An official residence is the residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, religious leader, leaders of international organizations, or other senior figure resides. It may or may not be the same location where the individual conducts work-related functions or lives. 3 Sutton Place, New York City Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Presidential Palace State House Kiriri Presidential Palace Unity Palace Palácio Presidencial Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Kinshasa Presidential Palace Palais de la Nation Palais du mont Ngaliema Palais de Marbre Brazzaville Presidential Palace Le Palais de la Présidence Presidential Palace Abdeen Palace Heliopolis Palace Koubbeh Palace Montaza Palace Ras el-Tin Palace Government Building Asmara President's Office National Palace Imperial Palace Presidential Palace State House Osu Castle formal residence Golden Jubilee House current residence Peduase Lodge retreat Presidential Palace Villa Syli Belle Vue Presidential Palace State House Royal Palace State House Executive Mansion Al-Sikka, Tripoli Al Nasr Convention Centre Dar al-Salam Hotel Abusita Navy Base Royal Palace of Tripoli Bab al-Azizia Iavoloha Ambohitsorohitra Sanjika Palace New State House Presidential Palace Presidential Palace State House Clarisse House Mechouar Essaid, Rabat Dâr-al-Makhzen, Fes Dâr-al-Makhzen, Meknes Marchane Palace, Tangier Bahia Palace, Marrakech El Badi Palace, Marrakech Palácio da Ponta Vermelha State House Presidential Palace Aso Rock Villa Rivers State:Government House Urugwiro Presidential Palace Palais de la Republique State House State House Villa Somalia Mahlamba Ndlopfu, Genadendal Residence, Cape Town Leeuwenhof Cape Province:Government House Transvaal:Government House Natal:Government House Orange Free State:Government House Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Lozitha Palace State House The Palace of the Governors Carthage Palace State House State House State House Government House Government House Government House Ilaro Court Palace of the Revolution Presidential Palace Government House Palacio Nacional, Dominican Republic Government House National Palace King's House Government House Jamaica House Vale Royal Government House Government House Government House President's House St. Anns Diplomatic Residence Whitehall Official residence Belize House Government House Rideau Hall Citadelle of Quebec 24 Sussex Drive Harrington Lake Stornoway The Farm, Gatineau Park 7 Rideau Gate British Columbia:Government House Manitoba:Government House New Brunswick:Old Government House Nova Scotia:Government House Prince Edward Island:Government House Newfoundland and Labrador:Government House Quebec:Édifice Price/Price Building *The provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Quebec no longer have official residences for their lieutenant governors, but do provide them with accommodations.
Casa Presidencial, Costa Rica Casa Presidencial called Casa Blanca Casa Presidencial National Palace Palacio José Cecilio del Valle None. The President uses own private residence. Los Pinos National Palace Castillo de Chapultepec *In every state of the Mexico the Palacio de Gobierno, or Government Palace, was the official residence the governor, they are now maintained as the relevant governor's offices. Querétaro Casa de la Corregidora Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Palacio de las Garzas White House Camp David Number One Observatory Circle Blair House Presidential Townhouse Trowbridge House Waldorf Astoria New York (Ambassador to
Francisco de Toledo
Francisco Álvarez de Toledo known as The Viceroyal Solon, was an aristocrat and soldier of the Kingdom of Spain and the fifth Viceroy of Peru. He is considered the "best of Peru's viceroys," albeit controversial for the deleterious impact of some of his actions on the Native American population, he brought stability to a tumultuous viceroyalty of Spain and enacted administrative reforms which changed the character of Spanish rule and the relationship between the indigenous Native Americans of the Andes and their Spanish overlords. With a policy called reductions, Toledo forcibly relocated much of the Indian population of Peru and Bolivia into new settlements to facilitate Christianization, to collect tribute and taxes, to gather Inca labor to work in mines and other Spanish enterprises, he held the position of viceroy from November 30, 1569, until 1 May 1581, a total of eleven years and five months. He has been praised as the "supreme organizer" of the immense viceroyalty, giving it an adequate legal structure and strengthening important institutions under which the Spanish colony functioned for more than two hundred years.
He is criticized for the reductions of the Indian population, expanding the forced labor demanded of the Indians under the mita of the Inca Empire, executing Túpac Amaru, the last Inca of the Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba. Francisco de Toledo was born on 15 July 1515 in Oropesa, Castile belonging to the noble family Álvarez de Toledo, while his mother died, which would influence his mood serious and taciturn, her aunts Elizabeth were responsible for their upbringing. It was the fourth and last child of II Count of Oropesa, Francisco Álvarez de Toledo y Pacheco and María Figueroa y Toledo, eldest of Gómez Suárez de Figueroa, II Count of Feria and María Álvarez de Toledo, daughter of the I Duke of Alba de Tormes. At the age of eight he moved to the court of King Charles I of Spain, to serve as a page to the queen Leonor and Isabel, he learned Latin, history and theology, music and courtly manners. Francisco de Toledo was fifteen years old when in 1530 King Charles I accepted him at home, accompanying that emperor until his last days in the most varied circumstances of both peace and war.
This personal contact with the monarch, who adopted the prudent policy, "Machiavellianism" and the tendency to seek balances between his partners, would serve as a useful experience for further governmental work. In 1535, when he was twenty, he was invested with the habit of a knight of the Order of Alcántara, a religious-military order, years was given to this corporation the task of Acebuchar in 1551; the first military action in which intervened was the Conquest of Tunis, a great triumph of the imperial troops over the Ottoman Turks who snatched the plaza in North Africa. Following the emperor on his tour of Europe, the young Álvarez de Toledo passed through Rome, where king Carlos I defied Francis I of France, which triggered another war with that country, between the years 1536-1538. Following the signing of peace, Álvarez de Toledo returned to Spain and went to Ghent, in Flanders. Once participated in the expedition to Algiers, important Turkish square in North Africa, campaign which ended in failure due to bad weather.
In the following years he continued to serve the imperial arms, but participated in the diets and councils. It was a turbulent time, as well as the onslaught of the Ottoman Turks occurred progress of Protestantism in Germany, region under imperial orbit. In all this time Álvarez de Toledo was near the emperor Charles V, he met the Spanish negotiations with England to start a new war against France. He dealt with the issues of Hispanic America interested about the legal status that should have the Indians, he was in Valladolid when Friar Bartolomé de las Casas appeared before a board of theologians the text of A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies and knew of the writing of the New Laws of the Indies that caused such a stir in Peru. He left Barcelona in 1543 with the emperor, for Italy and Germany during the fourth war against France, he participated in the battles of Düren. In 1556 took place the abdication of Charles I and his consequent trip to Spain, on November 12, on the way to Monastery of Yuste, entered the castle of Jarandilla de la Vera, hosted by its owner, 4th Count of Oropesa, Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Figueroa, the nephew of Francis and who received the old ex monarch.
The stay lasted until February 3, 1557 when the works in Yuste were finished, final resting place of Charles I. They both served him until his death in 1558; the following years were spent by Álvarez de Toledo in activities related to the Order of Alcántara. Between 1558 and 1565 he remained in Rome, where he participated in the discussion and definition of the Statutes of the Order, as attorney general. Toledo became the fifth viceroy of Peru in 1569, he was appointed viceroy by Philip II after serving as a steward in the royal court. He inherited a chaotic situation in Peru, but he conceived and implemented an ambitious program to "put down nea-Inka insurrection, strengthen colonial government and legal institutions, indoctrinate the native populace in Catholicism, shore up faltering revenue streams" from mining. During his rule, Toledo implemented many reforms, he centralized colonial governmental functions and laid the foundation for the future administration of the viceroyalty. He established royal authority and Spanish dominance in the colony.
He broke the power of the encomenderos. He has been called "one of the great administrators of human t
Gaspar de Zúñiga, 5th Count of Monterrey
Gaspar de Zúñiga Acevedo y Fonseca, 5th Count of Monterrey, Spanish nobleman, the ninth viceroy of New Spain. He governed from November 5, 1595 to October 26, 1603. From January 18, 1604 until his death in 1606, he was viceroy of Peru. De Zúñiga y Acevedo was born the eldest son of the fourth Count of Monterrei, Géronimo de Acevedo y Zúñiga, he studied in Monterrei under the direction of Jesuit priests. In 1578 he entered the service of King Philip II, he participated in the Portuguese campaign, where he led the Galician militia, paying them out of his own pocket. De Zúñiga y Acevedo took part in the defense of the port of A Coruña when it was attacked by the English corsair Francis Drake in 1589. On May 28, 1595, de Zúñiga y Acevedo was nominated viceroy of New Spain, he arrived in the colony, at Veracruz, in mid-September, as the successor to Viceroy Luis de Velasco, marqués de Salinas. On November 5, 1595 he made his solemn entry into Mexico City, he increased taxes on the Indians, but he was said to pay personal attention to adjustments required of the Indians in order to prevent their being exploited.
In 1596, the viceroy Count of Monterrey reported, in a letter sent to Philip II to justify the increase of the salary of the royal officials, that those had seized and burned some delinquents for the unspeakable sin of sodomy, although he does not give the number of victims or the circumstances of the event. On September 20, 1596, Diego de Montemayor founded the city of Nuevo León; this city was named in the viceroy's wife's honor. In 1597 pirates attacked the port of Campeche, taking over the center of the town and terrorizing the inhabitants. De Zúñiga y Acevedo ordered increased protection for the ports, he moved the town of Veracruz from its old site to its present location, more secure. In 1598 Philip II died, Philip III succeeded him to the Spanish crown. In the same year, de Zúñiga approved the Juan de Oñate expedition into present day New Mexico, USA. In 1601, the Indians of Topia rose against the Spanish, but through the influence of Idefonso de la Mota, bishop of Guadalajara, they were pacified.
The Jesuits subsequently established missions there, in the Tarahumara region. Among his first acts as viceroy was organizing an overland expedition to explore and colonize the north of the New Kingdom of León y Castilla, continuing a policy of his predecessor, the Viceroy Velasco; the famous expedition, under the command of Juan de Oñate, had been delayed at the suggestion of Velasco to review the agreement. Oñate would go on to serve as governor for the province and would found the ancient city of Santa Fe. Oñate official search did not locate the legendary Seven Cities of Gold believed to be within the provinces of Cibola and Quivira, he sent two expeditions to explore the Pacific coast of Mexico. Sebastián Vizcaíno sailed from Acapulco in 1596 with three ships. On this expedition Vizcaíno founded La Paz, Baja California Sur, so named because of his friendly reception there by the Indians, he discovered Cape San Sebastián. A expedition by Vizcaíno with the same mission sailed on May 5, 1602 with four ships.
This expedition was more fruitful. Ensenada, Baja California was founded. San Diego Bay was explored and Catalina Island was named; the explorers reached as far north as Monterey Bay, Alta California, which Vizcaíno named in honor of the viceroy. Subsequent plans to colonize Alta California foundered when Zúñiga's successor, Juan de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Montesclaros, turned out to be much less favorable. On May 19, 1603, Zúñiga y Acevedo was named viceroy of Peru, he remained in New Spain until September, awaiting the arrival of his successor, Juan de Mendoza y Luna, marqués de Montesclaros. After the arrival of the new viceroy, the two met in Orizaba, midway between Veracruz and Mexico City. Here de Zúñiga y Acevedo hosted a week-long welcoming festival said to have cost more than a year's viceregal salary; the new viceroy took over the administration of New Spain in October, in that month de Zúñiga y Acevedo sailed from Acapulco for Lima. Private affairs delayed him again in Paita, he did not enter Lima until November 28, 1604.
There he finished the preparations for the dispatch of Pedro Fernandes de Queirós on a naval expedition to the South Seas. This expedition sailed on December 21, 1605. Shortly after that he died, still in office but without having had the opportunity to initiate reforms. "Zúñiga y Acevedo, Gaspar de," Enciclopedia de México, v. 14. Mexico City, 1988. García Puron, Manuel, México y sus gobernantes, v. 1. Mexico City: Joaquín Porrua, 1984. Orozco Linares, Gobernantes de México. Mexico City: Panorama Editorial, 1985, ISBN 968-38-0260-5. Short biography from Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography
García Hurtado de Mendoza, 5th Marquis of Cañete
García Hurtado de Mendoza y Manrique, 5th Marquis of Cañete was a Spanish soldier, governor of Chile, viceroy of Peru. He is known as "Marquis of Cañete". Belonging to an influential family of Spanish noblemen Hurtado de Mendoza fought the native Mapuche during his stay as Governor of Chile, got the city of Mendoza named after him. In his position as Viceroy of Peru he sponsored Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira expedition to the Solomon Islands and had the Marquesas Islands named after him, he was the son of Andrés Hurtado de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Cañete — a viceroy of Peru — and Magdalena Manrique, daughter of the Count of Osorno. Both his parents belonged to some of the most influential families in the Spanish aristocracy. In 1552 Hurtado de Mendoza ran away from home with the intention of serving his king, Charles I, in an expedition the latter was preparing against Corsica. Hurtado de Mendoza demonstrated great efficiency in this campaign and in Tuscany, when that duchy attempted to throw off Imperial rule.
He was part of the Imperial army in Brussels, was with Charles V during his defeat in the Battle of Renty. Upon learning that his father had been designated viceroy of Peru, he returned to Spain and asked to be sent to America. During the journey he met Jerónimo de Alderete, chosen by the king to be the successor of Pedro de Valdivia as governor of Chile, it happened that Alderete died during the trip. Hurtado's father gathered together a group of Chilean representatives, taking advantage of a disagreement on whether Francisco de Aguirre or Francisco de Villagra was more qualified as a successor for the post, put forward his son, he hoped that his son would bring more Spaniards to Chile, additionally be able to unify the two camps in the battle for the post of governor of Chile. And he hoped he could deal with the rebellious Indians, thus Hurtado left for Chile, 21 years old, with proven ruthlessness. He was haughty, proud of his lineage and intelligence, authoritarian in outlook, subject to violent outbreaks.
His character made enemies hidden within his own circle. Hurtado de Mendoza left Peru for Chile at the head of a force of 500 Spaniards. A part of this force traveled overland under the command of Pedro de Castillo; this group left in January 1557. The other part, under the command of the new governor, more comfortably traveled by sea, leaving in February of the same year; the viceroy gave a banquet for his son, after which the fleet left port to the sound of military marches and a salute of cannons. Hurtado de Mendoza sailed with an entourage of illustrious men, including Alonso de Ercilla y Zúñiga, Francisco de Irarrázaval y Andía, Francisco Pérez de Valenzuela, Friar Gil González de San Nicolás, the Franciscan Juan Gallegos and the learned jurist Hernando de Santillán; the expedition remained there until the ninth of that month. Continuing the voyage to the south, they disembarked at La Serena on April 23, 1557; the poor people of Coquimbo were amazed at the largest continent of soldiers — more than 500 — seen in those parts, armed with harquebuses and cannons, wearing armor and crests of plumes.
They soon acquired the nickname of emplumados. Francisco de Aguirre received the new governor hospitably in La Serena. At about the same time, Francisco de Villagra arrived in La Serena by land. Knowing the animosity between Aguirre and Villagra over their aspirations to the governorship of Chile, García Hurtado did not hesitate to take both of them prisoner in La Serena, isolating them on a ship; this act was considered unjust by the Spanish settlers in Chile. Mariño de Lobera relates in his chronicle that Aguirre aboard, greeted Villagra upon his arrival, shook his hand, said: See, Your Honor, Señor General, how are the things of the world: Yesterday the two of us did not fit in one large kingdom, today Don García has made us fit on a single plank; the governor arrived at Santiago. The cabildo was making preparations to welcome him, but Hurtado decided to continue by sea to Concepción, in spite of the contrary advice of those who knew the dangers of the climate at this season. At Coquimbo he sent the cavalry on by land.
Hurtado sailed on June 1557, in full winter. He arrived eight days in the bay of Concepción in the middle of a dangerous season. During a torrential rainstorm the troops disembarked on the island of La Quiriquina and erected a provisional encampment. Once settled in Concepción, Hurtado attempted a policy of good will towards the Indians, who had accepted the rule of the governor but were not ready to accept the occupation of their territories by the newly arrived Spaniards. Lincoyan and other Indigenous leaders knew that the cavalry was coming by land from Santiago and conceived a plan to attack them at Andalicán, near Concepción. Hurtado learned of the Indigenous plan and was informed that the Mapuches interpreted his attitude as a sign of weakness and fear, he ordered that the fort of San Luis de Toledo be built in Araucana to frustrate the Indigenous initiative, but the fort was soon attacked by the Mapuches. They were defeated, the governor counterattacked with his cannons and harquebuses.
He ordered a new campaign in October 1557, with a strong force of 500 soldiers and thousands of Indian auxiliaries. The Battle of Lagunillas occurred during this campaign, on November 7. In this battle the Spanish survived because of the valor demonstrated by Rodrigo de Quiroga and the other captains; the Mapuches showed themsel
Luis de Velasco, 1st Marquess of Salinas
Luis de Velasco, 1st Marquess of Salinas, was a Spanish nobleman, son of the second viceroy of New Spain, himself the eighth viceroy. He governed from January 27, 1590 to November 4, 1595, again from July 2, 1607, to June 10, 1611. In between he was viceroy of Peru for eight years. Born in Spain, Luis de Velasco remained in Spain with his mother and siblings when his father was appointed Viceroy of New Spain, his brother, don Antonio de Velasco, was a "gentilhombre de la boca" to Prince Philip. The two brothers accompanied Philip to England, they traveled on with the court to Brussels, where young don Luis was admitted to the military-religious order of Santiago. In about 1560 he joined his father in Mexico City, he married doña María de Ircio, the daughter of a conquistador, Martín de Ircio, of the step-sister of the first viceroy, doña María de Mendoza. After the death of his father, he served as alderman in the capital. However, he became disgusted with Viceroy Álvaro Manrique de Zúñiga, marqués de Villamanrique and returned to Spain.
He presented himself at the court of Philip II, the king named him ambassador to Florence. On July 19, 1589, Velasco received the appointment as the new viceroy of New Spain, replacing Manrique; because the news that had reached Spain indicated that the colony was in turmoil, he was advised not to disembark at Veracruz, the usual port of entry. Instead he arrived in the province of Pánuco. On his arrival he realized, he sailed on to Veracruz, where he disembarked in the middle of December, 1589. From Veracruz he traveled to Mexico City, taking possession of the government on January 27, 1590. There he was received with great happiness by all classes. In 1591 he obtained the pacification of the Chichimeca tribes, in constant revolt and outside of Spanish control; the chiefs had asked the Spanish to supply food. Velasco accepted, a peace treaty was signed. To introduce the Chichimecas to the customs of the colony, 400 Tlaxcalteca families were sent to live with them; the Franciscans founded four colonies among the Chichimecas, with their center at Zacatecas.
In return, Velasco reduced the taxes, levied on the Indians and charged the Real Hacienda to supply lawyers to represent the tribes and ease their entry into the society of the colony. In autumn of 1595, Valasco selected and appointed Juan de Oñate governor and head of the latter's now famous expedition into North America, he promoted industry in New Spain spinning and weaving. He inaugurated the Paseo de la Alameda in Mexico City, improved the fortifications of San Juan de Ulúa in Veracruz. In 1595, Velasco was named viceroy of Peru, he embarked from Acapulco in November of that year. However, after eight years in Peru he found himself tired and sick, asked to be relieved of the government so that he could return to New Spain. Upon his return, he devoted himself to his encomiendas Teulitlán. On February 25, 1607, Velasco hijo was again named viceroy of New Spain, this time by the new king, Philip III, he took possession of the government on July 2. He took up a project to dig the Huehuetoca canal, for flood control.
Heretofore during the rainy season, year after year, Mexico City had been flooded. The canal project was under the direction of Enrico Martínez, an engineer, Juan Sánchez, a mathematician of the Society of Jesus. Work on the canal commenced on November 28, 1607. In February 1609 a royal edict arrived in Mexico prohibiting once again the enslavement of the Indians. Velasco hijo rigorously enforced this decree against the mineowners. Like his father, this viceroy was known as a defender of the Indians. In 1609 rumors of an impending rebellion of Negroes circulated. Velasco took preventative measures, including sending an armed force under Captain Pedro González de Herrera to Puebla. Herrera was to combat the escaped slaves and rebels on the Rio Blanco, who preyed on travelers between Veracruz and Mexico City; the leader of the blacks, Gaspar Yanga, sent a letter to Captain Herrera. The letter outlined the mistreatment of the blacks. Velasco took cognizance of the letter, but not before a bloody battle was fought, with heavy losses on each side.
Velasco arranged for the escaped slaves to found their own village, San Lorenzo de los Negros, near Córdova. Luis de Velasco was involved in the establishment of trade and diplomatic relations with Japan, he received in 1610 the embassy of Luis Sotelo and Tanaka Shōsuke, which had sailed from Japan on the Japanese sailship San Buena Ventura, agreed to send an ambassador to Japan in the person of the famous explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno, with the added mission of exploring the "gold and silver islands" which were thought to be east of the Japanese isles. Luis de Velasco confiscated the Japanese ship, fearful that the Japanese would further master the technique of trans-oceanic voyages. Vizcaíno sailed from Acapulco in the San Bernardo on March 22, 1611, with the emissaries from Japan, arriving in Uraga on June 16 of that year. From there he traveled to Edo to meet the second shōgun Hidetada, thence to Sumpa to meet with ex-shōgun Ieyasu. Vizcaíno, having lost his ship, sailed from Japan October 28, 1613, on board the Japanese galleon San Juan Bautista and arrived back at Acapulco on January 25, 1614.
He was accompanied by Hasekura Tsunenaga, designated as the Japanese ambassador to Spain, about 140 other Japanese. In 1610 K
Cristóbal Vaca de Castro
Cristóbal Vaca de Castro was a Spanish colonial administrator in Peru. Vaca de Castro's parents were Guiomar Cabeza de Vaca, he studied law in Salamanca. He married María Magdalena de Quiñones y Osorio, had eight children with her. In 1536 he was named oidor in the Royal Audiencia of Valladolid. On September 9, 1540 he was named a knight of the Order of Santiago. In 1540 he was sent by Emperor Charles V to restore order between the factions of Gonzalo Pizarro and Diego Almagro the Younger after the assassination of Diego de Almagro the Elder. Vaca de Castro had a reputation as a man of integrity and courage, his official title was juez pesquisidor. He was authorized to take over the government of the colony in the event of the death of Francisco Pizarro, he sailed from Sanlúcar de Barrameda on November 5, 1540, arrived in Panama in January 1541. While he was there, he reformed the Audiencia, as its president, he was forced by bad weather to land at Buenaventura. He proceeded from Buenaventura by land to Cali.
While in Cali, he mediated in a jurisdictional dispute between Sebastián de Belalcázar and Pascual de Andagoya. Still on the road to Peru, in Popayán he learned of the assassination of Francisco Pizarro and the election of Diego de Almagro as governor, he arrived in Quito on September 1541, where he united the royalist forces behind him. Having made himself governor of the colony, he raised a considerable number of troops. Supported by Francisco de Carvajal, he defeated Almagro on September 16, 1542 in the plains of Chupas. Almagro was taken prisoner. Pressured by the Pizarristas, Vaca de Castro ordered his execution; the New Laws were passed in 1542. They were intended to ban the most obvious abuses of the encomienda system, abolish the system altogether; the New Laws caused difficulty for Vaca de Castro with Gonzalo Pizarro and other supporters of the old system. Vaca de Castro agreed to present their case to the Crown. Thereafter he concentrated his efforts on developing the country, through improving the means of communication, regulating the inns for cross-country travel, overseeing the use of labor in the mines.
In 1543 he sent 200 men to the Río de la Plata. The discovery of Tucumán is credited to this expedition, he was succeeded by the first viceroy of Peru, Blasco Núñez Vela, in 1544. Núñez Vela had him arrested on charges of sympathizing with the rebellion of Gonzalo Pizarro, he was imprisoned in El Callao sent by ship to Panama, on to Spain. In Spain, he was imprisoned on charges of illegal enrichment, but after three years in prison he was cleared of the charges, he was named commander of the Order of Santiago. He was president of the Council of Castile between 1557 and 1561, he retired to the convent of San Agustín in Valladolid, where he died in 1566. He was interred in the convent. Wood, James, ed.. "Castro, Vaca de". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne. Calvete de La Estrella, I. C. Elogio de Vaca de Castro. Madrid, I. López de Toro, 1947. García, C. Vida de D. Cristóbal Vaca de Castro, presidente y gobernador del Perú. Madrid, 1957. Gran Enciclopedia Rialp article, 1991 Columbia Encyclopedia article