The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter, it is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 11 associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights, attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication; the broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals —underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility; this new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was indeed created in 1922.
On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the onset of World War II interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR; this was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented.
The idea of UNESCO was developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, a Preparatory Commission was established; the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General; the Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence.
As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, started in 1947; this project was followed by expert missions to other countries, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.
In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, launched a global movement to provide basic education for a
Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto (Kyoto, Uji and Otsu Cities)
The UNESCO World Heritage Site Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto encompasses 17 locations in Japan within the city of Kyoto and its immediate vicinity. The locations are in three cities: Uji in Kyoto Prefecture. Of the monuments, 13 are Buddhist temples, three are Shinto shrines, one is a castle; the properties include 38 buildings designated by the Japanese government as National Treasures, 160 properties designated as Important Cultural Properties, eight gardens designated as Special Places of Scenic Beauty, four designated as Places of Scenic Beauty. UNESCO listed the site as World Heritage in 1994. Kyoto has a substantial number of historic buildings, unlike other Japanese cities that lost buildings to foreign invasions and war. Although ravaged by wars and earthquakes during its eleven centuries as the imperial capital, Kyoto was spared from much of the destruction and danger of World War II, it was saved from the nearly universal firebombing of large cities in Japan in part to preserve it as the primary atomic bomb target.
It was removed from the atomic bomb target list by the personal intervention of Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, as Stimson wanted to save this cultural center which he knew from his honeymoon and diplomatic visits; as a result, Nagasaki was added as a target. The 17 properties of the World Heritage Site originate from a period between the 10th century and the 19th century, each is representative of the period in which it was built; the historical importance of the Kyoto region was taken into account by the UNESCO in the selection process. The table lists information about each of the 17 listed properties of the World Heritage Site listing: Name: in English and Japanese Type: Purpose of the site; the list includes 13 Buddhist temples, 3 Shinto shrines, one castle. Period: time period of significance of construction Location: the site's location and by geographic coordinates Description: brief description of the site List of World Heritage Sites in Japan Tourism in Japan Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto - UNESCO World Heritage Centre World Heritage Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto Welcome to Kyoto - World Heritage Map
Kagoshima Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyushu. The capital is the city of Kagoshima. Kagoshima Prefecture corresponds to the ancient Japanese provinces Ōsumi and Satsuma, including the northern part of the Ryukyu Islands; this region played a key role in the Meiji Restoration, the city of Kagoshima was an important naval base during Japan's 20th century wars and the home of admiral Tōgō Heihachirō. More recent incidents are the sinking of a North Korean spy ship in 2001 by the Coast Guard, salvaged and exhibited in Tokyo, the abduction of an office clerk from a Kagoshima beach in 1978 by agents from the same country; this became known only under the Koizumi administration. Kagoshima Prefecture is located at the southwest tip of Kyushu on the Satsuma Peninsula and Ōsumi Peninsula; this prefecture includes a chain of islands stretching further to the southwest of Kyushu for a few hundred kilometers. The most important group is the Amami Islands. Surrounded by the East China Sea to the west, Okinawa Prefecture in the south, Kumamoto Prefecture to the north, Miyazaki Prefecture to the east, it has 2,632 km of coastline.
It has a bay called Kagoshima Bay, sandwiched by two peninsulas, Satsuma and Ōsumi. Its position made it a'gateway' to Japan at various times in history. While Kyushu has about 13 million people, there are less than 2 million in this prefecture; the prefecture boasts a chain of active and dormant volcanoes, including the great Sakurajima, which towers out of the Kagoshima bay opposite Kagoshima city. A steady trickle of smoke and ash emerges from the caldera, punctuated by louder mini-eruptions on an daily basis. On active days in Kagoshima city an umbrella is advisable to ward off the ash. Sakurajima is one of Japan's most active volcanoes. Major eruptions occurred in 1914, when the island mountain spilled enough material to become permanently connected to the mainland, a lesser eruption in 1960. Volcanic materials in the soil make Sakurajima a source for record daikon radishes the size of a basketball. Many beaches around the Kagoshima Bay are littered with well-worn pumice stones. A crater lake in the southwestern tip of the prefecture, near the spa town of Ibusuki, is home to a rare species of giant eel.
As of March 31, 2008, 9% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks, namely the Kirishima-Yaku and Unzen-Amakusa National Parks. Most of the economic sector is focused in Kagoshima City and the surrounding area, corresponding to the extent of the former Satsuma Province; the eastern part of the prefecture, the former Ōsumi Province, is rural and shows a general population decline. The prefecture has strong agricultural roots, which are reflected in its most well-known exports: green tea, sweet potato, Pongee rice, Satsuma ware and Berkshire pork. Kagoshima prefecture's production of bonito flakes is second only to that of Shizuoka. In addition it produces Japan's largest volume of unagi eels; the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has several facilities within the prefecture, including the country's main launch facility on Tanegashima and the Uchinoura Space Center. The prefecture's gross domestic product is 4.834 trillion yen. The following is a list of Kagoshima Prefecture's cities, its administrative districts with their constituent towns and villages: Nineteen cities are located in Kagoshima Prefecture: Kagoshima These are the towns and villages in each district: Kagoshima Rebnise, a professional basketball team, was founded in 2003 and competes in the second division of the national B.
League. Kagoshima United FC, a soccer team, competes in the J3 League. Although no major professional baseball teams are based in the prefecture, a number of Kagoshima's ballparks have hosted the spring training camps of Nippon Professional Baseball teams: Kamoike Ballpark, previous camp home of the Chiba Lotte Marines and Lotte Giants. Hosts regular season games. Kamoike Citizen Stadium Ibusuki Municipal Ballpark, camp home of the Kokutesu Swallows Yunomoto Ballpark, camp home of the Yakult Atoms Kagoshima Kamoike Stadium, camp home of Júbilo Iwata and Toshiba Brave Lupus Kagoshima Fureai Sportsland, camp home of Sagan Tosu The Kirishima-Yaku National Park is located in Kagoshima Prefecture. Kagoshima University National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya The International University of Kagoshima Kagoshima Immaculate Heart University Daiichi Institute of Technology Shigakukan University Kagoshima Prefectural College Kagoshima Immaculate Heart College Kagoshima Women's Junior College Daiichi Junior College of Infant Education Tanegashima Space Center Uchinoura Space Center Bansei Tokkō Peace Museum Chiran Peace Museum for Kamikaze Pilots Museum of the Meiji Restoration Reimeikan, Kagoshima Prefectural Center for Historical Material Uenohara site JR Kyushu Kyushu Shinkansen Kagoshima Line Nippō Main Line Ibusuki Makurazaki Line Hisatsu Line Kitto Line Hisatsu Orange Railway Kagoshima City Tram Kyushu Expressway Miyazaki Expressway Ibusuki Toll Road Minamikyushu Expressway Higashikyushu Expressway National Route 3 National Route 10 National Route 58 Route 220 (Miyazaki-Nichinan-Shibushi-Kanoya
Itsukushima Shrine is a Shinto shrine on the island of Itsukushima, best known for its "floating" torii gate. It is in the city of Hatsukaichi in Hiroshima Prefecture in Japan; the shrine complex is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Japanese government has designated several buildings and possessions as National Treasures. The Itsukushima shrine is one of Japan's most popular tourist attractions, it is most famous for its dramatic gate, or torii on the outskirts of the shrine, the sacred peaks of Mount Misen, extensive forests, its aesthetic ocean view. The shrine complex itself consists of two main buildings: the Honsha shrine and the Sessha Marodo-jinja, as well as17 other different buildings and structures that help to distinguish it; the complex is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, six of its buildings and possessions have been designated by the Japanese government as National Treasures. Itsukushima jinja h was the chief Shinto shrine of Aki Province, it is said to have been erected in 593 by Saeki Kuramoto during the Suiko period.
However, the present shrine has been popularly attributed to Taira no Kiyomori, a prominent warlord who contributed to the building of the shrine during his time as governor of Aki Province in 1168. Another renowned patron of the shrine was the warlord Mori Motonari, was lord of Choshu, responsible for rebuilding the honden in 1571, it is important to note, that as a result of waging war against Sue Takafusa there in 1555, Motonari is said to have tainted the island's grounds by battling on the island This relates to the strict notions of sacred purity that Shinto shrines stand for. The only surviving structure in Itsukushima shrine from the Kamakura period is the Kyakuden or "Guest-God's Shrine", it was not uncommon during the 16th century for daimyo to build shrines or take on other architectural projects in order to "reflect their power and splendor." The Taira are known for their involvement in maritime trade with the Sung dynasty, attempting to monopolize overseas trade along the Inland Sea.
Kiyomori was at the height of his power. He "ordered construction of the main hall of Itsukushima Shrine as a display of reverence for the tutelary god of navigation and to serve as a base for maritime activities..." Miyajima soon became the Taira family shrine. Kiyomori chose the location for the reason to further establish himself in the Heian aristocracy as one who deviated from the social norms of Shinto pilgrimage, he lavished great wealth upon Itsukushima, he enjoyed showing the place to his friends and colleagues, or to royal personages..." It is said that Kiyomori rebuilt the shrine on account of a dream he had of an old monk who promised him dominion over Japan if he constructed a shrine on the island of Miyajima, pay homage to its kami who are enshrined there for his success in life. The renovations funded by the Taira allowed for Itsukushima to "grow into an important religious complex." The Itsukushima shrine is dedicated to the three daughters of Susano-o no Mikoto: Ichikishimahime no mikoto, Tagorihime no mikoto, Tagitsuhime no mikoto.
Otherwise known as the sanjoshin or "three female deities", these Shinto deities are the goddesses of seas and storms. Kiyomori believed the goddesses to be "manifestations of Kannon," therefore the island was understood as the home of the bodhisattva. In Japanese, Itsukushima translates to mean " island dedicated to the gods" In fact,the island itself is considered to be a god, why the shrine was built on the outskirts of the island. Adding to its sanctity, Mount Misen is "its tallest peak" ranging about "1,755 feet high." Tourists can either take a ropeway to the top. Its treasures include the celebrated Heike Nōkyō, or'Sutras dedicated by the Taira House of Taira'; these consist of thirty-two scrolls, on which the Lotus and Heart sutras have been copied by Kiyomori, his sons, other members of the family, each completing the writing of one scroll, " decorated with silver and mother-of-pearl by himself and other members of his clan." Itsukushima was a pure Shinto shrine "where no births or deaths were allowed to cause pollution.
Because the island itself has been considered sacred, commoners were not allowed to set foot on it throughout much of its history to maintain its purity. Retaining the purity of the shrine is so important that since 1878, no deaths or births have been permitted near it. To this day, pregnant women are supposed to retreat to the mainland as the day of delivery approaches, as are the terminally ill or the elderly whose passing has become imminent. Burials on the island are forbidden. To allow pilgrims to approach, the shrine was built like a pier over the water, so that it appeared to float, separate from the land; the red entrance gate, or torii, was built over the water for much the same reason. Commoners had to steer their boats through the torii before approaching the shrine. Japan has gone to great lengths to preserve the twelfth-century-style architecture of the Shrine throughout history; the shrine was designed and built according to the Shinden zukuri style, equipped with pier-like structures over the Matsushima bay in order to create the illusion of floating on the water, separate from island, which could be approached by the devout "like a palace on the sea."
This idea of intertwining architecture and nature is reflective of a popular trend during the 16th century as well as the Heian period in which Japanese structures tended to "follow after their environment," allowing trees and other forms of natural beauty
Saihō-ji is a Rinzai Zen Buddhist temple located in Matsuo, Nishikyō Ward, Japan. The temple, famed for its moss garden, is referred to as "Koke-dera", meaning "moss temple", while the formal name is "Kōinzan Saihō-ji"; the temple constructed to honor Amitābha, was first founded by Gyōki and was restored by Musō Soseki. In 1994, Saihō-ji was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as part of the "Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto". Over 120 types of moss are present in the two-tiered garden, resembling a beautiful green carpet with many subtle shades. According to temple legend, Saihō-ji was constructed during the Nara period by Gyōki, on the location of one of Prince Shōtoku's former retreats; the temple first operated as a Hossō temple dedicated to Amitabha, was known as "Saihō-ji", a homophone of the current name. The name was selected because Amitabha is the primary buddha of Western Paradise, known in Japanese as "Saihō Jōdo". Legend states that such famous Japanese monks as Kūkai and Hōnen served as the chief priests of the temple.
Although the veracity of these legends is questionable, it is believed that such a predecessor to the current temple did, in fact, exist. Over time, the temple fell into disrepair, in 1339, the chief priest of the nearby Matsunoo Shrine, Fujiwara Chikahide, summoned the famous Japanese gardener Musō Soseki to help him revive Saihō-ji as a Zen temple. At this time, Musō decided to reflect its new Zen orientation; the temple became "Saihō-ji", the name being selected not only because it was a homophone of the original name, but because the kanji were used in phrases related to Bodhidharma: "Bodhidharma came from the West" and "Bodhidharma's teachings shall spread and come to bear fruit like a five-petaled flower". Saihō-ji was destroyed by fire during the Ōnin War, twice ravaged by floods during the Edo period, but has since been rebuilt; the moss for which the temple is known was not part of Musō's original design. According to French historian François Berthier, the garden's "islands" were "carpeted with white sand" in the fourteenth century.
The moss came much of its own accord during the Meiji era, when the monastery lacked sufficient funds for upkeep. The famous moss garden of Saihō-ji is situated in the eastern temple grounds. Located in a grove, the garden is arranged as a circular promenade centered on Golden Pond; the pond is shaped like the Chinese character for "heart" or "mind" and contains three small islands: Asahi Island, Yūhi Island, Kiri Island. The area around the pond is said to be covered with more than 120 varieties of moss, believed to have started growing after the flooding of the temple grounds in the Edo Period; the garden itself contains three tea houses: Shōnan-tei, Shōan-dō, Tanhoku-tei, which were inspired by phrases from the Zen work Blue Cliff Record. Shōnan-tei was built during the 14th century, but was subsequently destroyed, it was restored by Sen Shōan. Iwakura Tomomi was famously sheltered here towards the end of the Edo Period. Shōnan-tei is registered as an important cultural property. Shōan-dō was constructed in 1920, contains a wooden image of Sen Shōan, after whom the teahouse was named.
Tanhoku-tei was donated to the temple in 1928 by potter Zōroku Mashimizu. The eastern temple grounds contains the main temple hall, the study, a three-storied pagoda; the main hall of the temple, known as Sairai-dō, was reconstructed in 1969, it was in this year that the current image of Amitabha was enshrined. The paintings on the sliding doors are the work of Inshō Dōmoto; the three-storied pagoda was erected in 1978, is used to store copies of sutras, written by Rinzai adherents. The pagoda was constructed to honor Bhaisajyaguru; the northern temple grounds contains a Zen rock garden, a temple hall known as Shitō-an. The arrangement of stones in the rock garden is said to be demonstrative of Musō's creative genius; the gardens of Saihō-ji are collectively considered to be both a historical landmark and a "special place of scenic beauty" in Japan. Other significant items within the temple grounds include a stone monument engraved with a Kyoshi Takahama haiku, another stone monument, engraved with some of the writings of Jirō Osaragi.
A portrait of Musō Soseki is considered to be an important cultural property. Until 1977, Saihō-ji was open to the general public on a walk-up basis, as with other temples. At present, while it is open to the public, a number requirement limits the number of visitors, it is said that these regulations were put into place to protect the delicate moss from the hordes of tourists that plagued the temple before 1977. Reservations are required by prior application by return postcard; the fee to visit is the highest in Kyoto. Visitors are given access to the grounds for 90 minutes. Before being permitted access to the garden, visitors must engage in an activity, which varies from day to day; these include zazen, hand copying sutras, chanting sutras. One is asked to write down one's wish and address; the monks continue to pray for all. The most famous times to visit are either during the East Asian rainy season, when the rains make the moss lush, or in late autum
Buddhist Monuments in the Hōryū-ji Area
The UNESCO World Heritage Site Buddhist Monuments in the Hōryū-ji Area includes a variety of buildings found in Hōryū-ji and Hokki-ji in Ikaruga, Nara Prefecture, Japan. These buildings were designated in 1993 along with the surrounding landscape, under several criteria; the structures inscribed are some of the oldest extant wooden buildings in the world, dating from the 7th to 8th centuries. Many of the monuments are National Treasures of Japan, reflect an important age of Buddhist influence in Japan; the structures include 21 buildings in the Hōryū-ji East Temple, 9 in the West Temple, 17 monasteries and other buildings, the pagoda in Hokki-ji. The kondo known as the Golden Hall is located within the gates of the Horyuji temple complex; the structure sits near the center next to the Horyuji Pagoda. The two structures are significant, yet for different reasons; the Kondo was built with the intention of being used for Buddhist worship. On the outside, the Kondo appears to the viewer as a two story structure.
However, only the first floor is operative. The roof of the Kondo displays the hip and gable style, seen in East Asian architecture; the exterior of the wooden structure has been decorated with images of dragons and the water deity. Upon entering the building, the viewer is faced with a magnificent sight: The Shaka Triad and the Yakushi sculptures; the Shaka Triad is located within the Horyuji Kondo building. The sculpture has been placed on a raised platform so that when the viewer enters the building, they will have to look up in order to observe the piece. Shaka sits between his two attendants in the mediation position; the skirt that Shaka wears falls over his legs and the platform that he sits on in a style known as waterfall drapery. His hands are positioned in two different mudras; the right hand is positioned in the reassurance mudra and the left hand is in that of the wish granting mudra. Behind the Shaka is an intricately decorated mandorla with a lotus flower directly in the center. Right above the head of shaka is a raised circle, meant to stand as a representation of the Buddhist jewel of wisdom.
On the outer parts of the mandorla are seven small Buddha figures. These figures are intended to represent the seven Buddhas; the two attendants have been placed on lotus flowers. Each figure holds a jewel in their hand. Next to the Horyuji kondo stands the Horyuji Pagoda; the Kondo functions as a space for Buddhist worship, but the pagoda severs an different purpose. The five storied structure stands at Horyuji as a sort of memorial site; the structure was built to represent a diagram of the universe. If you stop and look at the building, you will notice that the roofs on each story get smaller and smaller the closer they get to the top; the center center post of the pagoda is built into a stone foundation that holds buddhist treasures and relics inside. These relics were put inside of vessels made out of glass and silver; the Tamamushi Shrine is located within the Treasure House at Horyuji. The shrine is made up of a small Kondo, placed on top of a rectangular base. SImilar to that of the Horyuji Kondo, the miniature kondo on the shrine has a hip and gabled roof and exhibits many architectural features of the Asuka period.
The shrine has been elaborately decorated with many extensive details. Inside of the shrine is a small statue of a buddhist Bodhisattva; the interior walls have been lined with many small Buddha figures. On the front of the rectangular base are images of the four guardian kings and on the side panels are images of bodhisattvas standing on lotus flowers; the back panel shows the location in which Shaka preached the Lotus Sutra. On the upper pedestal of the shrine, the front has paintings that depict representations of Buddhist relics; the back of the pedestal has an image of location, known to be the center of the universe. This location holds the oceans and the earth apart from each other; this place is known as Mount Sumeru. The right panel shows a picture of the Buddha in a previous life and the left panel shows the scene of "The Hungry Tigress Jataka." The Hungry Tigress Jataka is a tale in the theme of self sacrifice. In this story, the Bodhisattva is walking through the forest when he encounters a tigress and her starving cubs.
In order to save the lives of the starving animals, the bodhisattva hikes to the top of mountain located nearby and jumps off. The smell of the blood coming from the Bodhisattva's body is enough to rouse the weak tigress and her starving cubs so that they may eat. Hōryū-ji Hokki-ji List of World Heritage Sites in Japan Tourism in Japan Buddhist Monuments in the Hōryū-ji Area at UNESCO
Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region
Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region, is a group of sites in northwest Kyūshū, inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2017, under criteria ii and iii. The three Munakata kami are said in the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki to be daughters of Amaterasu, spawned upon the sun-goddess' consumption of giant swords. Okitsu-Miya on the island of Okinoshima is part of the Shinto shrine complex of Munakata Taisha. Over 80,000 artefacts were ritually deposited at the site from the fourth to the tenth centuries; these have been designated a National Treasure. They include mirrors and bronze dragon-head finials from Wei China; the Munakata clan, powerful local rulers, controlled the route to the continent and "presided over the rituals". The many kofun or tumuli in the area are believed to be their burial ground; the following sites were included in the serial nomination: List of National Treasures of Japan Yorishiro World Heritage Sites in Japan Okinoshima Island and Related Sites in Munakata Region Proposal document Pamphlet