The Rhodes Scholarship is an international postgraduate award for students to study at the University of Oxford. It was established in 1902, making it the first large-scale programme of international scholarship; the Rhodes Scholarship was founded by English businessman and politician Cecil John Rhodes, to promote unity between English speaking nations and instill a sense of civic-minded leadership and moral fortitude in future leaders irrespective of their chosen career paths. Although restricted to male applicants from countries which are today within the Commonwealth, as well as Germany and the United States, today the Scholarship is open to applicants from all backgrounds and from across the globe. Since its creation, controversy has surrounded both its former exclusion of women, Rhodes' Anglo-supremacist beliefs and legacy of colonialism. Prominent recipients of the Rhodes Scholarship include former President of Pakistan Wasim Sajjad, former Australian Prime Ministers Tony Abbott, Bob Hawke and Malcolm Turnbull, former President of the United States Bill Clinton, former United States National Security Advisor and United States Ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice, as well as several Nobel laureates.
Some people offered this scholarship have not accepted it. The Rhodes trust established the scholarships in 1902 under the terms laid out in the sixth and final will of Cecil John Rhodes, dated 1 July 1899 and appended by several codicils through March 1902; the scholarships were founded for two reasons, to promote unity within the British empire and to strengthen diplomatic ties between Britain and the United States of America. In Rhodes’ own words, “I … desire to encourage and foster an appreciation of the advantages which I implicitly believe will result from the union of the English-speaking peoples throughout the world and to encourage in the students from North America who would benefit from the American Scholarships.” Rhodes bequeathed scholarships to German students in the hope that, "a good understanding between England and the United States of America will secure the peace of the world." Rhodes, who attended Oriel College, believed the university's residential colleges would be the best venue to nurture diplomatic ties between future world leaders.
To this day controversies persist over Rhodes’ Anglo-supremacist beliefs, most of which date back to his 1877 confession of faith. However, such convictions did not play a part in his final vision for the scholarship; the scholarships are based on Rhodes’ final will and testament which states that, “no student shall be qualified or disqualified for election … on account of race or religious opinions”. The Rhodes Scholarships are administered and awarded by the Rhodes Trust, located at Rhodes House in Oxford; the trust has been modified by three Acts of Parliament: The Rhodes Estate Act 1916, the Rhodes Trust Act 1929, The Rhodes Trust Act 1946. In 1925, the Commonwealth Fund Fellowships were established to reciprocate the Rhodes Scholarships by enabling British graduates to study in the United States; the Kennedy Scholarship programme, created in 1966 as a memorial to John F. Kennedy, adopts a comparable selection process to the Rhodes Scholarships to allow ten British post-graduate students per year to study at either Harvard or the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
It cooperates with universities in China, BLCC, for example. BLCC offers high-level scholarships for international students who aim to study Chinese in Beijing. In 1953, the Parliament of the United Kingdom created the Marshall Scholarship as a coeducational alternative to the Rhodes Scholarship that would serve as a "living gift" to the United States. Cecil Rhodes wished current scholars and Rhodes alumni to have "opportunities of meeting and discussing their experiences and prospects"; this has been reflected, for example, in the initiation by the first warden, of an annual warden's Christmas letter. In recognition of the centenary of the foundation of the Rhodes Trust in 2003, four former Rhodes Scholars were awarded honorary degrees by the University of Oxford; these were John Brademas, Bob Hawke, Rex Nettleford and David R. Woods. During the centenary celebrations, the foundation of the Mandela Rhodes Foundation was marked. In 2013, during the 110th Rhodes anniversary celebrations, John McCall MacBain, Marcy McCall MacBain and the McCall MacBain Foundation donated £75 million towards the fundraising efforts of the Rhodes Trust.
In 2015, Rhodes Scholar R. W. Johnson published a critical account of the decline of the Rhodes Trust under its warden, John Rowett, commended the recovery under wardens Donald Markwell and Charles R. Conn; as of 2018, due to the introduction of the Global Rhodes Scholarships, the Rhodes Scholarship is open to Postgraduate students from anywhere in the world. Many of its greatest scholars have carried out its founder’s ideal of “equal rights for all civilised men” becoming some of the foremost voices in Human Rights and social justice; some have engaged in criticism of Ceci
Wichita State University
Wichita State University is a public research university in Wichita, United States, governed by the Kansas Board of Regents. Wichita State University offers more than 60 undergraduate degree programs in more than 200 areas of study in six colleges; the Graduate School offers 44 master's degrees in more than 100 areas and a specialist in education degree. It offers doctoral degrees in applied mathematics. Wichita State University hosts classes at four satellite locations. WSU West is located in Maize; this 9-acre campus hosts 80–100 university classes each academic semester. WSU South began offering Wichita State University coursework at a new facility in Derby in January 2008; the WSU Downtown Center houses the university's Center for Community Support & Research and the Department of Physical Therapy. A quarter-mile northeast of campus, the Advanced Education in General Dentistry building, built in 2011, houses classrooms and a dental clinic, it is adjacent to the university's 75,000-square-foot Eugene M. Hughes Metropolitan Complex, where many of WSU noncredit courses are taught.
Wichita State University began in 1886 as a private Congregational preparatory school, founded by Rev. Joseph Homer Parker, it was referred to as "Young Ladies College", "Wichita Ladies College", "Congregational Female College". It was part of a boom in college and university creation and was envisioned to admit women twelve years and older who were "able to read, write and recite the parts of speech." In early 1887, the project's leaders received a land parcel from the developers of the adjacent Fairmount Neighborhood and in response, renamed their school Fairmount College. Envisioned to be the "Vassar of the West," the streets of the neighboring neighborhoods were named after prominent women's colleges including Vassar and Holyoke. Support came from the Plymouth Congregational Church to build it, but the school never opened its doors. In 1892, a corporation named the preparatory school Fairmount Institute, it opened in September with an emphasis on training in preaching or teaching. It closed because of financial difficulties.
In 1895, on the same site, Fairmount College opened collegiate classes for men and women with funding by the Congregational Education Society. Amid growing financial troubles, the college's supporters tried to get the city of Wichita to buy it in 1925, but failed. A second referendum passed in 1926, that fall it became the Municipal University of Wichita, it was the first municipal university west of the Mississippi, catered to students of limited means. On July 1, 1964, the school entered the state system of higher education as Wichita State University. WSU is one of three research institutions in the state of Kansas, along with Kansas State University and the University of Kansas. President John Bardo's executive team passed a tobacco-free campus policy in August 2016. In 2017, the university, all of its satellite campuses and all WSU-owned properties became tobacco free; the ban applies to all tobacco products including smokeless tobacco, oral tobacco and electronic cigarettes. It does not apply to products that deliver nicotine for the purpose of cessation, or to tobacco used in controlled research or for educational, clinical or religious ceremonial purposes.
Smoking was still allowed in designated areas outside of WSU-ICAA controlled athletic facilities and within designated areas of the WSU Innovation Campus. The Main Campus is located at 1845 North Fairmount in northeast Wichita, is bounded between the streets of 17th St N, 21st St N, Hillside St, Oliver Ave. Research facilities include the National Institute for Aviation Research, biology research labs, the WSU Field Station, chemistry research labs, physics research labs; the campus includes the Edwin A. Ulrich Museum of Art. WSU has four satellite locations: WSU South is located at 200 West Greenway in Derby, began offering Wichita State University coursework in January 2008. WSU West is located at 3801 North Walker in Kansas; this 9 acre campus hosts 80 to 100 university classes each academic semester. Since July 1, 2018, the Campus of Applied Sciences and Technology known as "WSU Tech" and known as the Wichita Area Technical College, is located at 4004 N. Webb Road in Wichita; the university comprises the following academic colleges and schools: College of Education College of Engineering College of Fine Arts College of Health Professions Dorothy and Bill Cohen Honors College Fairmount College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Graduate School Institute for Interdisciplinary Creativity W. Frank Barton School of BusinessWichita State University was ranked the 52nd top college in the United States in 2014 by the Social Mobility Index college rankings.
Wichita State is placed among National Universities in the United States in rankings done by U. S. News & World Report. For all engineering research and development expenditures, WSU ranked No. 63 in the USA for year 2013, with $47 million The National Science Foundation ranked Wichita State University No. 4 among all U. S. universities in money spent on aerospace research and development in fiscal year 2013, with $39 million in expenditures and No. 1 in industry-funded aerospace R&D. Wichita State's W. Frank Barton School of Business was listed in The Princeton Review 2011 "301 Best Busi
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
Foreign Service Officer
A Foreign Service Officer is a commissioned member of the United States Foreign Service. Foreign Service Officers implement the foreign policy of the United States. FSOs spend most of their careers overseas as members of U. S. embassies and other diplomatic missions, though some receive assignments to serve at combatant commands and educational institutions such as the various U. S. War Colleges. Foreign Service Officers are one of five categories of Foreign Service employees. Other categories include Chiefs of mission, Ambassadors at large, Foreign Service Personnel, Foreign Service Nationals; as of 2017, there were over 8,000 FSOs. FSOs of the State Department are split between five career tracks, called "cones": Consular Officers, Economic Officers, Management Officers, Political Officers, Public Diplomacy Officers. Consular Officers are charged with working with American citizens with activities such as adoptions and would be charged with evacuating Americans from the country in the case of a disaster.
Economic Officers work with foreign economic agencies to facilitate economic issues as well as foreign policy dealing with technology and sciences. Management Officers are responsible for the affairs of an embassy or consulate and dealing with the personnel and budgets of the embassy. Political Officers have the responsibility of interacting with foreign governments on policy issues and negotiating policy. Public Diplomacy Officers inform the citizens of their respective countries on the actions of the embassy, including meeting with the press and giving educational events. FSOs of the U. S. Agency for International Development, Commercial Service, Foreign Agricultural Service, Broadcasting Board of Governors are selected through processes specific to the hiring agency, follow career tracks separate from those of State Department FSOs. For example, within USAID, there are multiple technical "backstops" including: Agriculture Contracting Crisis Stabilization and Governance Economic Growth Engineering Environment Executive Financial Management Legal Population and Nutrition Private Enterprise Program/Project DevelopmentMany leadership roles at U.
S. embassies are filled from the ranks of career FSOs. About two-thirds of U. S. Ambassadors have been career Foreign Service members drawn from the Department of State, although other foreign affairs agencies have produced Ambassadors from time to time. All of the remaining third are political appointees, though a handful of State Department Senior Executive Service personnel have received Ambassadorships. FSOs help fill critical management and foreign policy positions at the headquarters of foreign affairs agencies in Washington, D. C. Applicants for State Department FSO jobs go through a competitive written exam, oral assessment, security investigation process before they are eligible to be hired. Of the more than 100,000 applicants for State Department FSO positions between 2001 and 2006, only 2,100 became Foreign Service Officers. Once candidates have completed the application process, received a top secret security clearance, been medically cleared for worldwide deployment, passed a final suitability review, they receive a score and are placed on a hiring register for their career tracks.
New candidates are appointed from the top of the register, candidates who are not appointed within 18 months will be removed from the register. Candidates may decline one offer; some candidates go on "do-not-call" status until they are ready to receive offers, but the 18-month timer still continues to run. It is common for a candidate with a low score to expire from the register, thus making the process more competitive. In the end, fewer than 2% of initial applicants to the State Department Foreign Service will matriculate as Foreign Service Officers. In rare cases when no Foreign Service officers are available, non-career civil servants can be appointed by the Secretary for entry into the Foreign Service, providing they meet rigorous standards expected of career members; these limited appointees are not members of Foreign Service and must leave anytime a career officer becomes available for their positions. This is a legal requirement negotiated with the American Foreign Service Association.
Applicants for the U. S. Agency for International Development FSO jobs follow a somewhat different process; because USAID has a strong technical focus in many of its overseas positions, FSOs are recruited for specific backstops. Most successful candidates will have an advanced degree and pertinent job experience related to their backstop and will undergo an interview and testing process tailored to that backstop, but otherwise it is similar to that for State Department applicants. United States Foreign Service United States Department of State Foreign Service Specialist American Foreign Service Association Foreign Agricultural Service United States Agency for International Development United States Commercial Service Cookie pusher Clientitis Lucile Atcherson Curtis, the first woman in what became the U. S. Foreign Service State Department Official Career Site State Department Official Website
H. Edward Flentje
H. Edward Flentje is a former American educator at Wichita State University, who has served multiple positions across the state of Kansas. Most Flentje served as Emporia State University's interim president in 2011 and before that, Interim City manager for Wichita, KS in 2008. Flentje began his education at the Kansas State Teachers College, known today as Emporia State University, graduating in 1964, he continued at George Washington University, graduating in 1965, finished with his doctorate from University of Kansas in 1970. After graduating from George Washington University, Flentje spent five years in Illinois. In Illinois, he served as either a visiting professor or professor at several institutions including City Colleges of Chicago from 1970 to 1971, Southern Illinois University from 1972 to 1975, was a lecturer of political science at KU in 1976. In 1979, Flentje started full-time at Wichita State University as a visiting research and associate professor, than promoted to a professor in 1986 in the Hugo Wall School of Public Affairs.
In the summer of 1993, Flentje was a visiting scholar at the University of California at Berkeley. In 1999, Flentje was promoted to Director of the Hugo Wall School of Public Affairs, where he served for nine years. Flentje served on two Kansas governors cabinet. In 1975, Flentje began his first of two careers in the Kansas State Cabinet, serving as the director of planning and research, under Gov. Robert Bennett's administration, resigned in 1979, in 1986, Flentje started his two-year career as the secretary of administration under Gov. Mike Hayden's administration. In 2008, Flentje was named the Wichita, Kansas interim city manager, after George Kolb took the interim job at Valley Center, Kansas. Flentje served from January 2 to July 11, 2008. From July 1, 2011 until December 31, 2011, Flentje served a five-month career as Emporia State University's interim president. During Fientje's tenure at Emporia State, he helped establish $7.5 million in new scholarships for new students and transfer students
Pittsburgh Theological Seminary
Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, founded in 1794, is a graduate seminary in the Reformed tradition teaching theology and preparing students for service in the Presbyterian Church and other Christian churches. Teaching is grounded in ecumenically minded; the Seminary is located in the East Liberty neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA and houses one of the largest theological libraries in the tri-state area. Pittsburgh Theological Seminary was formed in 1959 by consolidating the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A.'s Western Theological Seminary and the United Presbyterian Church of North America's Pittsburgh-Xenia Theological Seminary. The consolidation was the result of the 1958 merger between the PCUSA and the UPCNA to form the United Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. Pittsburgh-Xenia Theological Seminary began with the founding of Service Seminary in 1792 by the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania. Prior to that time, the Presbytery was dependent on a supply of ministers sent from Scotland.
The Rev. John Anderson, D. D. was elected as the first teacher of divinity and the school began with an enrollment of six students. Service Seminary moved several times, from Service to Canonsburg, Pennsylvania to Xenia, where it became Xenia Theological Seminary; this occurred in the 1850s and was prompted by a desire to locate nearer to the growing population in the Midwest. The Rev. Joseph Kyle joined the faculty in 1900. In 1914 Kyle was appointed president. In 1920 the trustees determined to move the seminary to St. Louis, Missouri to be nearer to potential students in the Plains states. In 1921 the Rev. Dr. Kyle died unexpectedly; this loss of leadership at a crucial transition period created problems for the fledgling institution and it never took root. In 1930 it merged with a seminary, founded in Pittsburgh in 1825 and together they formed the Pittsburgh-Xenia Theological Seminary; this institution was augmented by the resources of Newburgh Seminary, founded in New York City in 1805 by John Mitchell Mason.
Western Theological Seminary, the other branch of Pittsburgh Theological Seminary's pre-1959 history, began with the establishment of classical academies in Washington, the first in 1785 by Joseph Smith and another in 1787 by John McMillan. Out of these academies, the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church USA created Western Seminary, it was indeed a western seminary in 1825, furnishing a ministry for the opening frontier territories along the Ohio River. Since the 1959 consolidation, Pittsburgh Theological Seminary has been located on the former Pittsburgh-Xenia Seminary campus in the Highland Park/East Liberty section of Pittsburgh, it became a PC seminary following the 1983 merger between the UPCUSA and the Presbyterian Church in the United States. Pittsburgh Theological Seminary is accredited by the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada, the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools; the seminary has scholars in all major fields of theological inquiry, offers language training in Greek and Hebrew.
The following degrees are offered by the institution: Master of Divinity Master of Divinity with Church Planting Emphasis Master of Divinity with Certificate in Urban Ministry Master of Arts Master of Arts in Theology and Ministry Master of Sacred Theology Doctor of Ministry Focus areas include Urban Change, Missional Leadership and Theology, Parish, Reformed Christian Spirituality, Eastern Christian. The Seminary cooperates with other institutions within the Pittsburgh Council on Higher Education to offer joint degree programs, including, its 300,000 volumes, several online databases, more than 800 periodical subscriptions make it one of the larger stand-alone theological libraries in the United States. The library is located in a three-story building of American Colonial design, dedicated in 1964; the library houses several valuable collections, including the John M. Mason Memorial Collection, which consists of many rare theological works dating from the Reformation. On display in the Hansen Reading Room are the desk and chair of Karl Barth, dedicated to Pittsburgh Theological Seminary by Barth's son, Markus Barth, a faculty member from 1963–1972.
Many of the books and periodicals in the collection were made possible by a $15 million gift from wealthy banker and businessman Thomas Clinton. Pittsburgh Theological Seminary is home to the Kelso Museum of Near Eastern Archaeology; the museum contains a collection of ancient Near Eastern and Palestinian pottery and artifacts brought together by travelers and archeologists over the past 60 years. Many exhibits resulted from the eight excavations; the Seminary is involved in Biblical archaeology, sponsors the Zeitah Excavations in Israel at Tel Zayit. The excavation was founded under the direction of Professor Ron E. Tappy, Professor of Bible and Archaeology and director of Pittsburgh Theological Seminary’s Kelso Museum of Near Eastern Archaeology; the excavation began in 1999 with a 55-member international team of volunteers. In July 2005 excavators discovered the Zayit Stone, which contained an inscription dating to the 10th century BCE; the two-line inscriptio