The rainbow trout is a trout and species of salmonid native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America. The steelhead is a form of the coastal rainbow trout or Columbia River redband trout that usually returns to fresh water to spawn after living two to three years in the ocean. Freshwater forms that have been introduced into the Great Lakes and migrate into tributaries to spawn are called steelhead, adult freshwater stream rainbow trout average between 1 and 5 lb, while lake-dwelling and anadromous forms may reach 20 lb. Coloration varies widely based on subspecies and habitat, adult fish are distinguished by a broad reddish stripe along the lateral line, from gills to the tail, which is most vivid in breeding males. Wild-caught and hatchery-reared forms of species have been transplanted and introduced for food or sport in at least 45 countries. Introductions to locations outside their range in the United States, Southern Europe, New Zealand. Some local populations of subspecies, or in the case of steelhead.
The steelhead is the state fish of Washington. The scientific name of the trout is Oncorhynchus mykiss. The species was named by German naturalist and taxonomist Johann Julius Walbaum in 1792 based on type specimens from the Kamchatka Peninsula in Siberia. Walbaums original species name, was derived from the local Kamchatkan name used for the fish, the name of the genus is from the Greek onkos and rynchos, in reference to the hooked jaws of males in the mating season. In 1855, William P. Gibbons, the curator of Geology and Mineralogy at the California Academy of Sciences, found a population and named it Salmo iridia and these names faded once it was determined that Walbaums description of type specimens was conspecific and therefore had precedence. Thus, in 1989, taxonomic authorities moved the rainbow, Walbaums name had precedence, so the species name Oncorhynchus mykiss became the scientific name of the rainbow trout. The previous species names irideus and gairdneri were adopted as subspecies names for the rainbow and Columbia River redband trout.
Anadromous forms of the rainbow trout or redband trout are commonly known as steelhead. Subspecies of Oncorhynchus mykiss are listed below as described by fisheries biologist Robert J. Behnke, resident freshwater rainbow trout adults average between 1 and 5 lb in riverine environments, while lake-dwelling and anadromous forms may reach 20 lb. Coloration varies widely between regions and subspecies, adult freshwater forms are generally blue-green or olive green with heavy black spotting over the length of the body. Adult fish have a reddish stripe along the lateral line, from gills to the tail
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Nebraska /nᵻˈbræskə/ is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States. Its area is just over 77,220 sq mi with almost 1.9 million people and its largest city is Omaha, which is on the Missouri River. The state is crossed by many trails and was explored by the Lewis. Nebraska was admitted as the 37th state of the United States in 1867 and it is the only state in the United States whose legislature is unicameral and officially nonpartisan. Nebraska is composed of two major regions, the Dissected Till Plains and the Great Plains. The Dissected Till Plains is a region of rolling hills. The Great Plains occupy most of western Nebraska, characterized by treeless prairie, the state has a large agriculture sector and is a major producer of beef, pork and soybeans. Two major climatic zones are represented in Nebraska, the half of the state has a humid continental climate, and the western half. Indigenous peoples lived in the region of present-day Nebraska for thousands of years before European exploration.
The historic tribes in the state included the Omaha, Ponca, Otoe, when European exploration and settlement began, both Spain and France sought to control the region. In the 1690s, Spain established trade connections with the Apaches, by 1703, France had developed a regular trade with the native peoples along the Missouri River in Nebraska, and by 1719 had signed treaties with several of these peoples. After war broke out between the two countries, Spain dispatched an expedition to Nebraska under Lieutenant General Pedro de Villasur in 1720. The party was attacked and destroyed near present-day Columbus by a force of Pawnees and Otoes. The massacre of the Villasur expedition effectively put an end to Spanish exploration of Nebraska for the remainder of the 18th century, in 1762, during the Seven Years War, France ceded the Louisiana territory to Spain. Frances withdrawal from the area left Britain and Spain competing for dominance along the Mississippi, by 1773, that year, Mackays party built a trading post, dubbed Fort Carlos IV, near present-day Homer.
In 1819, the United States established Fort Atkinson as the first U. S. Army post west of the Missouri River, the army abandoned the fort in 1827 as migration moved further west. European-American settlement did not begin in any numbers until after 1848, on May 30,1854, the US Congress created the Kansas and the Nebraska territories, divided by the Parallel 40° North, under the Kansas–Nebraska Act. The Nebraska Territory included parts of the current states of Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota, the territorial capital of Nebraska was Omaha
North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. The state borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, North Carolina is the 28th most extensive and the 9th most populous of the U. S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties, the most populous municipality is Charlotte, which is the second largest banking center in the United States after New York City. The state has a range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to 6,684 feet at Mount Mitchell. The climate of the plains is strongly influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the falls in the humid subtropical climate zone. More than 300 miles from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a highland climate. North Carolina is bordered by South Carolina on the south, Georgia on the southwest, Tennessee on the west, Virginia on the north, the United States Census Bureau places North Carolina in the South Atlantic division of the southern region.
So many ships have been lost off Cape Hatteras that the area is known as the Graveyard of the Atlantic, the most famous of these is the Queen Annes Revenge, which went aground in Beaufort Inlet in 1718. The coastal plain transitions to the Piedmont region along the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, the Piedmont region of central North Carolina is the states most populous region, containing the six largest cities in the state by population. It consists of rolling countryside frequently broken by hills or low mountain ridges. The Piedmont ranges from about 300 feet in elevation in the east to about 1,500 feet in the west, the western section of the state is part of the Appalachian Mountain range. Among the subranges of the Appalachians located in the state are the Great Smoky Mountains, Blue Ridge Mountains, the Black Mountains are the highest in the eastern United States, and culminate in Mount Mitchell at 6,684 feet, the highest point east of the Mississippi River. North Carolina has 17 major river basins, the five basins west of the Blue Ridge Mountains flow to the Gulf of Mexico, while the remainder flow to the Atlantic Ocean.
Of the 17 basins,11 originate within the state of North Carolina, but only four are contained entirely within the states border – the Cape Fear, the Neuse, the White Oak, and the Tar-Pamlico basin. Elevation above sea level is most responsible for temperature change across the state, the climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf Stream, especially in the coastal plain. These influences tend to cause warmer winter temperatures along the coast, the coastal plain averages around 1 inch of snow or ice annually, and in many years, there may be no snow or ice at all. North Carolina experiences severe weather in summer and winter, with summer bringing threat of hurricanes, tropical storms, heavy rain
Miracle of the gulls
The miracle of the gulls is an 1848 event often credited by Latter-day Saints for saving the Mormon pioneers second harvest in the Salt Lake Valley. According to Mormonism, seagulls miraculously saved the 1848 crops by eating thousands of insects that were devouring their fields. The first crop was planted in 1847 just a few days after they entered the valley, the following spring, using seed from the first harvest, they planted their second crop, only to watch in dismay as the crickets attacked. Less than two years prior in October 1846 many of them were saved by quail that flew into their camp, on their trek to the Great Salt Lake and made available as food. After Brigham Young led the first band of Latter-day Saints into what is now Salt Lake City, although late frosts in April and May destroyed some of the crops, the pioneers seemed to be well on their way to self-sufficiency. Unfortunately, swarms of insects appeared in late May and these insects, now called Mormon crickets because of this incident, are not true crickets, but instead belong to the katydid family.
Having ornamental wings, they are unable to fly, but instead can travel in huge swarms, Mormon crickets eat all plant material in their path, but they cannibalize any insects that die on the way, including their own species. They are known to swarm in some areas of the Mountain West, especially in Utah. These insects threatened the livelihood of the Mormon pioneers, stomping on the pests did not dissuade them from entering farms as others would advance. This is a strategy similar to mast reproduction in oaks. Mormons, prolific journal writers, often cast this disaster in Biblical terms like the 8th plague of locusts, according to traditional accounts, legions of gulls appeared by June 9,1848. It is said that birds, native to the Great Salt Lake, ate mass quantities of crickets, drank some water, regurgitated. The pioneers saw the arrival as a miracle, and the story was recounted from the pulpit by church leaders such as Orson Pratt. The traditional story is that the seagulls annihilated the insects, ensuring the survival of some 4,000 Mormon pioneers who had traveled to Utah, for this reason, Seagull Monument was erected and the California gull is the state bird of Utah.
Leonard Arrington & Davis Bitton, The Mormon Experience at 104, a Comprehensive History of the Church,3, p.333. Historical Discourse by President George A. Smith, Journal of Discourses by President Brigham Young, His Two Counsellors, Joseph Fielding, Essentials in Church History, Salt Lake City, Deseret Book Company, p.385
Logan is a city in Cache County, United States. As of the 2010 census the population was 48,174, Logan is the county seat of Cache County and the principal city of the Logan, UT-ID Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Cache County and Franklin County, Idaho. The Logan metropolitan area contained 125,442 people as of the 2010 census, in 2005 and 2007, Morgan Quitno declared the Logan metropolitan area the safest in the United States. Logan is the location of the campus of Utah State University. The town of Logan was founded in 1859 by settlers sent by Brigham Young to survey for the site of a fort near the banks of the Logan River and they named their new community Logan for Ephraim Logan, an early fur trapper in the area. Logan was incorporated on 17 January 1866, Brigham Young College was founded here in 1878, and Utah State University – called the Agricultural College of Utah – was founded in 1888. Logans growth reflects settlement and post-war booms along with other changes incident to conditions in the West, Logan grew to about 20,000 in the mid-1960s, and according to Census estimates, exceeded 50,000 in 2015.
Logan is located in northern Utah,47 miles north of Ogden and it is about 82 miles north of Salt Lake City. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 18.5 square miles, of which 18.0 square miles is land and 0.58 square miles. The city lies near the edge of Cache Valley on the western slopes of the Bear River Mountains. Mount Logan rises to an elevation of 9,710 feet immediately to the east, the Logan River cut down through these sedimentary deposits following the draining of Lake Bonneville approximately 14,500 years ago. This created an area with very steep slopes that reach into the rest of town. To the west of Logan lie flatlands that contain both farmland and marshes, to the north and south of Logan are rapidly growing residential suburbs. Logan has a continental climate with very warm though usually dry summers. Precipitation tends to be heaviest in the spring months, similar to other areas in northern Utah, during mid-winter high pressure systems often situate themselves over Cache Valley, leading to strong temperature inversions.
These temperature inversions trap cold air and pollutants and allow thick smog to accumulate in the valley about three percent of the time and this can result in the worst air-pollution levels in the U. S. reducing air quality to unhealthy level. Logans city grid originates from its Main and Center Street block, with Main Street running north and south, each block north, south, or west of the origin accumulates in additions of 100, though some streets have non-numeric names. This street grid is typical of towns and cities that were founded by Latter-day Saints in the Mormon Corridor
Bonneville cutthroat trout
The Bonneville cutthroat trout is a subspecies of cutthroat trout native to tributaries of the Great Salt Lake, U. S. A. Most of the current and historic range is in Utah, but they are found in Idaho, Wyoming. This is one of 14 or so recognized subspecies of trout native to the western United States. In 1997, the Bonneville cutthroat was designated the state fish of Utah. It was important to the Indians and the Mormon pioneers as a source of food, Bonneville cutthroats are descended from cutthroat trout that once inhabited the Late Pleistocene-aged Lake Bonneville of Utah, eastern Nevada, and southern Idaho. The isolation has resulted in much phenotypic variation among populations, Bonneville cutthroat trout primarily eat other fish, while smaller individuals and to a lesser extent adults consume a lot of insects and various benthic organisms. They spawn near the mouths of streams over gravel substrate in the springtime and this fish has sparsely scattered, very distinct round spots over its upper body.
They are clothed in subdued colors of silver-gray to charcoal, the body having subtle hues of pink on the flanks during spawning. These fish, particularly the Bear Lake strain, often lack the bright crimson jaw slash that, at times and rainbow trout differ in that cutthroats have basibranchial teeth in their throat between the gill arches and behind the tongue. They typically have longer heads and jaws than the rainbow, the Bonneville cutthroat is known to be more vulnerable to anglers because of a general lack of wariness and can be caught on a wide variety of bait. As the primary native trout of the inland west, cutthroat trout suffered intense fishing pressure for commerce and sustenance from the 1850s through the 1920s, at one time they were so numerous they were considered a nuisance, but today they are on the Utah Sensitive Species List. They are threatened by predation and competition by non-native fish, hybridization with non-native fish, the Bonneville cutthroat trout State of Utah Division of Wildlife Resources From the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Utah fish species.
Wyoming Fish & Game Commission Fishing in Wyoming Trotter, Patrick C, Native Trout of the West. Berkeley, CA, University of California Press
The Mormon cricket is a large insect that can grow to almost 8 cm in length. It lives throughout western North America in rangelands dominated by sagebrush, despite its name, the Mormon cricket is actually a shieldbacked katydid, not a cricket. It takes its name from Mormon settlers in Utah, who encountered them while pushing westward, although flightless, the Mormon cricket is capable of traveling up to two kilometers a day in its swarming phase, during which it is a serious agricultural pest and traffic hazard. The overall color may be black, red, purple or green, the shield behind the head may have colored markings. The abdomen may appear to be striped, females have a long ovipositor, which should not be mistaken for a stinger. Mormon crickets may undergo morphological changes triggered by high population densities, the most noticeable change is in coloration, solitary individuals typically have green or purple coloration, while swarming individuals are often black, brown or red. Mormon cricket eggs hatch mostly in the spring after they are laid, hatching begins when soil temperatures reach 4 °C.
The nymphs pass through seven instars before reaching the adult stage, breeding begins within 10 to 14 days of reaching the adult stage. The male passes to the female a large spermatophore which can be up to 27% of his body weight, the spermatophore is mostly food for the female to consume but contains sperm to fertilize her eggs. This nuptial gift causes swarming-phase females to compete for males, a behavior not seen in solitary-phase females, the female lays her eggs by thrusting her ovipositor deep into the soil. Each female can lay over one hundred eggs, with eggs having the appearance of a grain of rice with a gray to purplish color. The Mormon cricket exists in populations of low density throughout most of its range. At certain times and places, population explosions or infestations occur in large numbers of the crickets form roving bands. These bands may include millions of individuals and be found with densities of up to 100 individuals per square meter and these infestations may last years or even decades, and are characterized by a gradual increase and decrease in population.
The factors that trigger these infestations are poorly understood, but are thought to be weather-related, the Mormon crickets cannibalistic behavior may lead to swarm behavior because crickets may need to move constantly forward to avoid attacks from behind. When a large band crosses a road, it can create a safety hazard by causing distracted revulsion on the part of the driver, the crickets can cause devastation to agriculture. The Mormon cricket shows a preference for forbs, but grasses. Mormon crickets eat insects, including other Mormon crickets, cannibalistic behavior may be a result of protein and salt deficiency, swarming behavior may in turn be a strategy to avoid predation by other Mormon crickets
The California gull is a medium-sized gull, smaller on average than the herring gull but larger on average than the ring-billed gull, though may overlap in size greatly with both. Adults are similar in appearance to the gull, but have a smaller yellow bill with a black ring, yellow legs, brown eyes. The body is white with grey back and upper wings. They have black primaries with white tips, immature birds are similar in appearance to immature herring gulls, with browner plumage than immature ring-billed gulls. Length can range from 46 to 55 cm, the wingspan 122–137 cm and their breeding habitat is lakes and marshes in interior western North America from Northwest Territories, Canada south to eastern California and Colorado. They nest in colonies, sometimes with other birds, the nest is a shallow depression on the ground lined with vegetation and feathers. The female usually lays 2 or 3 eggs, both parents feed the young birds. They are migratory, most moving to the Pacific coast in winter and it is only that this bird is regularly found in western California.
These birds forage in flight or pick up objects while swimming, walking or wading and they mainly eat insects and eggs. They scavenge at garbage dumps or docks and they may follow plows in fields for insects stirred up by this activity. This is the bird of Utah, remembered for assisting Mormon settlers in dealing with a plague of Mormon crickets. A monument in Salt Lake City commemorates this event, known as the Miracle of the Gulls, in California, the California gull recently held the protected status California Species of Special Concern due to declining numbers at their historic California breeding colony at Mono Lake. However, in recent decades this species has begun to breed in the portion of San Francisco Bay, where it did not historically breed. The South Bay California gull population has grown less than 1,000 breeding birds in 1982 to over 33,000 in 2006. This population boom has resulted in large resident flocks of gulls that will prey on other species. Efforts are underway to reduce habitat for species and find other ways to disperse the large numbers of gulls.
Patuxent Bird Identification InfoCenter, California gull information and pictures, retrieved 2006-09-27 California Gull Species Account – Cornell Lab of Ornithology California Gull at Animal Diversity Web
The bald eagle is a bird of prey found in North America. A sea eagle, it has two subspecies and forms a species pair with the white-tailed eagle. Its range includes most of Canada and Alaska, all of the contiguous United States and it is found near large bodies of open water with an abundant food supply and old-growth trees for nesting. The bald eagle is a feeder which subsists mainly on fish. It builds the largest nest of any North American bird and the largest tree nests ever recorded for any species, up to 4 m deep,2.5 m wide. Sexual maturity is attained at the age of four to five years, Bald eagles are not actually bald, the name derives from an older meaning of the word, white headed. The adult is brown with a white head and tail. The sexes are identical in plumage, but females are about 25 percent larger than males, the beak is large and hooked. The plumage of the immature is brown, the bald eagle is both the national bird and national animal of the United States of America. The bald eagle appears on its seal, in the late 20th century it was on the brink of extirpation in the contiguous United States.
Populations have since recovered and the species was removed from the U. S. governments list of endangered species on July 12,1995 and it was removed from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife in the Lower 48 States on June 28,2007. The plumage of an bald eagle is evenly dark brown with a white head. The tail is long and slightly wedge-shaped. Males and females are identical in coloration, but sexual dimorphism is evident in the species. The beak and irises are bright yellow, the legs are feather-free, and the toes are short and powerful with large talons. The highly developed talon of the toe is used to pierce the vital areas of prey while it is held immobile by the front toes. The beak is large and hooked, with a yellow cere, the adult bald eagle is unmistakable in its native range. The closely related African fish eagle has a body, white head and tail
Book of Mormon
It was first published in March 1830 by Joseph Smith as The Book of Mormon, An Account Written by the Hand of Mormon upon Plates Taken from the Plates of Nephi. According to Smiths account and the narrative, the Book of Mormon was originally written in otherwise unknown characters referred to as reformed Egyptian engraved on golden plates. Critics claim that it was fabricated by Smith, drawing on material, the pivotal event of the book is an appearance of Jesus Christ in the Americas shortly after his resurrection. The Book of Mormon is divided into books, titled after the individuals named as primary authors and, in most versions, divided into chapters. It is written in English very similar to the Early Modern English linguistic style of the King James Version of the Bible, as of 2011, more than 150 million copies of the Book of Mormon have been published. The writings were said to describe a people whom God had led from Jerusalem to the Western hemisphere 600 years before Jesus birth. According to the narrative, Moroni was the last prophet among these people and had buried the record, which God had promised to bring forth in the latter days. e.
Smiths description of these events recounts that he was allowed to take the plates on September 22,1827, exactly four years from that date, accounts vary of the way in which Smith dictated the Book of Mormon. Smith himself implied that he read the plates directly using spectacles prepared for the purpose of translating, other accounts variously state that he used one or more seer stones placed in a top hat. Both the special spectacles and the stone were at times referred to as the Urim and Thummim. During the translating process itself, Smith sometimes separated himself from his scribe with a blanket between them, the plates were not always present during the translating process and, when present, they were always covered up. Smiths first published description of the said that the plates had the appearance of gold. They were described by Martin Harris, one of Smiths early scribes, Smith called the engraved writing on the plates reformed Egyptian. A portion of the text on the plates was sealed according to his account, in addition to Smiths account regarding the plates, eleven others stated that they saw the golden plates and, in some cases, handled them.
Their written testimonies are known as the Testimony of Three Witnesses and these statements have been published in most editions of the Book of Mormon. Smith enlisted his neighbor Martin Harris as a scribe during his work on the text. In 1828, prompted by his wife Lucy Harris, Smith reluctantly acceded to Harriss requests. Lucy Harris is thought to have stolen the first 116 pages, after the loss, Smith recorded that he had lost the ability to translate, and that Moroni had taken back the plates to be returned only after Smith repented
Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Louisiana is the 31st most extensive and the 25th most populous of the 50 United States and its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the state in the U. S. with political subdivisions termed parishes. The largest parish by population is East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana is bordered by Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, Texas to the west, and the Gulf of Mexico to the south. Much of the lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh. These contain a rich southern biota, typical examples include birds such as ibis, there are many species of tree frogs, and fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a process in the landscape. These support a large number of plant species, including many species of orchids. Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized.
Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, the current Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a period, a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century, many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa, thus concentrating their culture. Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715, when René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane. The suffix -ana is a Latin suffix that can refer to information relating to an individual, subject. Thus, Louis + ana carries the idea of related to Louis, the Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea. As Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened, Louisiana slowly developed, over millions of years, from water into land, and from north to south. The oldest rocks are exposed in the north, in such as the Kisatchie National Forest.
The oldest rocks date back to the early Tertiary Era, some 60 million years ago, the history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearings Roadside Geology of Louisiana. The sediments were carried north to south by the Mississippi River