Vergina is a small town in northern Greece, part of Veroia municipality in Imathia, Central Macedonia. Vergina was established in 1922 in the aftermath of the population exchanges after the Treaty of Lausanne and was a separate municipality until 2011, when it was merged with Veroia under the Kallikratis Plan, it is now a municipal unit within Veroia, with an area 69.047 km2. Vergina is best known as the first capital of Macedon, it was there when in 336 BC Philip II was assassinated in the theatre and Alexander the Great was proclaimed king. The ancient site was discovered in 1976 and excavated under the leadership of archaeologist Manolis Andronikos; the excavation unearthed the burial sites of many kings of Macedon, including the tomb of Philip II, father of Alexander the Great, unlike so many other tombs, had not been disturbed or looted. It is the site of an extensive royal palace; the archaeological museum of Vergina was built to house all the artifacts found at the site and is one of the most important museums in Greece.
Aigai has been awarded UNESCO World Heritage Site status as "an exceptional testimony to a significant development in European civilization, at the transition from classical city-state to the imperial structure of the Hellenistic and Roman periods". The existence of an early Macedonian fortress named Aegae is reported by Justin, was long identified as Edessa; the discovery in 1976 of substantial remains near Vergina, just east of the Haliacmon, shifted the scholarly consensus to the effect that Aegae is to be identified with this site. Ancient sources give conflicting accounts of the origins of the Argead dynasty. Alexander I is the first historic figure and, based on the line of succession, the beginnings of the Macedonian dynasty have been traditionally dated to 750 BC. Herodotus says that the Argead dynasty was an ancient Greek royal house led by Perdiccas I who fled from Argos, in 650 BC. Aigai is the name of several ancient cities, derived from the name of a legendary founder, but etymologized as "city of goats" by Diodorus Siculus, who reports it was named so by Perdiccas I, advised by the Pythian priestess to build the capital city of his kingdom where goats led him.
From archaeology it now seems certain that Aigai developed and remained until the end an organised collection of villages spatially representing the aristocratic structure of tribes centred on the power of the king. Indeed, Aigai never became most of its inhabitants lived in surrounding villages. From Aigai the Macedonians spread to the central part of Macedonia and displaced the local population of Pierians. From 513 to 480 BC Aigai was part of the Persian Empire, but Amyntas I managed to maintain its relative independence, avoid Satrapy and extend its possessions; the city wall was built in the 5th century by Perdiccas II. At the end of the 5th century Archelaus I brought to his court artists and philosophers from all over the Greek world: it was, for example, at Aigai that Euripides wrote and presented his last tragedies. At the beginning of the 4th century BC, Archelaus transferred the Macedonian capital north-east to Pella on the central Macedonian plain. Aegae retained its role as the sacred city of the Macedonian kingdom, the site of the traditional cult centres, a royal palace and the royal tombs.
For this reason it was here that Philip II was attending the wedding of his daughter Cleopatra to King Alexander of Epirus when he was murdered by one of his bodyguard in the theatre. His was the most lavish funeral ceremony of historic times held in Greece. Laid on an elaborate gold and ivory deathbed wearing his precious golden oak wreath, the king was surrendered, like a new Hercules, to the funeral pyre; the bitter struggles between the heirs of Alexander in the 3rd century adversely affected the city. After the overthrow of the Macedonian kingdom by the Romans in 168 BC, both old and new capitals were destroyed, the walls pulled down and all buildings burned. In the 1st century AD, a landslide destroyed what had been rebuilt (excavations establish that parts were still inhabited at that time. Between the 2nd and 5th centuries AD the population moved down from the foothills of the Pierian range to the plain, all that remained was a small settlement whose name alone Palatitsia indicated its former importance.
The modern settlement of Vergina was established in 1922, between the two pre-existing villages of Kutleš and Barbeš part of the Ottoman Beylik of Palatitsia. The town was settled in the course of the population exchange between Greece and Turkey following the Treaty of Lausanne, by Greek families from Bulgaria and Asia Minor; the name Vergina was a suggestion by the metropolitan of Veroia, chosen for a legendary queen Vergina, said to have ruled somewhere north of the Haliacmon and to have had her summer palace near Palatitsia. Vergina was a separate municipality from 1922 until 2011; the population of Vergina municipality as of 2011 was 2,464. Archaeologists were interested in the burial mounds around Vergina as early as the 1850s, supposing that the site of Aigai was in the vicinity. Excavations began in 1861 under the French archaeologist Leon Heuzey, sponsored by Napoleon III. Parts of a large building, considered to be one of the palaces of Antigonus III Doson destroyed by fire, were discovered near Palatitsa, which preserved the memory of a palace in its modern
Epidaurus was a small city in ancient Greece, on the Argolid Peninsula at the Saronic Gulf. Two modern towns bear the name Epidavros:Palaia Epidavros and Nea Epidavros. Since 2010 they belong to the new municipality of part of the regional unit of Argolis; the seat of the municipality is the town Lygourio. Epidaurus was independent of Argos and not included in Argolis until the time of the Romans. With its supporting territory, it formed. Reputed to be founded by or named for the Argolid Epidaurus, to be the birthplace of Apollo's son Asclepius the healer, Epidaurus was known for its sanctuary situated about five miles from the town, as well as its theater, once again in use today; the cult of Asclepius at Epidaurus is attested in the 6th century BC, when the older hill-top sanctuary of Apollo Maleatas was no longer spacious enough. The asclepeion at Epidaurus was the most celebrated healing center of the Classical world, the place where ill people went in the hope of being cured. To find out the right cure for their ailments, they spent a night in the enkoimeteria, a big sleeping hall.
In their dreams, the god himself would advise them. Within the sanctuary there was a guest house with 160 guestrooms. There are mineral springs in the vicinity, which may have been used in healing. Asclepius, the most important healer god of antiquity, brought prosperity to the sanctuary, which in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC embarked on an ambitious building program for enlarging and reconstruction of monumental buildings. Fame and prosperity continued throughout the Hellenistic period. After the destruction of Corinth in 146 BC Lucius Mummius visited the sanctuary and left two dedications there. In 87 BC the sanctuary was looted by the Roman general Sulla. In 74 BC a Roman garrison under Marcus Antonius Creticus had been installed in the city causing a lack of grain. Still, before 67 BC the sanctuary was plundered by pirates. In the 2nd century AD the sanctuary enjoyed a new upsurge under the Romans, but in AD 395 the Goths raided the sanctuary. After the introduction of Christianity and the silencing of the oracles, the sanctuary at Epidaurus was still known as late as the mid 5th century as a Christian healing center.
The prosperity brought by the asclepeion enabled Epidaurus to construct civic monuments, including the huge theatre that delighted Pausanias for its symmetry and beauty, used again today for dramatic performances, the ceremonial hestiatoreion, a palaestra. The ancient theatre of Epidaurus was designed by Polykleitos the Younger in the 4th century BC; the original 34 rows were extended in Roman times by another 21 rows. As is usual for Greek theatres, the view on a lush landscape behind the skênê is an integral part of the theatre itself and is not to be obscured, it seats up to 14,000 people. The theatre is admired for its exceptional acoustics, which permit perfect intelligibility of unamplified spoken words from the proscenium or skēnē to all 14,000 spectators, regardless of their seating. Famously, tour guides have their groups scattered in the stands and show them how they can hear the sound of a match struck at center-stage. A 2007 study by Nico F. Declercq and Cindy Dekeyser of the Georgia Institute of Technology indicates that the astonishing acoustic properties may be the result of the advanced design: the rows of limestone seats filter out low-frequency sounds, such as the murmur of the crowd, amplify the high-frequency sounds of the stage.
The municipality Epidavros was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 2 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Asklipieio EpidavrosThe municipality has an area of 340.442 km2, the municipal unit 160.604 km2. Arafat, K. W.. "N. Yalouris: Die Skulpturen des Asklepiostempels in Epidauros. Pp. 92. Munich: Hirmer, 1992. Cased"; the Classical Review. 45: 197–198. Doi:10.1017/S0009840X00293244. ISSN 1464-3561. Retrieved 14 August 2018. Burford, Alison. 1969. The Greek Temple Builders At Epidauros: A Social and Economic Study of Building In the Asklepian Sanctuary, During the Fourth and Early Third Centuries B. C. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Fossum, Andrew. "Harmony in the Theatre at Epidauros". American Journal of Archaeology. 30: 70–75. Doi:10.2307/497923. JSTOR 497923. Hartigan, Karelisa V. 2009. Performance and Cure: Drama and Healing in Ancient Greece and Contemporary America. Classical Interfaces. London: Duckworth. Holland, Leicester B. 1948. Thymele: Recherches sur la of Archaeology, 85, no.
3, pp. 387–400. Holland, Leicester B.. "Review of Thymele. Recherches sur la signification et la destination des monuments circulaires dans l'architecture religieuse de la Grèce". American Journal of Archaeology. 52: 307–310. Doi:10.2307/500631. JSTOR 500631. Lembidaki, Evi. 2002. "Three Sacred Buildings in the Asklepieion at Epidauros: New Evidence from Recent Archaeological Research." In Peloponnesian Sanctuaries and Cults: Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium at the Swedish Institute at Athens, 11-13 June 1994. Edited by Robin Hägg. Stockholm: Svenska Institutet i Athen, 123-136. LiDonnici, Lynn R. 1995. The Epidaurian Miracle Inscriptions: Text and Commentary. Atlanta: Scholars. Melfi, Milena. Galli, Marco, ed. "Religion and Communication in the Sanctuaries of Early-Roman Greece: Epidauros and Athens". Roman Power and Greek Sanctuaries: Forms of Interaction and Communication. Tripodes. Athens: Scuola Archeologica Italiana di Atene. 14: 143–158. Miller, Stephen G. Robert C. Knapp, David Chamberlain.
2001. Excavations at Nemea II: The Early Hellenistic Stad
The Byzantine Empire referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic and military force in Europe. Both the terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empire's official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed.
Under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use in place of Latin. Thus, although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity; the borders of the empire evolved over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Justinian I, the empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the Roman western Mediterranean coast, including North Africa and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries; the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 exhausted the empire's resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century, when it lost its richest provinces and Syria, to the Arab caliphate. During the Macedonian dynasty, the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.
This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia. The empire recovered during the Komnenian restoration, by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. However, it was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the empire governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence, its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 ended the Byzantine Empire; the last of the imperial Byzantine successor states, the Empire of Trebizond, would be conquered by the Ottomans eight years in the 1461 Siege of Trebizond. The first use of the term "Byzantine" to label the years of the Roman Empire was in 1557, when the German historian Hieronymus Wolf published his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ, a collection of historical sources.
The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts; the publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, in 1680 of Du Cange's Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of "Byzantine" among French authors, such as Montesquieu. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world; the Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the "Roman Empire", the "Empire of the Romans", "Romania", the "Roman Republic", as "Rhōmais". The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and as late as the 19th century Greeks referred to Modern Greek as Romaiika "Romaic." After 1204 when the Byzantine Empire was confined to its purely Greek provinces the term'Hellenes' was used instead. While the Byzantine Empire had a multi-ethnic character during most of its history and preserved Romano-Hellenistic traditions, it became identified by its western and northern contemporaries with its predominant Greek element.
The occasional use of the term "Empire of the Greeks" in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Emperor as Imperator Graecorum were used to separate it from the prestige of the Roman Empire within the new kingdoms of the West. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more straightforwardly seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known as Rûm; the name millet-i Rûm, or "Roman nation," was used by the Ottomans through the 20th century to refer to the former subjects of the Byzantine Empire
Mycenae is an archaeological site near Mykines in Argolis, north-eastern Peloponnese, Greece. It is located about 120 kilometres south-west of Athens; the site is 19 kilometres inland from the Saronic Gulf and built upon a hill rising 900 feet above sea level. In the second millennium BC, Mycenae was one of the major centres of Greek civilization, a military stronghold which dominated much of southern Greece, the Cyclades and parts of southwest Anatolia; the period of Greek history from about 1600 BC to about 1100 BC is called Mycenaean in reference to Mycenae. At its peak in 1350 BC, the citadel and lower town had a population of 30,000 and an area of 32 hectares; the first correct identification of Mycenae in modern literature was during a survey conducted by Francesco Grimani, commissioned by the Provveditore Generale of the Kingdom of the Morea in 1700, who used Pausanias's description of the Lion Gate to identify the ruins of Mycenae. Although the citadel was built by Greeks, the name Mukanai is thought not to be Greek but rather one of the many pre-Greek place names inherited by the immigrant Greeks.
Legend has it. Thus, Pausanias ascribes the name to the legendary founder Perseus, said to have named it either after the cap of the sheath of his sword, or after a mushroom he had plucked on the site; the earliest written form of the name is Mykēnē, found in Homer. The reconstructed Mycenaean Greek name of the site is; the change of ā to ē in more recent versions of the name is the result of a well-known sound change in Attic-Ionic. Mycenae, an acropolis site, was built on a hill 900 feet above sea level, some 19 kilometres inland from the Gulf of Argolis. Situated in the north-east corner of the Argive plain, it overlooked the whole area and was ideally positioned to be a centre of power as it commanded all easy routes to the Isthmus of Corinth. Besides its strong defensive and strategic position, it had good farmland and an adequate water supply. There are only faint traces of Neolithic settlement on the site although it was continuously occupied from the Early Neolithic through the Early Helladic and Middle Helladic periods.
EN Rainbow Ware constitutes the earliest ceramic evidence discovered so far. The population had grown by the Middle Helladic; as elsewhere, a dominant Cretan influence prevailed from c. 1600, the first evidence of this coming from the shaft graves discovered in 1876 by Heinrich Schliemann. Schliemann's shaft graves came to be known as Circle A to distinguish them from the Circle B graves which were found at a date, although Circle B are the earlier graves dated c. 1650 to c. 1550 and within MHIII. Circle A is dated to the sixteenth century BC including the transition from Middle to Late Helladic IA; the contents of Circle B are less wealthy than those of Circle A. Pottery material spanning the entire Early Helladic was discovered 1877–78 by Panagiotis Stamatakis at a low depth in the sixth shaft grave in Circle A. Further EH and MH material was found beneath the walls and floors of the palace, on the summit of the acropolis, outside the Lion Gate in the area of the ancient cemetery. An EH–MH settlement was discovered near a fresh-water well on top of the Kalkani hill south-west of the acropolis.
The first burials in pits or cist graves manifest in MHII on the west slope of the acropolis, at least enclosed by the earliest circuit wall. In the absence of documents and objects that can be dated, events at Mycenae can only be dated within the constraints of Helladic chronology which relies on categorisation of stratified material objects pottery, within an agreed historical framework. Mycenae developed into a major power during LHI and is believed to have become the main centre of Aegean civilisation through the fifteenth century to the extent that the two hundred years from c. 1400 BC to c. 1200 BC are known as the Mycenaean Age. The Minoan hegemony was ended c. 1450 and there is evidence that Knossos was occupied by Mycenaeans until it too was destroyed c. 1370 BC. From on, Mycenaean expansion throughout the Aegean was unhindered until the massive disruption of society in the first half of the eleventh century which ended Mycenaean civilisation and culminated in the destruction of Mycenae itself c. 1150 BC.
Outside the partial circuit wall, Grave Circle B, named for its enclosing wall, contained ten cist graves in Middle Helladic style and several shaft graves, sunk more with interments resting in cists. Richer grave goods mark the burials as regal. Mounds over the top contained broken drinking vessels and bones from a repast, testifying to a more than ordinary farewell. Stelae surmounted the mounds. A walled enclosure, Grave Circle A, included six more shaft graves, with nine female, eight male, two juvenile interments. Grave goods were more costly than in Circle B; the presence of engraved and inlaid swords and daggers, with spear points and arrowheads, leave little doubt that warrior chieftains and their families were buried here. Some art objects obtained from the graves are the Silver Siege Rhyton, the Mask of Agamemnon, the Cup of Nestor, weapons both votive and practical. Alan Wace divided the nine tholos tombs of Mycenae into three groups of three, each based on architecture, his earliest – the Cyclopean Tomb, E
Delphi also called Pytho, is famous as the ancient sanctuary that grew rich as the seat of Pythia, the oracle, consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The ancient Greeks considered the centre of the world to be in Delphi, marked by the stone monument known as the omphalos, it occupies an impressive site on the south-western slope of Mount Parnassus, overlooking the coastal plain to the south and the valley of Phocis. It is now an extensive archaeological site with a small modern town of the same name nearby, it is recognised by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in having had a phenomenal influence in the ancient world, as evidenced by the rich monuments built there by most of the important ancient Greek city-states, demonstrating their fundamental Hellenic unity. Delphi is located in upper central Greece, on multiple plateaux along the slope of Mount Parnassus, includes the Sanctuary of Apollo, the site of the ancient Oracle; this semicircular spur is known as Phaedriades, overlooks the Pleistos Valley.
In myths dating to the classical period of Ancient Greece, Zeus determined the site of Delphi when he sought to find the centre of his "Grandmother Earth". He sent two eagles flying from the eastern and western extremities, the path of the eagles crossed over Delphi where the omphalos, or navel of Gaia was found. Earlier myths include traditions that Pythia, or the Delphic oracle was the site of an important oracle in the pre-classical Greek world and, rededicated from about 800 BC, when it served as the major site during classical times for the worship of the god Apollo. Apollo was said to have slain Python, a "drako" a serpent or a dragon who lived there and protected the navel of the Earth. "Python" is claimed by some to be the original name of the site in recognition of Python which Apollo defeated. The Homeric Hymn to Delphic Apollo recalled. Others relate that it was named Pytho and that Pythia, the priestess serving as the oracle, was chosen from their ranks by a group of priestesses who officiated at the temple.
Excavation at Delphi, a post-Mycenaean settlement of the late 9th century, has uncovered artifacts increasing in volume beginning with the last quarter of the 8th century BC. Pottery and bronze as well as tripod dedications continue in a steady stream, in contrast to Olympia. Neither the range of objects nor the presence of prestigious dedications proves that Delphi was a focus of attention for a wide range of worshippers, but the large quantity of valuable goods, found in no other mainland sanctuary, encourages that view. Apollo's sacred precinct in Delphi was a panhellenic sanctuary, where every four years, starting in 586 BC athletes from all over the Greek world competed in the Pythian Games, one of the four Panhellenic Games, precursors of the Modern Olympics; the victors at Delphi were presented with a laurel crown, ceremonially cut from a tree by a boy who re-enacted the slaying of the Python. Delphi was set apart from the other games sites because it hosted the mousikos agon, musical competitions.
These Pythian Games rank second among the four stephanitic games chronologically and in importance. These games, were different from the games at Olympia in that they were not of such vast importance to the city of Delphi as the games at Olympia were to the area surrounding Olympia. Delphi would have been a renowned city. In the inner hestia of the Temple of Apollo, an eternal flame burned. After the battle of Plataea, the Greek cities extinguished their fires and brought new fire from the hearth of Greece, at Delphi; the name Delphi comes from the same root as δελφύς delphys, "womb" and may indicate archaic veneration of Gaia at the site. Apollo is connected with the site by his epithet Δελφίνιος Delphinios, "the Delphinian"; the epithet is connected with dolphins in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo, recounting the legend of how Apollo first came to Delphi in the shape of a dolphin, carrying Cretan priests on his back. The Homeric name of the oracle is Pytho. Another legend held that Apollo walked to Delphi from the north and stopped at Tempe, a city in Thessaly, to pick laurel which he considered to be a sacred plant.
In commemoration of this legend, the winners at the Pythian Games received a wreath of laurel picked in the temple. Delphi became the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and the prehistoric oracle. In Roman times, hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger and seen by Pausanias. Carved into the temple were three phrases: γνῶθι σεαυτόν and μηδὲν ἄγαν, Ἑγγύα πάρα δ'ἄτη, In antiquity, the origin of these phrases was attributed to one or more of the Seven Sages of Greece by authors such as Plato and Pausanias. Additionally, according to Plutarch's essay on the meaning of the "E at Delphi"—the only literary source for the inscription—there was inscribed at the temple a large letter E. Among other things epsilon signifies the number 5. However, ancient as well as modern scholars have doubted the legitimacy of such i
Heraion of Samos
The Heraion of Samos was a large sanctuary to the goddess Hera, in the southern region of Samos, Greece, 6 km southwest of the ancient city, in a low, marshy river basin near the sea. The Late Archaic Heraion of Samos was the first of the gigantic free-standing Ionic temples, but its predecessors at this site reached back to the Geometric Period of the 8th century BC, or earlier; the site of temple's ruins, with its sole standing column, was designated a joint UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the nearby Pythagoreion in 1992. The core myth at the heart of the cult of Hera at Samos is that of her birth. According to the local tradition, the goddess was born under a lygos tree. At the annual Samian festival called the Toneia, the "binding", the cult image of Hera was ceremonially bound with lygos branches; the tree still featured on the coinage of Samos in Roman times. Many construction phases are known, identified in part through fragments of roof tiles, the first phase dating to the 8th century BC.
The first temple, the Hekatompedos, was 100 feet long and narrow. A much larger temple was built by the architects Theodoros ca. 570-550 BC. The temple stood opposite the cult altar of Hera in her gated temenos, it was a dipteral temple, with a portico of columns two deep, which surrounded it entirely. It had a deep square-roofed pronaos in front of a closed cella. Cella and pronaos were divided into three equal aisles by two rows of columns that marched down the pronaos and through the temple; the result was that Hera was worshipped in a temple fitted within a stylized grove of columns, eight across and twenty-one deep. The columns stood on unusual torus bases; the Rhoikos temple "must have had central significance for the development of monumental Ionic architecture", Helmut Kyrieleis observes. It stood for only about a decade before it was destroyed by an earthquake. After the destruction of the "Rhoikos temple", an larger one was built 40 m to the west; this temple had the largest known floor plan of any Greek temple and is known as the "Polycrates Temple", named after a tyrant of Samos.
One of the giant statues from the Heraion survives in the Samos Archaeological Museum. Strabo described it: "As one sails towards the city... on the left is the suburb near the Heraion, the Imbrasos River, the Heraion, which consists of an ancient temple and a great shrine, which latter is now a repository of tablets. Apart from the number of the tablets placed there, there are other repositories of votive tablets and some small chapels full of ancient works of art, and the temple, open to the sky, is full of most excellent statues. Of these, three of colossal size, the work of Myron, stood upon one base. Instead, the cult image was housed in Roman imperial times in a smaller structure to the east, which remained in use until the Theodosian edicts of 391 forbade pagan observance as a part of the Persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire. A Christian church occupied the Roman site; the Heraion served as a quarry through Byzantine times, so that it was dismantled to the foundations. Little information has survived in literary sources.
Pausanias missed Samos in his Periegesis of Greece. Scattered mentions by Herodotus do not provide a satisfactory substitute. With the exception of the open-air altar and the great temple no other feature of the temenos is mentioned in a classical source; the first Westerner to visit the site was Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, commissioned by Louis XIV to travel in the East and report his findings. Tournefort visited Samos in 1704, published his drawings of the ruins as engravings. Massive siltation deposits obscured, yet protected the site from amateur tinkering in the 18th and 19th centuries. Reedbeds and thorny brakes of blackberry canes provided daunting cover, the water table, risen since Antiquity, discouraged trench-digging at the same time that it preserved wooden materials in anoxic strata, thus the first preliminary archaeological excavations were delayed until 1890-92, under the direction of P. Kavvadias and Th. Sophoulis, from Athens, the full extent of the third temple's foundations were not revealed until Theodor Wiegand's campaign of 1910-14.
Rubble demonstrated. In 1925 German archaeologists from the German Archaeological Institute at Athens began again at the site; the site has been minutely described in a series of volumes in German under the general title Samos, which were edited to a high standard, establishing a chronology against which the wide range of votive objects deposited at the Heraion from the 8th century onward can be compared. Helmut Kyrieleis and Hermann J. Kienast took charge of the excavations in 1976. Six to thirteen figurines of Isis nursing Horus have been found at the site, indicating a connection or association with Hera and Isis. Barletta, Barbara A.. The Origins of the Greek Architectural Orders. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Aegae or Aigai Aegeae or Aigeai, was a city in Emathia in ancient Macedonia, the burial-place of the Macedonian kings. The commanding and picturesque site upon which the town was built was the original centre of the Macedonians, the residence of the dynasty which sprang from the Temenid Perdiccas; the seat of government was afterwards transferred to the marshes of Pella, which lay in the maritime plain beneath the ridge through which the Lydias forces its way to the sea. But the old capital always remained the national hearth of the Macedonian race, the burial-place for their kings; the body of Alexander the Great, though by the intrigues of Ptolemy I Soter, it was taken to Memphis, was to have reposed at Aegae, – the spot where his father Philip II of Macedon fell by the hand of Pausanias of Orestis. Its site is located near the modern town of Vergina. In 1977, Greek archaeologist Manolis Andronikos started excavating the Great Tumulus at Aegae near modern Vergina, the capital and burial site of the kings of Macedon, found that two of the four tombs in the tumulus were undisturbed since antiquity.
Moreover, these two, Tomb II, contained fabulous treasures and objects of great quality and sophistication. Although there was much debate for some years, as suspected at the time of the discovery Tomb II has been shown to be that of Philip II as indicated by many features, including the greaves, one of, shaped to fit a leg with a misaligned tibia; the remains of the skull show damage to the right eye caused by the penetration of an object. A study of the bones published in 2015 indicates that Philip was buried in Tomb I, not Tomb II. On the basis of age, knee ankylosis and a hole matching the penetrating wound and lameness suffered by Philip, the authors of the study identified the remains of Tomb I in Vergina as those of Philip II. Tomb II instead was identified in the study as that of King Arrhidaeus and his wife Eurydice II; however this latter theory had been shown to be false. More recent research gives further evidence that Tomb II contains the remains of Philip II; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed..
"Aegae". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Edessa". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray