Lsjbot is an automated Wikipedia article-creating program, or internet bot, developed by Sverker Johansson for the Swedish Wikipedia. The bot focused and focuses on articles about living organisms and geographical entities. According to its description page on the Swedish Wikipedia, Lsjbot was active in the Swedish Wikipedia and in the Cebuano and Waray Wikipedias, has created most Wikipedia articles in those languages; the program is responsible for 2.7 million articles as of July 2014, two thirds of which appear in the Cebuano Wikipedia. The bot can produce up to 10,000 articles per day. On June 15, 2013, the Swedish Wikipedia hit one million articles, the eighth language Wikipedia to reach that goal; the millionth article was created by Lsjbot – which at that point had created 454,000 articles half the entire article count of the Swedish Wikipedia. Lsjbot was responsible for helping the Swedish Wikipedia become the second edition of Wikipedia to reach 2 million articles, which subsequently became the second largest edition of Wikipedia behind only its English counterpart.
Its operation has generated some criticism, from those who suggest the stub articles lack meaningful content and a human touch. The Sydney Morning Herald compared the bot to Phil Parker the most published author in human history, who has published over 85,000 books, each of, completed in less than an hour using computers. Popular Science compared the bot to the announcement in July 2014 by the Associated Press that it planned to use bots to write articles. Johansson countered attacks on his methods by noting that if the bot does not write articles, "otherwise they're written by young, male nerds and reflect male interests." Source code of Lsjbot
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese; because Mandarin originated in North China and most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the Northern dialects. Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible. Mandarin is placed first in lists of languages by number of native speakers. Mandarin is by far the largest of the seven or ten Chinese dialect groups, spoken by 70 percent of all Chinese speakers over a large geographical area, stretching from Yunnan in the southwest to Xinjiang in the northwest and Heilongjiang in the northeast; this is attributed to the greater ease of travel and communication in the North China Plain compared to the more mountainous south, combined with the recent spread of Mandarin to frontier areas. Most Mandarin varieties have four tones; the final stops of Middle Chinese have disappeared in most of these varieties, but some have merged them as a final glottal stop.
Many Mandarin varieties, including the Beijing dialect, retain retroflex initial consonants, which have been lost in southern dialect groups. The capital has been within the Mandarin area for most of the last millennium, making these dialects influential; some form of Mandarin has served as a national lingua franca since the 14th century. In the early 20th century, a standard form based on the Beijing dialect, with elements from other Mandarin dialects, was adopted as the national language. Standard Chinese is the official language of the People's Republic of China and Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore, it is used as one of the working languages of the United Nations. It is one of the most used varieties of Chinese among Chinese diaspora communities internationally; the English word "mandarin" meant an official of the Ming and Qing empires. Since their native varieties were mutually unintelligible, these officials communicated using a Koiné language based on various northern varieties.
When Jesuit missionaries learned this standard language in the 16th century, they called it "Mandarin", from its Chinese name Guānhuà, or "language of the officials". In everyday English, "Mandarin" refers to Standard Chinese, called "Chinese". Standard Chinese is based on the particular Mandarin dialect spoken in Beijing, with some lexical and syntactic influence from other Mandarin dialects, it is the official spoken language of the People's Republic of China, the de facto official language of the Republic of China, one of the four official languages of the Republic of Singapore. It functions as the language of instruction in Mainland China and in Taiwan, it is one of the six official languages of the United Nations, under the name "Chinese". Chinese speakers refer to the modern standard language as Pǔtōnghuà in Mainland China, Guóyǔ in Taiwan, or Huáyǔ in Singapore, Malaysia and Philippines,but not as Guānhuà. Linguists use the term "Mandarin" to refer to the diverse group of dialects spoken in northern and southwestern China, which Chinese linguists call Guānhuà.
The alternative term Běifānghuà, or "Northern dialects", is used less and less among Chinese linguists. By extension, the term "Old Mandarin" or "Early Mandarin" is used by linguists to refer to the northern dialects recorded in materials from the Yuan dynasty. Native speakers who are not academic linguists may not recognize that the variants they speak are classified in linguistics as members of "Mandarin" in a broader sense. Within Chinese social or cultural discourse, there is not a common "Mandarin" identity based on language. Speakers of forms of Mandarin other than the standard refer to the variety they speak by a geographic name—for example Sichuan dialect, Hebei dialect or Northeastern dialect, all being regarded as distinct from the standard language; the hundreds of modern local varieties of Chinese developed from regional variants of Old Chinese and Middle Chinese. Traditionally, seven major groups of dialects have been recognized. Aside from Mandarin, the other six are Wu, Xiang in central China, Min and Yue on the southeast coast.
The Language Atlas of China distinguishes three further groups: Jin, Huizhou in the Huizhou region of Anhui and Zhejiang, Pinghua in Guangxi and Yunnan. After the fall of the Northern Song and during the reign of the Jin and Yuan dynasties in northern China, a common speech developed based on the dialects of the North China Plain around the capital, a language referred to as Old Mandarin. New genres of vernacular literature were based on this language, including verse and story forms, such as the qu and sanqu poetry; the rhyming conventions of the new verse were codified in a rime dictionary called the Zhongyuan Yinyun. A radical departure from the rime table tradition that had evolved over the previous centuries, this dictionary contains a wealth of information on the phonology of Old Mandarin. Further sources are the'Phags-pa script based on the Ti
Wikipedia is a multilingual online encyclopedia with free content and no ads, based on open collaboration through a model of content edit by web-based applications like web browsers, called wiki. It is the largest and most popular general reference work on the World Wide Web, is one of the most popular websites by Alexa rank as of April 2019, it is owned and supported by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization that operates on money it receives from donors to remain ad free. Wikipedia was launched on January 2001, by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger. Sanger coined its name, as a portmanteau of wiki and "encyclopedia". An English-language encyclopedia, versions in other languages were developed. With 5,838,942 articles, the English Wikipedia is the largest of the more than 290 Wikipedia encyclopedias. Overall, Wikipedia comprises more than 40 million articles in 301 different languages and by February 2014 it had reached 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors per month.
In 2005, Nature published a peer review comparing 42 hard science articles from Encyclopædia Britannica and Wikipedia and found that Wikipedia's level of accuracy approached that of Britannica, although critics suggested that it might not have fared so well in a similar study of a random sampling of all articles or one focused on social science or contentious social issues. The following year, Time magazine stated that the open-door policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the biggest and the best encyclopedia in the world, was a testament to the vision of Jimmy Wales. Wikipedia has been criticized for exhibiting systemic bias, for presenting a mixture of "truths, half truths, some falsehoods", for being subject to manipulation and spin in controversial topics. In 2017, Facebook announced that it would help readers detect fake news by suitable links to Wikipedia articles. YouTube announced a similar plan in 2018. Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were as successful.
Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process. It was founded on March 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company, its main figures were Bomis CEO Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and Wikipedia. Nupedia was licensed under its own Nupedia Open Content License, but before Wikipedia was founded, Nupedia switched to the GNU Free Documentation License at the urging of Richard Stallman. Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia, while Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal. On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia; the domains wikipedia.com and wikipedia.org were registered on January 12, 2001 and January 13, 2001 and Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, as a single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com, announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list.
Wikipedia's policy of "neutral point-of-view" was codified in its first months. Otherwise, there were few rules and Wikipedia operated independently of Nupedia. Bomis intended to make Wikipedia a business for profit. Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, web search engine indexing. Language editions were created, with a total of 161 by the end of 2004. Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were taken down permanently in 2003, its text was incorporated into Wikipedia; the English Wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia assembled, surpassing the 1408 Yongle Encyclopedia, which had held the record for 600 years. Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control in Wikipedia, users of the Spanish Wikipedia forked from Wikipedia to create the Enciclopedia Libre in February 2002; these moves encouraged Wales to announce that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, to change Wikipedia's domain from wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org.
Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of new articles and of contributors, appears to have peaked around early 2007. Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006. A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity and resistance to change. Others suggest that the growth is flattening because articles that could be called "low-hanging fruit"—topics that merit an article—have been created and built up extensively. In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; the Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend. Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the methodology of the study. Two years in 2011, Wales acknowledged the presence of a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than 36,000 writers" in June 2010 to 35,800 in June 2011.
In the same interview, Wales claimed the number of editors was "stable and sustainable". A 2013 article titled; the article revealed
Samogitian is a Baltic lect spoken in Samogitia, in Northern Europe. It is sometimes treated as a dialect of Lithuanian, but is considered a separate language by most linguists outside Lithuania, its recognition as a distinct language is increasing in recent years, Attempts have been made to standardize it. The Samogitian dialect should not be confused with the interdialect of the Lithuanian language as spoken in the Duchy of Samogitia before Lithuanian became a written language, which developed into one of the two variants of written Lithuanian used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania based on the so-called middle dialect of the Kėdainiai region; this was called the Samogitian language. This Žemaitian language was based on western Aukštaitian dialects and is unrelated to what is today called the Samogitian dialect; the Samogitian language influenced by Curonian, originated from the East Baltic proto-Samogitian dialect, close to Aukštaitian dialects. During the 5th century, Proto-Samogitians migrated from the lowlands of central Lithuania, near Kaunas, into the Dubysa and Jūra basins, as well as into the Samogitian highlands.
They assimilated the local, Curonian-speaking Baltic populations. Further north, they assimilated the indigenous, Semigallian speaking peoples. Assimilation of Curonians and Semigallians gave birth to the three Samogitian subdialects: "Dounininkų", "Donininkų" and "Dūnininkų." In the 13th century, Žemaitija became a part of the Baltic confederation called Lietuva, formed by Mindaugas. Lithuania conquered the coast of the Baltic sea from the Livonian order; the coast became a part of Samogitia. From the 13th century onwards, Samogitians settled within the former Curonian lands, intermarried with that population over the next three hundred years; the Curonians had a huge cultural influence upon Samogitian and Lithuanian culture, but they were assimilated by the 16th century. Its dying language has enormously influenced the dialect, in particular phonetics; the earliest writings in Samogitian language appeared in the 19th century. Samogitian and its subdialects preserved many features of the Curonian language, for example: widening of proto-Baltic short i widening of proto-Baltic short u retraction of ė in northern sub-dialects preservation of West Baltic diphthong ei no t' d' palatalization to č dž specific lexis, like cīrulis, pīle, leitis etc. retraction of stress shortening of ending -as to -s like in Latvian and Old Prussian as well as various other features not listed here.
The earliest writings in Samogitian language appeared in the 19th century. The Samogitian dialect is inflected like standard Lithuanian, in which the relationships between parts of speech and their roles in a sentence are expressed by numerous flexions. There are two grammatical genders in Samogitian -- masculine. Relics of historical neuter are fully extinct while in standard Lithuanian some isolated forms remain; those forms are replaced by masculine ones in Samogitian. Samogitian stress is mobile but retracted at the end of words, is characterised by pitch accent. Samogitian has a broken tone like the Danish languages; the circumflex of standard Lithuanian is replaced by an acute tone in Samogitian. It has three adjective declensions. Noun declensions are different from standard Lithuanian. There are only two verb conjugations. All verbs have present, past iterative and future tenses of the indicative mood and imperative moods and infinitive; the formation of past iterative is different from standard Lithuanian.
There are three numbers in Samogitian: singular and dual. Dual is extinct in standard Lithuanian; the third person of all three numbers is common. Samogitian as the standard Lithuanian has a rich system of participles, which are derived from all tenses with distinct active and passive forms, several gerund forms. Nouns and other declinable words are declined in eight cases: nominative, dative, instrumental, locative and illative; the earliest writings in Samogitian dialect appear in the 19th century. Famous authors writing in Samogitian: Silvestras Teofilis Valiūnas and his heroic poem “Biruta”, first printed in 1829. “Biruta” became a hymn of Lithuanian student emigrants in the 19th century. Simonas Stanevičius with his famous book “Šešės pasakas” printed in 1829. Simonas Daukantas, he was the first Lithuanian historian writing in Lithuanian, his famous book – “Būds Senovės Lietuviu Kalnienu ir Zamaitiu” was printed in 1854. Motiejus Valančius and one of his books “Palangos Juzė”, printed in 1869.
There are no written grammar books in Samogitian because it is considered to be a dialect of Lithuanian, but there were some attempts to standardise its written form. Among those who have tried ar
Pe̍h-ōe-jī is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min Chinese Taiwanese Hokkien and Amoy Hokkien. Developed by Western missionaries working among the Chinese diaspora in Southeast Asia in the 19th century and refined by missionaries working in Xiamen and Tainan, it uses a modified Latin alphabet and some diacritics to represent the spoken language. After initial success in Fujian, POJ became most widespread in Taiwan and, in the mid-20th century, there were over 100,000 people literate in POJ. A large amount of printed material and secular, has been produced in the script, including Taiwan's first newspaper, the Taiwan Church News. During Taiwan under Japanese rule, the use of Pe̍h-ōe-jī was suppressed and it faced further countermeasures during the Kuomintang martial law period. In Fujian, use declined after the establishment of the People's Republic of China and in the early 21st century the system was not in general use there. Taiwanese Christians, non-native learners of Southern Min, native-speaker enthusiasts in Taiwan are among those that continue to use Pe̍h-ōe-jī.
Full native computer support was developed in 2004, users can now call on fonts, input methods, extensive online dictionaries. Rival writing systems have evolved, there is ongoing debate within the Taiwanese mother tongue movement as to which system should be used. Versions of pe̍h-ōe-jī have been devised for other Chinese varieties, including Hakka and Teochew Southern Min. In the 2006, the Taiwanese Romanization System was developed based on pe̍h-ōe-jī for official use to write Hokkien phonetically; the name pe̍h-ōe-jī means "vernacular writing", written characters representing everyday spoken language. The name vernacular writing could be applied to many kinds of writing and character-based, but the term pe̍h-ōe-jī is restricted to the Southern Min romanization system developed by Presbyterian missionaries in the 19th century; the missionaries who invented and refined the system used, instead of the name pe̍h-ōe-jī, various other terms, such as "Romanized Amoy Vernacular" and "Romanized Amoy Colloquial."
The origins of the system and its extensive use in the Christian community have led to it being known by some modern writers as "Church Romanization" and is abbreviated in POJ itself to Kàu-lô. There is some debate on. Objections to "pe̍h-ōe-jī" are that it can refer to more than one system and that both literary and colloquial register Southern Min appear in the system and so describing it as "vernacular" writing might be inaccurate. Objections to "Church Romanization" are that some secular writing use it. One commentator observes that POJ "today is disassociated from its former religious purposes." The term "romanization" is disliked by some, who see it as belittling the status of pe̍h-ōe-jī by identifying it as a supplementary phonetic system instead of a fully-fledged orthography. Sources disagree on which of the two is more used; the history of Peh-oe-ji has been influenced by official attitudes towards the Southern Min vernaculars and the Christian organizations that propagated it. Early documents point to the purpose of the creation of POJ as being pedagogical in nature allied to educating Christian converts.
The first people to use a romanized script to write Southern Min were Spanish missionaries in Manila in the 16th century. However, it was used as a teaching aid for Spanish learners of Southern Min, seems not to have had any influence on the development of pe̍h-ōe-jī. In the early 19th century, China was closed to Christian missionaries, who instead proselytized to overseas Chinese communities in South East Asia; the earliest origins of the system are found in a small vocabulary first printed in 1820 by Walter Henry Medhurst, who went on to publish the Dictionary of the Hok-këèn Dialect of the Chinese Language, According to the Reading and Colloquial Idioms in 1832. This dictionary represents the first major reference work in POJ, although the romanization within was quite different from the modern system, has been dubbed Early Church Romanization by one scholar of the subject. Medhurst, stationed in Malacca, was influenced by Robert Morrison's romanization of Mandarin Chinese, but had to innovate in several areas to reflect major differences between Mandarin and Southern Min.
Several important developments occurred in Medhurst's work the application of consistent tone markings. Medhurst was convinced that accurate representation and reproduction of the tonal structure of Southern Min was vital to comprehension: Respecting these tones of the Chinese language, some difference of opinion has been obtained, while some have considered them of first importance, others have paid them little or no intention; the author inclines decidedly to the former opinion. The system expounded by Medhurst influenced dictionary compilers with regard to tonal notation and initials, but both his complicated vowel system and his emphasis on the literary register of Southern Min were dropped by writers. Following on from Medhurst's work, Samuel Wells Williams became the chief proponent of major changes in the orthography devised by Morrison and ada
Dutch Low Saxon
Dutch Low Saxon are the Low Saxon dialects that are spoken in the northeastern Netherlands and are written there with local, unstandardised orthographies based on Standard Dutch orthography. The UNESCO Atlas of endangered languages lists the language as vulnerable. Between 1995 and 2011 the numbers of speakers of parents dropped from 34% in 1995 to 15% in 2011. Numbers of speakers of their children dropped in the same period from 8% to 2%; the classification of Dutch Low Saxon is not unanimous. From a diachronic point of view, the Dutch Low Saxon dialects are the West Low German dialects native to areas in the Netherlands, as opposed to areas beyond the national border with Germany; some Dutch Low Saxon dialects like Tweants show features of Westphalian, a West Low German dialect spoken in adjacent Northern Germany. From a synchronic point of view, some linguists classify Dutch Low Saxon as a variety of Dutch; as a practical matter, Dutch Low Saxon, since the 17th century, has been influenced by Standard Dutch, but the Low Saxon dialects in Germany are influenced by Standard German.
Recent studies have, shown that mutual intelligibility is not impaired and that the basis remains the same. Shortly after the Second World War, linguists claimed that speaking a dialect other than the standard language would impair children's learning abilities. In combination with a condescending attitude by the upper classes of Dutch society and the media towards speakers of Low Saxon varieties, that goaded many parents to stop passing the language on to their children, it brought about a general opinion among speakers of Low Saxon that having the slightest accent, in Dutch, would reduce job opportunities and social status. Throughout the 1960s, the language decline inspired many to form dialect preservation circles and groups, such as the Tweants Kreenk vuur de Twentse Sproake or the Drèents Huus van de Taol. Many of them were interested in preserving rather than promoting the language; the prevailing tone was one of nostalgia. Their focus was on preserving cultural traits considered typical to speakers of the language, such as rural life and traditional practices and costumes.
That confirmed many of the existing stereotypes about speakers of the language. Another tone was rather literary in nature. Though well-intended, it caused more estrangement with younger generations. At the same time, knowledge of and appreciation for related varieties was poor, which stifled cooperation between most of the dialect preservation groups. Instead of forming an organisation to stand together and help one another to improve the status for all the different varieties, fiery discussions arose about whether the sound of /ɒ/ should be written as either'oa' or'ao'; that resulted in no nationwide coordination. Other attempts to unite the different dialect circles were met with cynicism; the conception prevailed. In 1975, the rock'n' roll band Normaal boldly shook all perceptions of its speakers; until Low Saxon was restricted to traditional folklore music. Normaal denounced all Dutch disdain, praised farmers and local farm life and boldly used Achterhooks Low Saxon, voicing the opinion and feelings of many Dutchmen of non-Dutch-speaking origin.
Their hit song "Oerend Hard", a song about two bikers who lose their lives in an accident, took the charts by storm, it is now regarded a true evergreen of Dutch music. It garnered them a large fan base in non-Low Saxon areas, such as Fryslân and Limburg, they inspired many other young rock'n' roll artists to sing in Low Saxon, who now form a subgenre of their own in the Dutch music industry, becoming aware of the genres commercial potential. In 1996, Dutch Low Saxon was added to the European Charter for Minority Languages. Dutch provinces now receive minor funds for promoting the use of Low Saxon. A general rise in regional pride and appreciation for the Low Saxon identity made the earlier disdainful attitude towards Low Saxon seem to have subsided somewhat. Low Saxon is being used in popular culture and local politics; the Tweants municipality of Rijssen-Holten, for example, has adopted a bilingual status for their town hall desks, customers may opt for Dutch or Low Saxon help. In 2012, a radio presenter for national broadcasting station 3FM, Michiel Veenstra from Almelo, promised to present in Tweants for an hour if a Tweants song received more than €10,000 in the annual fundraising campaign Het Glazen Huis.
As the song received more than €17,000, Veenstra kept his promise. An increasing number of local political parties have used Low Saxon in their 2014 electoral campaigns. In 2014, a Facebook page called "Tukkers be like" gained more than 18,000 followers within a week; the page uses Twents cultural expressions in Twents. The idea of the page was based on the US Internet meme "Bitches be like", which gained enormous popularity in 2013, inspired many to create their own versions; the meme presents an image of a certain situation, to which a certain group would respond in a typical way. Dutch Low Saxon has long been removed from schools. People of older generations may relate numerous accounts of their childhood in which contemporaries were afraid to go to school for fear of being reprimanded, or purposely ignored, for not speaking Dutch; the similarities between the languages made Low Saxon be regarded a dialect
The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It is known for participating in the Wikimedia movement, it hosts sites like Wikipedia. The foundation was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sibling projects through non-profit means; as of 2017, the foundation employs over 300 people, with annual revenues in excess of US$109.9 million. María Sefidari is chair of the board. Katherine Maher has been the executive director since March 2016; the Wikimedia Foundation has the stated goal of developing and maintaining open content, wiki-based projects and providing the full contents of those projects to the public free of charge. Another main objective of the Wikimedia Foundation is political advocacy; the Wikimedia Foundation was granted section 501 status by the U. S. Internal Revenue Code as a public charity in 2005, its National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities code is B60. The foundation's by-laws declare a statement of purpose of collecting and developing educational content and to disseminate it and globally.
In 2001, Jimmy Wales, an Internet entrepreneur, Larry Sanger, an online community organizer and philosophy professor, founded Wikipedia as an Internet encyclopedia to supplement Nupedia. The project was funded by Bomis, Jimmy Wales's for-profit business; as Wikipedia's popularity increased, revenues to fund the project stalled. Since Wikipedia was depleting Bomis's resources and Sanger thought of a charity model to fund the project; the Wikimedia Foundation was incorporated in Florida on June 20, 2003. It applied to the United States Patent and Trademark Office to trademark Wikipedia on September 14, 2004; the mark was granted registration status on January 10, 2006. Trademark protection was accorded by Japan on December 16, 2004, and, in the European Union, on January 20, 2005. There were plans to license the use of the Wikipedia trademark for some products, such as books or DVDs; the name "Wikimedia", a compound of wiki and media, was coined by American author Sheldon Rampton in a post to the English mailing list in March 2003, three months after Wiktionary became the second wiki-based project hosted on Wales' platform.
In April 2005, the U. S. Internal Revenue Service approved the foundation as an educational foundation in the category "Adult, Continuing education", meaning all contributions to the foundation are tax-deductible for U. S. federal income tax purposes. On December 11, 2006, the foundation's board noted that the corporation could not become the membership organization planned but never implemented due to an inability to meet the registration requirements of Florida statutory law. Accordingly, the by-laws were amended to remove all reference to membership activities; the decision to change the bylaws was passed by the board unanimously. On September 25, 2007, the foundation's board gave notice that the operations would be moving to the San Francisco Bay Area. Major considerations cited for choosing San Francisco were proximity to like-minded organizations and potential partners, a better talent pool, as well as cheaper and more convenient international travel than is available from St. Petersburg, Florida.
The move from Florida was completed by 31 January 2008 with the headquarters on Stillman Street in San Francisco. In 2009, the Wikimedia Foundation's headquarters moved to New Montgomery Street. Lila Tretikov was appointed executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation in May 2014, she resigned in March 2016. Former chief communications officer Katherine Maher was appointed the interim executive director, a position made permanent in June 2016. In October 2017, the headquarters moved to One Montgomery Tower. Content on most Wikimedia Foundation websites is licensed for redistribution under v3.0 of the Attribution and Share-alike Creative Commons licenses. This content is sourced from contributing volunteers and from resources with few or no copyright restrictions, such as copyleft material and works in the public domain. In addition to Wikipedia, the foundation operates eleven other wikis that follow the free content model with their main goal being the dissemination of knowledge; these include, by launch date: Several additional projects exist to provide infrastructure or coordination of the free knowledge projects.
For instance, Outreach gives guidelines for best practices on encouraging the use of Wikimedia sites. These include: Wikimedia movement affiliates are independent, but formally recognized, groups of people intended to work together to support and contribute to the Wikimedia movement; the Wikimedia Foundation's Board of Trustees has approved three active models for movement affiliates: chapters, thematic organizations, user groups. Movement affiliates are intended to organize and engage in activities to support and contribute to the Wikimedia movement, such as regional conferences, edit-a-thons, public relations, public policy advocacy, GLAM engagement, Wikimania. Recognition of a chapter and thematic organization is approved by the foundation's board. Recommendations on recognition of chapters and thematic organizations are made to the foundation's board by an Affiliations Committee, composed of Wikimedia community volunteers; the Affiliations Committee approves the recognition of individual user groups.
While movement affiliates are formally recognized by the Wikimedia Foundation, they are independent of the Wikimedia Foundation, with no legal control of nor responsibility for the Wikimedia projects. The foundation began recognizing chapters in 2004. In 2010, development on additional models began. In 2012, the foundation approved, fina