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UFC on Fox: Lawler vs. Brown

UFC on Fox: Lawler vs. Brown was a mixed martial arts event held on July 26, 2014, at SAP Center in San Jose, California; the event was headlined by a welterweight bout between Robbie Lawler. UFC president Dana White subsequently announced that the winner of the main event would receive a title shot against UFC welterweight champion Johny Hendricks. Viscardi Andrade was scheduled to face Andreas Ståhl at the event. However, Andrade was replaced on the card by promotional newcomer Gilbert Burns. Michael Johnson was expected to face Josh Thomson at the event. However, on July 11, Johnson was replaced by Bobby Green. Due to programming needs, the televised preliminaries were shifted to Fox instead of being aired on Fox Sports 1 or Fox Sports 2. During weigh-ins, both Brown and Lima missed weight for their fights against Lawler and Jędrzejczyk, respectively, they were supposed to be fined 20% of their salary, but both fighters were not fined due to a commission error. Brown weighed in at 172.5 lbs but was not allowed by the California State Athletic Commission to weigh in again, while Lima came in at 117 lbs and only dropped to 116.5 lbs and she was denied another try.

Both remained eligible for the UFC's post-fight bonus awards. This event marks the debuts of former UFC Strawweight Champion Joanna Jędrzejczyk and UFC Featherweight Championship Challenger Brian Ortega; the following fighters were awarded $50,000 bonuses: Fight of the Night: Robbie Lawler vs. Matt Brown Performance of the Night: Anthony Johnson and Dennis Bermudez The following is the reported payout to the fighters as reported to the California State Athletic Commission, it does not include sponsor money or "locker room" bonuses given by the UFC and do not include the UFC's traditional "fight night" bonuses. Robbie Lawler: $210,000 def. Matt Brown: $46,000 Anthony Johnson: $106,000 def. Antônio Rogério Nogueira: $114,000 Dennis Bermudez: $48,000 def. Clay Guida: $50,000 Bobby Green: $42,000 def. Josh Thomson: $84,000 Jorge Masvidal: $84,000 def. Daron Cruickshank: $12,000 Patrick Cummins: $20,000 def. Kyle Kingsbury: $15,000 Tim Means: $20,000 def. Hernani Perpétuo: $8,000 Brian Ortega: $16,000 def.

Mike De La Torre: $8,000 Tiago Trator: $16,000 def. Akbarh Arreola: $8,000 Gilbert Burns: $16,000 def. Andreas Ståhl: $8,000 Joanna Jędrzejczyk: $16,000 def. Juliana Lima: $8,000 Noad Lahat: $16,000 def. Steven Siler: $15,000 List of UFC events 2014 in UFC

P-nuclei

P-nuclei are certain proton-rich occurring isotopes of some elements between selenium and mercury inclusive which cannot be produced in either the s- or the r-process. The classical, ground-breaking works of Burbidge, Burbidge and Hoyle and of A. G. W. Cameron showed how the majority of occurring nuclides beyond the element iron can be made in two kinds of neutron capture processes, the s- and the r-process; some proton-rich nuclides found in nature are not reached in these processes and therefore at least one additional process is required to synthesize them. These nuclei are called p-nuclei. Since the definition of the p-nuclei depends on the current knowledge of the s- and r-process, the original list of 35 p-nuclei may be modified over the years, as indicated in the Table below. For example, it is recognized today that the abundances of 152Gd and 164Er contain at least strong contributions from the s-process; this seems to apply to those of 113In and 115Sn, which additionally could be made in the r-process in small amounts.

The long-lived radionuclides 92Nb, 97Tc, 98Tc and 146Sm are not among the classically defined p-nuclei as they no longer occur on Earth. By the above definition, they are p-nuclei because they cannot be made in either the s- or the r-process. From the discovery of their decay products in presolar grains it can be inferred that at least 92Nb and 146Sm were present in the solar nebula; this offers the possibility to estimate the time since the last production of these p-nuclei before the formation of the solar system.p-nuclei are rare. Those isotopes of an element which are p-nuclei are less abundant by factors of ten to one thousand than the other isotopes of the same element; the abundances of p-nuclei can only be determined in geochemical investigations and by analysis of meteoritic material and presolar grains. They cannot be identified in stellar spectra. Therefore, the knowledge of p-abundances is restricted to those of the Solar System and it is unknown whether the solar abundances of p-nuclei are typical for the Milky Way.

The astrophysical production of p-nuclei is not understood yet. The favored γ-process in core-collapse supernovae cannot produce all p-nuclei in sufficient amounts, according to current computer simulations; this is why additional production mechanisms and astrophysical sites are under investigation, as outlined below. It is conceivable that there is not just a single process responsible for all p-nuclei but that different processes in a number of astrophysical sites produce certain ranges of p-nuclei. In the search for the relevant processes creating p-nuclei, the usual way is to identify the possible production mechanisms and to investigate their possible realization in various astrophysical sites; the same logic is applied in the discussion below. In principle, there are two ways to produce proton-rich nuclides: by successively adding protons to a nuclide (these are nuclear reactions of type or by removing neutrons from a nucleus through sequences of photodisintegrations of type. Under conditions encountered in astrophysical environments it is difficult to obtain p-nuclei through proton captures because the Coulomb barrier of a nucleus increases with increasing proton number.

A proton requires more energy to be incorporated into an atomic nucleus when the Coulomb barrier is higher. The available average energy of the protons is determined by the temperature of the stellar plasma. Increasing the temperature, however speeds up the photodisintegrations which counteract the captures; the only alternative avoiding this would be to have a large number of protons available so that the effective number of captures per second is large at low temperature. In extreme cases this leads to the synthesis of short-lived radionuclides which decay to stable nuclides only after the captures cease. Appropriate combinations of temperature and proton density of a stellar plasma have to be explored in the search of possible production mechanisms for p-nuclei. Further parameters are the time available for the nuclear processes, number and type of present nuclides. In a p-process it is suggested that p-nuclei were made through a few proton captures on stable nuclides; the seed nuclei originate from the s- and r-process and are present in the stellar plasma.

As outlined above, there are serious difficulties explaining all p-nuclei through such a process although it was suggested to achieve this. It was shown that the required conditions are not reached in stars or stellar explosions. Based on its historical meaning, the term p-process is sometimes sloppily used for any process synthesizing p-nuclei when no proton captures are involved. P-Nuclei can be obtained by photodisintegration of s-process and r-process nuclei. At temperatures around 2–3 gigakelvins and short process time of a few seconds photodisintegration of the pre-existing nuclei will remain small, just enough to produce the required tiny abundances of p-nuclei; this is called γ-process because the photodisintegration proceeds by nuclear reactions of the types, which are caused by energetic photons. If a sufficiently intensive source of neutrinos is available, nuclear reactions can directly produce certain nuclides, for example 7Li, 11B, 19F, 138La in core-collapse supernovae. In a p-process protons are added to weakly radioactive atomic nuclei.

If there is a high proton density in the stellar plasma short-lived radionuclides can capture one or more protons