working on Hillary Clinton's 2000 U. S. Senate campaign, Gillibrand was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 2006, she represented New York's 20th congressional district, a conservative district in upstate New York, was re-elected in 2008. During her House tenure, Gillibrand was a Blue Dog Democrat noted for voting against the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 and for supporting Medicare-for-all. Following Senator Clinton's appointment as Secretary of State in 2009, Governor David Paterson selected Gillibrand to fill the Senate seat, vacated by Clinton.
Gillibrand won a special election in 2010 to keep the seat, was subsequently reelected to full terms in 2012 and 2018. During her Senate tenure, Gillibrand has shifted to the left, she has been outspoken on sexual assault in the military and sexual harassment, having criticized President Bill Clinton and Senator Al Franken for sexual misconduct. She supports paid family leave, a federal jobs guarantee, the abolition and replacement of the U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. On March 17, 2019, Gillibrand declared her candidacy for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in the 2020 election. Kirsten Elizabeth Rutnik was born on December 9, 1966, in Albany, New York, the daughter of Polly Edwina and Douglas Paul Rutnik. Both her parents are attorneys, her father has worked as a lobbyist, her parents divorced in the late 1980s. Gillibrand has an older brother, Douglas Rutnik, a younger sister, Erin Rutnik Tschantret, her maternal grandmother was Dorothea "Polly" Noonan, a founder of the Albany Democratic Women's Club, a onetime leader in the City of Albany's 20th-century Democratic machine, a confidant of Albany Mayor Erastus Corning 2nd.
She has English, Scottish and Irish ancestry. During her childhood and college years, Gillibrand used the nickname "Tina." She began using her birth name of Kirsten a few years after law school. In 1984, she graduated from Emma Willard School, an all women's private school located in Troy, New York, enrolled at Dartmouth College. Gillibrand majored in Asian Studies, studying in both Taiwan. While in Beijing, she lived with actress Connie Britton at Beijing Normal University. Gillibrand graduated magna cum laude in 1988. While at Dartmouth, she was a member of the Kappa Kappa Gamma sorority. During college, Gillibrand interned at Republican U. S. Senator Alfonse D'Amato's Albany office. Gillibrand received her J. D. from UCLA School of Law and passed the bar exam in 1991. In 1991, Gillibrand joined the Manhattan-based law firm of Davis Wardwell as an associate. In 1992, she took a leave from Davis Polk to serve as a law clerk to Judge Roger Miner on the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in Albany.
Gillibrand's tenure at Davis Polk included serving as a defense attorney for tobacco company Philip Morris during major litigation, including both civil lawsuits and U. S. Justice Department criminal and civil racketeering and perjury probes; as a junior associate in the mid-1990s, Gillibrand defended the company's executives against a criminal investigation into whether they had committed perjury in their testimony before Congress when they claimed that they had no knowledge of a connection between tobacco smoking and cancer. Gillibrand worked on the case and became a key part of the defense team; as part of her work, she traveled to the company's laboratory in Germany, where she interviewed scientists about the company's alleged research into the connection. The inquiry was dropped and it was during this time that she became a senior associate. While working at Davis Polk, Gillibrand became involved in—and the leader of—the Women's Leadership Forum, a program of the Democratic National Committee.
Gillibrand states that a speech to the group by First Lady Hillary Clinton inspired her: " was trying to encourage us to become more active in politics and she said,'If you leave all the decision-making to others, you might not like what they do, you will have no one but yourself to blame.' It was such a challenge to the women in the room. And it hit me: She's talking to me."In 2001, Gillibrand became a partner in the Manhattan office of Boies, Schiller & Flexner. In 2002 she informed Boies of her interest in running for office and was permitted to transfer to the firm's Albany office, she left Boies in 2005 to begin her 2006 campaign for Congress. Gillibrand has said her work at private law firms allowed her to take on pro bono cases defending abused women and their children and tenants seeking safe housing after lead paint and unsafe conditions were found in their homes. Following her time at Davis Polk, Gillibrand served as Special Counsel to Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Andrew Cuomo during the last year of the Clinton administration.
Gillibrand worked on HUD's Labor Initiative and its New Markets Initiative, as well as on TAP's Young Leaders of the American Democracy, strengthening Davis–Bacon Act enforcement. In 1999, Gillibrand began working on Hillary Clinton's 2000 U. S. Senate campaign, focusing on campaigning to young women and encouraging them to join the effort
2000 United States Senate election in New York
In the United States Senate election held in New York on November 7, 2000, Hillary Rodham Clinton First Lady of the United States and the first First Lady to run for political office, defeated Congressman Rick Lazio. The general election coincided with the U. S. presidential election. The race began in November 1998 when four-term incumbent New York Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan announced his retirement. Both the Democratic Party and Republican Party sought high-profile candidates to compete for the open seat. By early 1999 Clinton and Mayor of New York City Rudy Giuliani were the respective nominees. Clinton and her husband, President Bill Clinton, purchased a house in Chappaqua, New York, in September 1999; the lead in statewide polls swung from Clinton to Giuliani and back to Clinton as the campaigns featured both successful strategies and mistakes as well as dealing with current events. In late April and May 2000, Giuliani's medical, romantic and political lives all collided in a tumultuous four-week period, culminating in his withdrawal from the race on May 19.
The Republicans chose lesser-known Congressman Rick Lazio to replace him. The election included a record $90 million in campaign expenditures between Clinton and Giuliani and national visibility. Clinton showed strength in Republican upstate areas and a debate blunder by Lazio solidified Clinton's shaky support among women. Clinton won the election in November 2000 with 55 percent of the vote to Lazio's 43 percent; when four-term New York Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan announced his retirement in November 1998, his safe Senate seat became open in the 2000 U. S. Senate election. Both parties tried to find high-profile candidates to run for it. New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani, prevented by term limits from running for mayoral reelection in 2001 indicated interest. Due to his high profile and visibility, Giuliani was supported by the state Republican Party though he had irritated many by endorsing incumbent Democratic Governor Mario Cuomo over Republican George Pataki in 1994. Giuliani became the presumptive Republican nominee, by April 1999 had formed a formal exploratory committee for a Senate run.
There were still possible Republican primary opponents. Rick Lazio, a Congressman representing Suffolk County on Long Island, was raising money and had a candidacy announcement scheduled for August 16. In early August, under pressure from state and national Republican figures, Pataki endorsed Giuliani. Pataki prevailed upon Lazio to forgo his candidacy, which Lazio agreed to despite frustration that Giuliani had still not announced that he was running. It's time to put the soap opera aside and step up to the plate." Nassau County Congressman Pete King considered running and had raised some funds. New York Congresswoman Nita Lowey was the candidate first expected to be the Democratic nominee, while other mentioned possible candidates included Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Andrew Cuomo, New York State Comptroller Carl McCall, New York Congresswoman Carolyn Maloney. State Democratic figures were concerned that neither Lowey nor the others had the star power to rival Giuliani, that the seat would be lost.
Late in 1998, prominent Democratic politicians and advisors, including New York Representative Charles Rangel, urged First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton to run for the New York Senate seat. An unprecedented action if she did it, Clinton spent considerable time mulling over the idea while Lowey waited in the wings, her political advisors told her the race would be difficult and some of them told her she would lose. She waited for the impeachment proceedings of Bill Clinton to conclude, which it did with his acquittal on February 12, 1999. On February 16, 1999, the First Lady's office announced that she was considering running for the Senate position. Once it was clear Clinton was going to run, Lowey stepped aside, although she would be disappointed at the lost opportunity. On July 7, 1999, Clinton formally announced an exploratory committee for the Senate run. Bill Clinton was less than enthusiastic about her candidacy; the staging of the event was brokered by the Clintons' political consultant Mandy Grunwald.
Hillary Clinton embarked upon a "listening tour" of all parts of New York after her entrance into the race. She planned to visit all 62 counties in New York, talking to New Yorkers in small-group settings according to the principles of retail politics. During the race, she spent considerable time campaigning in traditionally Republican upstate regions. Clinton faced charges of carpetbagging, since she had never resided in the State of New York nor directly participated in state politics prior to her Senate race. Meanwhile, in September 1999, the Clintons purchased a $1.7 million, 11-room, Dutch Colonial style home in Chappaqua, New York, north of New York City. The commonplace activity of house hunting leading up to this was the subject of considerable media attention. In November 1999, Hillary Clinton announced that she would set aside most of her official duties as First Lady in order to take up residency in New York and pursue her campaign, her move-in took place in January 2000, with the house furnished
The Federalist Party, referred to as the Pro-Administration party until the 3rd United States Congress as opposed to their opponents in the Anti-Administration party, was the first American political party. It existed from the early 1790s to the 1820s, with their last presidential candidate being fielded in 1816, they appealed to business and to conservatives who favored banks, national over state government and preferred Britain and opposed the French Revolution. The Federalists called for a strong national government that promoted economic growth and fostered friendly relationships with Great Britain as well as opposition to Revolutionary France; the party controlled the federal government until 1801, when it was overwhelmed by the Democratic-Republican opposition led by Thomas Jefferson. The Federalist Party came into being between 1792 and 1794 as a national coalition of bankers and businessmen in support of Alexander Hamilton's fiscal policies; these supporters developed into the organized Federalist Party, committed to a fiscally sound and nationalistic government.
The only Federalist President was John Adams. George Washington was broadly sympathetic to the Federalist program, but he remained non-partisan during his entire presidency. Federalist policies called for a national bank and good relations with Great Britain as expressed in the Jay Treaty negotiated in 1794. Hamilton developed the concept of implied powers and argued the adoption of that interpretation of the United States Constitution, their political opponents, the Democratic-Republicans led by Thomas Jefferson, denounced most of the Federalist policies the bank and implied powers. The Jay Treaty passed and the Federalists won most of the major legislative battles in the 1790s, they held a strong base in New England. After the Democratic-Republicans, whose base was in the rural South, won the hard-fought presidential election of 1800, the Federalists never returned to power, they recovered some strength through their intense opposition to the War of 1812, but they vanished during the Era of Good Feelings that followed the end of the war in 1815.
The Federalists left a lasting legacy in the form of a strong Federal government with a sound financial base. After losing executive power, they decisively shaped Supreme Court policy for another three decades through the person of Chief Justice John Marshall. On taking office in 1789, President Washington nominated New York lawyer Alexander Hamilton to the office of Secretary of the Treasury. Hamilton wanted a strong national government with financial credibility. Hamilton proposed the ambitious Hamiltonian economic program that involved assumption of the state debts incurred during the American Revolution, creating a national debt and the means to pay it off and setting up a national bank, along with creating tariffs. James Madison was Hamilton's ally in the fight to ratify the new Constitution, but Madison and Thomas Jefferson opposed Hamilton's programs by 1791. Political parties had not been anticipated when the Constitution was drafted in 1787 and ratified in 1788 though both Hamilton and Madison played major roles.
Parties were considered to be harmful to republicanism. No similar parties existed anywhere in the world. By 1790, Hamilton started building a nationwide coalition. Realizing the need for vocal political support in the states, he formed connections with like-minded nationalists and used his network of treasury agents to link together friends of the government merchants and bankers, in the new nation's dozen major cities, his attempts to manage politics in the national capital to get his plans through Congress "brought strong" responses across the country. In the process, what began as a capital faction soon assumed status as a national faction and as the new Federalist Party; the Federalist Party supported Hamilton's vision of a strong centralized government and agreed with his proposals for a national bank and heavy government subsidies. In foreign affairs, they supported neutrality in the war between Great Britain; the majority of the Founding Fathers were Federalists. Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and many others can all be considered Federalists.
These Federalists felt that the Articles of Confederation had been too weak to sustain a working government and had decided that a new form of government was needed. Hamilton was made Secretary of the Treasury and when he came up with the idea of funding the debt he created a split in the original Federalist group. Madison disagreed with Hamilton not just on this issue, but on many others as well and he and John J. Beckley created the Anti-Federalist faction; these men would form the Republican party under Thomas Jefferson. By the early 1790s, newspapers started calling Hamilton supporters "Federalists" and their opponents "Democrats", "Republicans", "Jeffersonians", or—much later—"Democratic-Republicans". Jefferson's supporters called themselves "Republicans" and their party the "Republican Party"; the Federalist Party became popular with businessmen and New Englanders as Republicans were farmers who opposed a strong central government. Cities were Federalist strongholds whereas frontier regions were Republican.
However, these are generalizations as there are special cases such as the Presbyterians of upland North Carolina, who had immigrated just before the Revolution and been Tories, became Federalists. The Congregationalists of New England and the Episcopalians in the larger cities supported the Federalists while other minority denominations tended toward the Republican camp. Catholics
Charles Ellis Schumer is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from New York, a seat to which he was first elected in 1998. A member of the Democratic Party, he has been the Senate Minority Leader since 2017, he first defeated three-term Republican incumbent Al D'Amato before being reelected in 2004 with 71 percent of the vote, in 2010 with 66 percent of the vote, in 2016 with 70 percent of the vote. He is the current dean of New York's congressional delegation. Before his election to the Senate, Schumer served in the House of Representatives from 1981 to 1999, first representing New York's 16th congressional district before being redistricted to the 10th congressional district in 1983 and 9th congressional district in 1993. A native of Brooklyn and graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Law School, he was a three-term member of the New York State Assembly from 1975 to 1980. Schumer was chairman of the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee from 2005 to 2009, during which time he oversaw 14 Democratic gains in the Senate in the 2006 and 2008 elections.
He was the third-ranking Democrat in the Senate, behind Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid and Minority Whip Dick Durbin. He was elected Vice Chairman of the Democratic Caucus in the Senate in 2006. In November 2010, he was chosen to hold the additional role of chairman of the Senate Democratic Policy Committee. Schumer won his fourth term in the Senate in 2016 and was unanimously elected Minority Leader to succeed Harry Reid, retiring. Schumer was born in the son of Selma and Abraham Schumer, his father ran an exterminating business, his mother was a homemaker. He and his family are Jewish, he is a second cousin, once removed, of actress Amy Schumer, his ancestors originated from the town of Galicia, in what is now western Ukraine. He attended public schools in Brooklyn, scoring a perfect 1600 on the SAT, graduated as class valedictorian from James Madison High School, in 1967. Schumer competed for Madison High on the It's Academic television quiz show, he attended Harvard College, where he became interested in politics and campaigned for Eugene McCarthy, in 1968.
After completing his undergraduate degree, he continued to Harvard Law School, earning his Juris Doctor with honors, in 1974. Schumer passed the New York state bar in early 1975. However, he never practiced law. In 1974, Schumer ran for and was elected to the New York State Assembly, filling a seat held by Schumer's mentor Stephen Solarz. Schumer served three terms, from 1975 to 1981, sitting in the 181st, 182nd and 183rd New York State Legislatures, he has never lost an election. In 1980, 16th District Congresswoman Elizabeth Holtzman won the Democratic nomination for the Senate seat of Republican Jacob Javits. Schumer won, he was re-elected eight times from the Brooklyn and Queens-based district, which changed numbers twice in his tenure. In 1982, as a result of redistricting, Schumer faced a potential matchup with veteran Brooklyn congressman Steve Solarz, although the matchup did not materialize. In preparation, Schumer "set about making friends on Wall Street, tapping the city's top law firms and securities houses for campaign donations.'I told them I looked like I had a difficult reapportionment fight.
If I were to stand a chance of being re-elected, I needed some help,' he would tell the Associated Press."As a member of the House Judiciary Committee, Schumer was one of four congressional members who oversaw the House investigation, of the Waco siege hearings in 1995. In 1998, Schumer ran for the Senate, he won the Democratic Senate primary with 51 percent of the votes against Geraldine Ferraro and Mark Green. He received 54 percent of the vote in the general election, defeating three-term incumbent Republican Al D'Amato. In November 2001, Schumer announced hearings on the decision of President George W. Bush to try terrorists in military tribunals amid Washington concerns that Bush would skip the American legal system in regards to his handling of such cases. Schumer said the two goals of the hearings were to ascertain if Bush had the power to form a tribunal apart from an attempt at interacting with Congress, if a military tribunal was the most efficient instrument to insure a trial that would both protect national security information and guarantee fairness for the suspect.
In March 2002, as the Senate worked on a compromise to save an election reform bill that stalled due to Republicans believing it was not combative enough against voter fraud and Ron Wyden led a successful effort in protecting an amendment allowing first-time voters to be verified with only a signature. In April 2002, during a Senate speech, Schumer referred to the Middle East policy of the Bush administration as "muddled and inconsistent" and said the planned meeting between Secretary of State Colin Powell and Yasser Arafat would be against the president's stated stand against terrorists and those harboring them. In 2002, Schumer authored a provision to an industry-sponsored bill intended to harden the ease by which individuals erase their debts through bankruptcy filing; the measure had opposition from anti-abortion activists who charged it with restricting their ability to use the bankruptcy courts to write off court fines. After the bill appeared to die in May, J. Dennis Hastert spokesman John Feehery opined, "Schumer was pretty obnoxious about how this provision was going to hurt people who were pro-life and that got some of our folks