Calais is a city in Washington County, United States. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 3,123, making Calais the third least-populous city in Maine; the city has three Canada–US border crossings over the St. Croix River connecting to St. Stephen, New Brunswick, Canada. Calais has been a city of commerce and is recognized as the primary shopping center of eastern Washington County and of Charlotte County, New Brunswick. Retail and construction businesses are the primary components of the Calais economy; this area was occupied for thousands of years by indigenous peoples. The historic Passamaquoddy, an Algonquian-speaking people of the Wabanaki Confederacy, was predominant in this area at the time of European encounter and settlement; the St. Croix River and its area were first explored by the French Samuel de Champlain when he and his men spent a winter on St. Croix Island in 1604; the first permanent settler was Daniel Hill of Jonesboro, who arrived in 1779 during the American Revolutionary War, when this was still part of Massachusetts.
With other settlers, he built the first sawmill in 1782. On June 27, 1789, the Massachusetts General Court sold the township to Waterman Thomas for 19¢ an acre. Early occupations in the settlement included farming and ship building. On June 16, 1809, Plantation Number 5 PS was incorporated as Calais after Calais, France, in honor of French assistance during the American Revolution; the river provided the mill town with water power for industry, which included sawmills and shingle mills, two planing mills, a saw factory, two axe factories and four grain mills. There were machine shops, granite works, shoe factories and a tannery. Other businesses produced bricks, brooms and plaster; the relationship between Calais and the neighboring Canadian town of St. Stephen has been remarkably close, over a period of many years; as evidence of the longtime friendship between the towns, during the War of 1812, the British military provided St. Stephen with a large supply of gunpowder for protection against the enemy Americans in Calais, but St. Stephen's town elders gave the gunpowder to Calais for its Fourth of July celebrations.
Calais is the home of the first railroad built in the state of Maine, the Calais Railroad, incorporated by the state legislature on February 17, 1832. It was built to transport lumber from a mill on the St. Croix River opposite Milltown, New Brunswick, 2 miles to the tidewater at Calais in 1835. In 1849, the name was changed to the Calais & Baring Railroad, the line was extended 4 miles farther to Baring. In 1870, it became part of the St. Penobscot Railroad. Calais was incorporated as a city on August 24, 1850. On July 18, 1864, Confederate agents crossed the border from New Brunswick and attempted to rob a bank in Calais; the Calais Free Library was designed by noted Boston architect Arthur H. Vinal and opened on July 4, 1893; the Romanesque Revival building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2001. Other places in Calais listed on the National Register of Historic Places are the Calais Historic District, Calais Residential Historic District, Devils Head Site, Gilmore House, Thomas Hamilton House, Hinckley Hill Historic District, Holmes Cottage, Dr. Job Holmes House, Theodore Jellison House, Pike's Mile Markers, St. Anne's Episcopal Church, George Washburn House and Whitlocks Mill Light.
Calais is located at 45°9′58″N 67°14′33″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 40.10 square miles, of which, 34.32 square miles is land and 5.78 square miles is water. Calais is located at the head of tide on the St. Croix River; the City of Calais acquired Devil's Head. The site comprises 318 acres of land, one mile of frontage on the St. Croix River estuary, 6/10 of a mile of frontage on U. S. Route 1. Significant features on the property include a 340-foot high granite headland towering over the estuary, a low-tide sand and boulder beach, upland forest, abundant wildlife. Trail construction was completed in 2003. Calais is the northern terminus of the East Coast Greenway, which has its southern terminus in Key West, Florida; as of the census of 2010, there were 3,123 people, 1,403 households, 771 families residing in the city. The population density was 91.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,737 housing units at an average density of 50.6 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 95.5% White, 0.5% African American, 1.3% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.4% of the population. There were 1,403 households of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.8% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 45.0% were non-families. 39.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.80. The median age in the city was 45.3 years. 19.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 51.7 % female. The City of Calais operates under the council-manager form of government; the current city manager is James Porter. Some past city managers include: William Bridgeo, Nancy Orr, Nicholas Mull, Linda Pagels, Mark Ryckman, Diane Barnes and James Porter
Bennington is a town in Bennington County, Vermont, in the United States. It is one of two shire towns of the other being Manchester; the population is 15,431, as of 2014 US Census estimates. Bennington is the most populous town in southern Vermont, the third-largest town in Vermont and the sixth-largest municipality in the state including the cities of Burlington and South Burlington in the count; the town is home to the Bennington Battle Monument, the tallest human-made structure in the state of Vermont. The town has ready access to natural resources and waterpower, a long history of manufacturing within wood processing; the town is recognized nationally for its pottery and textiles. First of the New Hampshire Grants, Bennington was chartered on January 3, 1749, by Colonial Governor Benning Wentworth and named in his honor, it was granted to William Williams and 61 others from Portsmouth, New Hampshire, making the town the oldest to be chartered in Vermont and outside of what is now New Hampshire, though Brattleboro had been settled earlier as a fort.
The town was first settled in 1761 by four families from Hardwick and two from Amherst, Massachusetts. They were led by Capt. Samuel Robinson, who camped in the river valley on his return from the French and Indian War. There are three historic districts within the town today: Old Bennington, Downtown Bennington and North Bennington. Of these, Old Bennington is the original settlement, dating back to 1761 when Congregational Separatists arrived from Connecticut and from Amherst and Hardwick, Massachusetts. In the early 1800s, Downtown Bennington started developing, by 1854 the county's population had reached 18,589; the town is known in particular for the Battle of Bennington, which took place during the Revolutionary War. Although the battle took place 12 miles to the west in what is now the state of New York, an ammunition storage building located in Bennington was an important strategic target. On August 16, 1777, Gen. John Stark's 1,500-strong New Hampshire Militia defeated 800 German mercenaries, local Loyalists and Indians under the command of German Lt. Col. Friedrich Baum.
German reinforcements under the command of Lt. Col. Heinrich von Breymann looked set to reverse the outcome, but were prevented by the arrival of Seth Warner's Green Mountain Boys, the Vermont militia founded by Ethan Allen. In 1891, the Bennington Battle Monument was opened; the monument is a 306-foot-high stone obelisk, the tallest human-made structure in Vermont. It is a popular tourist attraction. Bennington is located in southwestern Bennington County at 42°53′28″N 73°12′29″W. To the west is New York State, Vermont is to the south, Vermont is to the north and Woodford, Vermont is to the east. Due to its location in the southernmost portion of Vermont, it is geographically closer to the capital cities of Albany and Concord than it is to its own state capital, Montpelier. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 42.5 square miles, of which 42.2 square miles are land and 0.27 square miles, or 0.59%, is water. Bennington is drained by the Walloomsac River and its tributaries, flowing to the Hoosic and the Hudson River.
The town is located along the western edge of the Green Mountains, including Bald Mountain, which occupies the northeastern edge of town. In the southwest part of town is 2,350-foot Mount Anthony, part of the Taconic Range. Bennington experiences a humid continental climate with cold, snowy winters and warm to hot, humid summers. Snowfall can vary from year to year; the town can experience snowfall as early as October and as late as April, the surrounding high country can receive snow as late as May. Nor'easters dump heavy snow and wind on the town during the winter, accumulations of one foot of snow or greater are not uncommon when these storms move through the area. One such storm dumped wet, heavy snow on October 4, 1987, catching many residents off guard because it occurred quite early in that year's fall season; the storm resulted in many downed trees and power lines, due in part to that year's fall foliage still being intact. Abundant sunshine, along with heavy showers and thunderstorms, are frequent during the summer months.
Although tornadoes seldomly occur there, an F2 tornado did hit North Bennington on May 31, 1998 during an rare tornado outbreak in the region. The record high is 98 °F, set in 1955; the record low is −25 °F, set in 1994. July is the wettest month, February is the driest. Bennington averages 60.77 inches of snow annually. Bennington lies in USDA plant hardiness zone 5a; as of the 2010 US census, there were 15,764 people, 6,246 households, 3,716 families residing in the town. The population density was 370.92 people per square mile. There were 6,763 housing units at an average density of 159.3 per square mile. The ethnic/racial makeup of the town was 95.9% White, 1.3% from two or more races, 1.2% Black, 0.8% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 0.3% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander. Latino of any race were 1.7% of the population. There were 6,246 households out of which 25.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.2% were couples living together and joined in either marriage or civil union, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.5% were non-families.
33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the avera
Manchester, New Hampshire
Manchester is a city in the southern part of the U. S. state of New Hampshire. It is the most populous city in northern New England, an area comprising the states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont; as of the 2010 census the city had a population of 109,565, up to 111,196 in a 2017 estimate. The combined Manchester-Nashua Metropolitan Area had a 2010 population of 400,721. Manchester is, along with Nashua, one of two seats of Hillsborough County, the state's most populous. Manchester lies near the northern end of the Northeast megalopolis and straddles the banks of the Merrimack River, it was first named by the merchant and inventor Samuel Blodgett, namesake of Samuel Blodget Park and Blodget Street in the city's North End. His vision was to create a great industrial center similar to that of the original Manchester in England, the world's first industrialized city. Manchester appears favorably in lists ranking the affordability and livability of U. S. cities, placing high in small business climate, upward mobility, education level.
Native Pennacook Indians called Amoskeag Falls on the Merrimack River — the area that became the heart of Manchester — Namaoskeag, meaning "good fishing place". In 1722, John Goffe III settled beside Cohas Brook building a dam and sawmill at what was dubbed "Old Harry's Town", it was granted by Massachusetts in 1727 as "Tyngstown" to veterans of Queen Anne's War who served in 1703 under Captain William Tyng. But at New Hampshire's 1741 separation from Massachusetts, the grant was ruled invalid and substituted with Wilton, resulting in a 1751 rechartering by Governor Benning Wentworth as "Derryfield" — a name that lives on in Derryfield Park, Derryfield Country Club, the private Derryfield School. In 1807, Samuel Blodget opened a canal and lock system to allow vessels passage around the falls, part of a network developing to link the area with Boston, he envisioned a great industrial center arising, "the Manchester of America", in reference to Manchester, England at the forefront of the Industrial Revolution.
In 1809, Benjamin Prichard and others built a water-powered cotton spinning mill on the western bank of the Merrimack. Following Blodgett's suggestion, Derryfield was renamed "Manchester" in 1810, the year the mill was incorporated as the Amoskeag Cotton & Woolen Manufacturing Company, it would be purchased in 1825 by entrepreneurs from Massachusetts, expanded to three mills in 1826, incorporated in 1831 as the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company. Amoskeag engineers and architects planned a model company town on the eastern bank, founded in 1838 with Elm Street as its main thoroughfare. Incorporation as a city followed for Manchester in 1846, soon home to the largest cotton mill in the world—Mill No. 11, stretching 900 feet long by 103 feet wide, containing 4,000 looms. Other products made in the community included shoes and paper; the Amoskeag foundry made rifles, sewing machines, textile machinery, fire engines, locomotives in a division called the Amoskeag Locomotive Works. The rapid growth of the mills demanded a large influx of workers, resulting in a flood of immigrants French Canadians.
Many residents descend from these workers. The Amoskeag Manufacturing Company went out of business in 1935, although its red brick mills have been renovated for other uses. Indeed, the mill town's 19th-century affluence left behind some of the finest Victorian commercial and residential architecture in the state. Manchester is in south-central New Hampshire, 18 miles south of Concord, the state capital, the same distance north of Nashua, the second-largest city in the state. Manchester is 51 miles north-northwest of the largest city in New England. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 35.0 square miles, of which 33.1 square miles are land and 1.9 square miles are water, comprising 5.33% of the city. Manchester is drained by the Merrimack River and its tributaries the Piscataquog River and Cohas Brook. Massabesic Lake is on the eastern border; the highest point in Manchester is atop Wellington Hill, where the elevation reaches 570 feet above sea level. The Manchester Planning Board, in its 2010 Master Plan, defines 25 neighborhoods within the city.
LivableMHT has drawn maps of the neighborhoods and neighborhood village centers as defined by the city. Recognition of particular neighborhoods varies, with some having neighborhood associations, but none have any legal or political authority; the major neighborhoods include Amoskeag, Rimmon Heights, Notre Dame/McGregorville and Piscataquog/Granite Square known as "Piscat" on the West Side. In 2007, the city began a Neighborhood Initiatives program to "insure that our neighborhoods are vibrant, livable areas since these are the portions of the city where most of the residents spend their time living, playing and going to school." The purpose of this initiative is to foster vibrancy and redevelopment in the neighborhoods, to restore the sense of neighborhood communities, overlooked in the city for some time. The city began the program with street-scape and infrastructure improvements in the Rimmon Heights neighborhood of the West Side, which has spurred growth and investment in and by the community.
Despite the success of the program in Rimmon Heights, it was unclear in recent years how the city planned to implement similar programs throughout the city. The city announced plans for extending the Neighborhood Initiatives program
Framingham is a city in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. Incorporated in 1700, it is within Middlesex County and the MetroWest subregion of the Greater Boston metropolitan area; the city proper covers 25 square miles with a population of 68,318 in 2010, making it the 14th most populous municipality in Massachusetts. As of 2017 the estimated population was 72,032. Residents voted in favor of adopting a charter to transition from a representative town meeting system to a mayor–council government in April 2017, the municipality transitioned to city status on January 1, 2018. Framingham, sited on the ancient trail known as the Old Connecticut Path, was first settled by a European when John Stone settled on the west bank of the Sudbury River in 1647. Native American leader, Tantamous lived in the Nobscot Hill area of Framingham prior to King Philip's War in 1676. In 1660, Thomas Danforth, an official of the Bay Colony of Framlingham, received a grant of land at "Danforth's Farms" and began to accumulate over 15,000 acres.
He strenuously resisted petitions for incorporation of the town, incorporated in 1700, following his death the previous year. Why the "L" was dropped from the new town's name is not known; the first church was organized in 1701, the first teacher was hired in 1706, the first permanent schoolhouse was built in 1716. On February 22, 1775, the British general Thomas Gage sent two officers and an enlisted man out of Boston to survey the route to Worcester, Massachusetts. In Framingham, those spies stopped at Buckminster's Tavern, they watched the town militia muster outside the building, impressed with the men's numbers but not their discipline. Though "the whole company" came into the tavern after their drill, the officers remained undetected and continued on their mission the next day. Gage did not order a march along that route, instead ordering troops to Concord, Massachusetts, on April 18–19. Framingham sent two militia companies totaling about 130 men into the Battles of Lexington and Concord that followed.
In the years before the American Civil War, Framingham was an annual gathering-spot for members of the abolitionist movement. Each Independence Day from 1854 to 1865, the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society held a rally in a picnic area called Harmony Grove near what is now downtown Framingham. At the 1854 rally, William Lloyd Garrison burned copies of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, judicial decisions enforcing it, the United States Constitution. Other prominent abolitionists present that day included William Cooper Nell, Sojourner Truth, Wendell Phillips, Lucy Stone, Henry David Thoreau. During the post-World War II baby boom, like many other suburban areas, experienced a large increase in population and housing. Much of the housing constructed during that time consisted of ranch-style houses. Framingham is known for the Framingham Heart Study, as well as for the Dennison Manufacturing Company, founded in 1844 as a jewelry and watch box manufacturing company by Aaron Lufkin Dennison, who became the pioneer of the American System of Watch Manufacturing at the nearby Waltham Watch Company.
His brother Eliphalet Whorf Dennison developed the company into a sizable industrial complex which merged in 1990 into Avery Dennison, with headquarters in Pasadena and active corporate offices in the town. In 2000, Framingham celebrated its Tercentennial. On January 1, 2018, Framingham became a city and Yvonne M. Spicer was inaugurated as its first mayor, thus becoming the first popularly elected African-American woman mayor in Massachusetts. Framingham is located at 42°17′59″N 71°25′35″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 26.4 square miles. 25.1 square miles of it is land and 1.3 square miles of it is water. Framingham is in eastern Massachusetts, 20 miles west of Boston, midway between Boston and Worcester, it is bordered by Marlborough on the west. The city of Framingham is divided by Route 9, which passes east-to-west through the middle of the city. South Framingham includes Downtown Framingham, the villages of Coburnville and Salem End Road. North Framingham includes the villages of Nobscot, Pinefield and Saxonville plus Framingham Center.
As of the census of 2010, there were 68,318 people, 26,173 households, 16,535 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,732.7 people per square mile. There were 27,529 housing units, of which 1,356, or 4.9%, were vacant. The racial makeup of the city was 71.9% White, 5.8% Black, 0.3% Native American, 6.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 10.9% from some other race, 4.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.4% of the population. Of the 26,173 households, 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.2% were headed by married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.8% were non-families. 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.0% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47, the average family size was 3.03. As of 2010, 20.9% of the population were under the age of 18, 9.8% were from 18 to 24, 30.0% were from 25 to 44, 25.8% were from 45 to 64, 13.6% were 65 years of age or ol
Providence, Rhode Island
Providence is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. is one of the oldest cities in the United States. It was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, a Reformed Baptist theologian and religious exile from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, he named the area in honor of "God's merciful Providence" which he believed was responsible for revealing such a haven for him and his followers. The city is situated at the mouth of the Providence River at the head of Narragansett Bay. Providence was one of the first cities in the country to industrialize and became noted for its textile manufacturing and subsequent machine tool and silverware industries. Today, the city of Providence is home to eight hospitals and seven institutions of higher learning which have shifted the city's economy into service industries, though it still retains some manufacturing activity; the city is the third most populous city in New England after Worcester, Massachusetts. Providence was one of the original Thirteen Colonies. Williams and his company were compelled to leave Massachusetts Bay Colony, Providence became a refuge for persecuted religious dissenters, as Williams himself had been exiled from Massachusetts.
The city was burned to the ground in March 1676 by the Narragansetts during King Philip's War, despite the good relations between Williams and the sachems with whom the United Colonies of New England were waging war. In the year, the Rhode Island legislature formally rebuked the other colonies for provoking the war. Providence residents were among the first Patriots to spill blood in the lead-up to the American Revolutionary War during the Gaspée Affair of 1772, Rhode Island was the first of the Thirteen Colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown on May 4, 1776, it was the last of the Thirteen Colonies to ratify the United States Constitution on May 29, 1790, once assurances were made that a Bill of Rights would become part of the Constitution. Following the war, Providence was the country's ninth-largest city with 7,614 people; the economy shifted from maritime endeavors to manufacturing, in particular machinery, silverware and textiles. By the start of the 20th century, Providence hosted some of the largest manufacturing plants in the country, including Brown & Sharpe, Nicholson File, Gorham Manufacturing Company.
Providence residents ratified a city charter in 1831 as the population passed 17,000. The seat of city government was located in the Market House in Market Square from 1832 to 1878, the geographic and social center of the city; the city offices outgrew this building, the City Council resolved to create a permanent municipal building in 1845. The city offices moved into the Providence City Hall in 1878. During the American Civil War, local politics split over slavery as many had ties to Southern cotton and the slave trade. Despite ambivalence concerning the war, the number of military volunteers exceeded quota, the city's manufacturing proved invaluable to the Union. Providence thrived after the war, waves of immigrants brought the population from 54,595 in 1865 to 175,597 by 1900. By the early 1900s, Providence was one of the wealthiest cities in the United States. Immigrant labor powered one of the nation's largest industrial manufacturing centers. Providence was a major manufacturer of industrial products, from steam engines to precision tools to silverware and textiles.
Giant companies were based in or near Providence, such as Brown & Sharpe, the Corliss Steam Engine Company, Babcock & Wilcox, the Grinnell Corporation, the Gorham Manufacturing Company, Nicholson File, the Fruit of the Loom textile company. From 1975 until 1982, $606 million of local and national community development funds were invested throughout the city. In the 1990s, the city pushed for revitalization, realigning the north-south railroad tracks, removing the huge rail viaduct that separated downtown from the capitol building and moving the rivers to create Waterplace Park and river walks along the rivers' banks, constructing the Fleet Skating Rink and the Providence Place Mall. Despite new investment, poverty remains an entrenched problem. 27.9 percent of the city population is living below the poverty line. Recent increases in real estate values further exacerbate problems for those at marginal income levels, as Providence had the highest rise in median housing price of any city in the United States from 2004 to 2005.
The Providence city limits enclose a small geographical region with a total area of 20.5 square miles. Providence is located at the head of Narragansett Bay, with the Providence River running into the bay through the center of the city, formed by the confluence of the Moshassuck and Woonasquatucket Rivers; the Waterplace Park amphitheater and riverwalks line the river's banks through downtown. Providence is one of many cities claimed to be founded on seven hills like Rome; the more prominent hills are: Constitution Hill, College Hill, Federal Hill. The other four are: Tockwotten Hill at Fox Point, Smith Hill, Christian Hill at Hoyle Square, Weybosset Hill at the lower end of Weybosset Street, leveled in the early 1880s. Providence has 25 official neighborhoods, though these neighborhoods are grouped together and referred to
Greenfield is a city in Franklin County, United States. Greenfield was first settled in 1686; the population was 17,456 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Franklin County. Greenfield is home to Greenfield Community College, the Pioneer Valley Symphony Orchestra, the Franklin County Fair; the city has a Main Street Historic District containing fine examples of Federal, Greek Revival, Victorian architecture. Greenfield is part of the Springfield, Metropolitan Statistical Area. Pocumtuck Indians first settled and inhabited the Greenfield area. Native American artifacts found in the area have been dated between 7,000 and 9,000 years B. C; the Pocumtucks fished local rivers. Some sources claim that they were wiped out by the Mohawks in 1664 and that the land was left unoccupied; this theory may be an example of the principle of vacuum domicilium, a used justification for the displacement of native peoples. Other sources show that the Pocumtucks joined the Wampanoag chief Metacom in August 1675 in the fight against English encroachment, indicating a continued presence in the area.
The Pocumtuck played an important role in the Battle of Great Falls / Wissantinnewag – Peskeompskut on May 19, 1676, tribal oral tradition indicates that following the battle, elements of the Pocumtuck fled to and were incorporated into the Abenaki people to the north and the Mahican people to the west. The area was colonized as part of Deerfield by the English in 1686. In 1753, named for the Green River, was incorporated as a separate town from Deerfield. In 1795, the South Hadley Canal opened, enabling boats to bypass the South Hadley falls and reach Greenfield via the Connecticut River. Located at the confluence of the Deerfield and Green rivers, not far from where they merge into the Connecticut River, Greenfield developed into a trade center. Falls provided water power for industry, Greenfield grew into a prosperous mill town. John Russell established the Green River Works in 1834, hiring skilled German workers at what was the country's first cutlery factory; the Connecticut River Railroad was the first of several railways to enter the town, replacing the former canal trade.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, Greenfield was one of the most important American centers of the tap and die business and was the home of Greenfield Tap & Die Company. It was designated the county seat when Franklin County was created from Hampshire County in 1811. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 22 square miles, of which 21 square miles is land and 0.5 square miles, or 2.08%, is water. Greenfield is located at the center of the county and is bordered by Colrain and Bernardston to the north. Greenfield is located 39 miles north of 90 miles west-northwest of Boston. Greenfield lies at the confluence of the Deerfield and Connecticut rivers; the Green River runs from the north, through town to the Deerfield, which lies along the city's southern border. From there, the Deerfield meets the Connecticut, which flows southward along the Montague border before bending eastward before continuing southward. Several brooks flow into the three rivers, as well as a fourth river, the Fall River, which makes up the city's border with Gill.
The city is located beside the Pocumtuck Range, the northernmost subridge of the Metacomet Ridge, is surrounded by hills, with the town center lying on an elevated point above the rivers. Like most of New England, Greenfield has a humid continental climate on the border between Köppen Dfa and Dfb with its warmest-month mean of 71.6 °F. with cold, snowy winters and warm, humid summers. Extreme temperatures range from 100 °F, recorded on July 22, 1926, August 26, 1948, to −30 °F, recorded on January 22, 1961. Precipitation is abundant and well averages 41.3 inches per year. Greenfield lies at the junction of four highways. Interstate 91 travels north and south through the western stretch of the city and is duplexed for a 3-mile stretch with Massachusetts Route 2. Route 2, which follows the rough path of the Mohawk Trail, enters over the Fall River as a surface road before becoming a limited-access highway until its concurrence with I-91. Once it leaves the interstate, Route 2 becomes a surface road again.
Between the start of the limited access section of Route 2 and its split from I-91 at Exit 24, the Mohawk Trail follows Massachusetts Route 2A, which uses Route 2's former right of way through the center of Greenfield. At the town center, Route 2A meets the duplexed U. S. Route 5 and Massachusetts Route 10, which comes over the Deerfield River in the south before heading northward through town, with another interchange along the highway portion of Route 2; the nearest general aviation airport is located in the Turners Falls section of Montague, the nearest national air service is at Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, Connecticut. The town is served by the Peter Pan and Greyhound bus lines and is the hub of the Franklin Regional Transit Authority, whose local service extends from Bernardston to Northampton and from Orange to Charlemont; the John W. Olver Transit Center is the hub for FRTA bus service, as well as the local depot for Peter Pan and Greyhound intercity service. Greenfield lies at the junction of two rail lines, an east–west line heading from the northern points of Worcester County towards the Hoosac Tunnel and Albany, New York, the north–south line heading from Springfield in the so
New Bedford, Massachusetts
New Bedford is a city in Bristol County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 95,072, making it the sixth-largest city in Massachusetts. New Bedford is nicknamed "The Whaling City" because during the 19th century, the city was one of the most important whaling ports in the world, along with Nantucket and New London, Connecticut; the city, along with Fall River and Taunton, make up the three largest cities in the South Coast region of Massachusetts and is known for its fishing fleet and accompanying seafood producing industries as well as having a high concentration of Luso Americans. Before the 17th century, the Wampanoag, who had settlements throughout southeastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island, including Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket, were the only inhabitants of the lands along the Acushnet River, their population is believed to have been about 12,000. While exploring New England, Bartholomew Gosnold landed on Cuttyhunk Island on May 15, 1602. From there, he explored Cape Cod and the neighboring areas, including the site of present-day New Bedford.
However, rather than settle the area, he returned to England at the request of his crew. Europeans first settled New Bedford in 1652. English Plymouth Colony settlers purchased the land from chief Massasoit of the Wampanoag tribe. Whether the transfer of the land was legitimately done has been the subject of intense controversy. Like other native tribes, the Wampanoags did not share the settlers' concepts of private property; the tribe may have believed they were granting usage rights to the land, not giving it up permanently. The settlers used the land to build the colonial town of Old Dartmouth. A section of Old Dartmouth near the west bank of the Acushnet River called Bedford Village, was incorporated as the town of New Bedford on February 23, 1787 after the American Revolutionary War; the name was suggested by the Russell family. The Dukes of Bedford, a leading English aristocratic house bore the surname Russell; the late-18th century was a time of growth for the town. New Bedford's first newspaper, The Medley, was founded in 1792.
On June 12, 1792, the town set up its first post office. William Tobey was its first postmaster; the construction of a bridge between New Bedford and present-day Fairhaven in 1796 spurred growth. On March 18, 1847 the town of New Bedford became a city. At the same time, New Bedford began to supplant Nantucket as the nation's preeminent whaling port, thanks to its deeper harbor and location on the mainland. Whaling dominated the economy of the city for much of the century. Many families of the city were involved with it as crew and officers of ships; until 1800, New Bedford and its surrounding communities were, by and large, populated by Protestants of English, Scottish and Dutch origin. During the first half of the 19th century many Irish people came to Massachusetts. In 1818, Irish immigrants established the Catholic mission. In that century, immigrants from Portugal and its dependent territories of the Azores, Cape Verde, Madeira began arriving in New Bedford and the surrounding area, attracted by jobs in the whaling industry.
As the Portuguese community began to increase, they established the first Portuguese parish in the city, St. John the Baptist. French Canadians secured a foothold in New Bedford at about the same time, they built the Church of the Sacred Heart in 1877. Polish immigrants began arriving in the late 19th century and established the parish of Our Lady of Perpetual Help in 1903. A number of Jewish families, arriving in the late 19th century, were active in the whaling industry, selling provisions and outfitting ships. During the years leading up to the First World War, a sizable eastern-European Jewish community joined them in New Bedford; some became prominent merchants and businessmen in textiles and manufacturing. In 1847, the New Bedford Horticultural Society was begun by James Arnold; the Ash Street Jail, which houses inmates from Bristol County, is located in New Bedford. It is the oldest continuously operating jail in the United States. Fort Taber and Fort Rodman are now in Fort Taber Park. Both forts are called Fort Taber, including in some references.
New Bedford is located at 41°39′06″N 70°56′01″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.1 square miles. Of the total area, 20.0 square miles is land, 4.1 square miles, or 17.13%, is water. New Bedford is a coastal city, a seaport, bordered on the west by Dartmouth, on the north by Freetown, on the east by Acushnet and Fairhaven, on the south by Buzzards Bay. From New Bedford's northern border with Freetown to the Buzzards Bay coast at Clark's Point the distance is 14 miles. Across New Bedford east to west is a distance of about 2 miles; the highest point in the city is an unnamed hill crossed by Interstate 195 and Hathaway Road west of downtown, with an elevation greater than 1