This World Science Fiction Convention list includes prior and scheduled Worldcons. The data is maintained by a World Science Fiction Society sub-committee. Notes: Name – a convention is listed by the least confusing version of its name; this is the name preferred by the convention, but fannish tradition is followed in retroactively numbering the first Worldcon in a series 1. Guests of honor – custom in designating guests of honor has varied with some conventions giving specific titles and some call them all guests of honor. Specific labels have been used. Size – where available, this column records two numbers: how many paying members attended the Worldcon and how many total members there were; the available data is incomplete and imprecise and many of these numbers are substantially in error. No Worldcons were held between 1942 and 1945 due to World War II. Official Worldcon long list
Flavan-3-ols are derivatives of flavans that possess a 2-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromen-3-ol skeleton. These compounds include catechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin gallate, proanthocyanidins, thearubigins. Flavanols are not to be confused with a class of flavonoids containing a ketone group; the single-molecule catechin, or isomer epicatechin, adds four hydroxyls to flavan-3-ol, making building blocks for concatenated polymers and higher order polymers. Flavanols possess two chiral carbons. Catechins are distinguished from the yellow, ketone-containing flavonoids such as quercitin and rutin, which are called flavonols. Early use of the term bioflavonoid was imprecisely applied to include the flavanols, which are distinguished by absence of ketone. Catechin monomers and trimers are colorless. Higher order polymers, exhibit deepening reds and become tannins; the catechins are abundant in teas derived from the tea plant Camellia sinensis, as well as in some cocoas and chocolates. Catechins are present in the human diet in fruits and wine, are found in many other plant species.
Catechin and epicatechin are epimers, with -epicatechin and -catechin being the most common optical isomers found in nature. Catechin was first isolated from the plant extract catechu, from. Heating catechin past its point of decomposition releases pyrocatechol, which explains the common origin of the names of these compounds. Epigallocatechin and gallocatechin contain an additional phenolic hydroxyl group when compared to epicatechin and catechin similar to the difference in pyrogallol compared to pyrocatechol. Catechin gallates are gallic acid esters of the catechins; the flavonoids are products from a cinnamoyl-CoA starter unit, with chain extension using three molecules of malonyl-CoA. Reactions are catalyzed by a type III PKS enzyme; these enzyme do not use ACPSs, but instead employ coenzyme A esters and have a single active site to perform the necessary series of reactions, e.g. chain extension and cyclization. Chain extension of 4-hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA with three molecules of malonyl-CoA gives a polyketide, which can be folded.
These allow Claisen-like reactions to occur. Figure 1:Schematic overview of the flavan-3-ol -epicatechin biosynthesis in plants: Enzymes are indicated in blue, abbreviated as follows: E1, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, E2, tyrosine ammonia lyase, E3, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, E4, 4-coumaroyl: CoA-ligase, E5, chalcone synthase, E6, chalcone isomerase, E7, Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase, E8, flavonone 3-hydroxylase, E9, dihydroflavanol 4-reductase, E10, anthocyanidin synthase, E11, anthocyanidin reductase. HSCoA, Coenzyme A. L-Tyr, L-tyrosine, L-Phe, L-phenylalanine. Most data for human metabolism of flavan-3-ols are available for monomeric compounds Catechin; these compounds are taken up and metabolised upon uptake in the jejunum by O-methylation and glucuronidation, further metabolised by the liver. The colonic microbiome has an important role in the metabolism of flavan-3-ols and they are catabolised to smaller compounds such as 5--γ-valerolactones and hippuric acid. Only flavan-3-ols with an intact catechin moiety can be metabolised 5--γ-valerolactones.
The supposed health benefits of catechins have been studied extensively in humans and animal models, but there are no proven effects that apply to human health. Until 2013, neither the Food and Drug Administration nor the European Food Safety Authority had approved any health claim for catechins or approved any as pharmaceutical drugs. Moreover, several companies have been cautioned by the FDA over misleading health claims. In 2014, the European Food Safety Authority approved the following health claim for cocoa products containing 200 mg of flavanols and meeting the qualification in dietary supplement products: "cocoa flavanols help maintain the elasticity of blood vessels, which contributes to normal blood flow". An editorial warned against increasing one's intake of dark chocolate to improve health because the beneficial compounds, suggested to be flavanols, are sometimes removed due to their bitter taste without an indication on the label. Additionally, such a product is high in fat and Calories, contributing to a poor diet if consumed in large amounts.
Fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy can be used to detect flavanols in plant cells Recent study tested catechins employed to coat nanoparticles of iron oxides in the blood. These particles allow visualization of vessels – and cancer tumors in mice – in an MRI exam; the nanoparticles would clump together without the catechin coating. Media related to Flavan-3-ols at Wikimedia Commons
Legion of Boom is the third studio album by American electronic music duo The Crystal Method, released on January 13, 2004 by V2 Records. The album features contributions from Milla Jovovich and Kyuss lead singer John Garcia, contains guitar riffs courtesy of Limp Bizkit guitarist Wes Borland and vocal talents by beatboxer Rahzel, its title is a reference to the supervillain team Legion of Doom. The album was nominated for a Grammy in the "Best Electronica/Dance Album" category in 2005, the first year that any award was given out for that category. An edited version of "Born Too Slow" was featured in the soundtrack for the video games Need for Speed: Underground and Donkey Konga 2; the song "I Know It's You" was used in the pilot episode of the TV show Numbers. The song "Bound Too Long" was featured on the soundtrack to the movie Cursed, "Starting Over" was used in an episode of the TV show Alias and an episode of CSI: Crime Scene Investigation. "Weapons of Mass Distortion" was featured in the teaser and theatrical trailers of The Bourne Ultimatum and a different version of the same song, renamed "Weapons of Mad Distortion" was used in the film Blade: Trinity.
The album contains the only known time either members of The Crystal Method have provided vocals for a song. The song that features this is "I Know. Upon release, Legion of Boom received mixed reviews from critics; the album has a score of 58 out of 100 from Metacritic based on "mixed or average reviews". Billboard gave it a mixed review and stated that "Too many tracks get bogged down with a straight-ahead progressive trance formula, where zoning out feels more suitable than attempting to move your feet. Still, because the good stuff is so darn good, it is easy to brush aside any missteps." Mojo gave it three stars out of five and said it was "more like the soundtrack to a horror movie than a night of DJ breaks and body shakes." Playlouder gave it two stars out of five and said the album "resembles nothing more than a U. S. major label executive’s idea of what dance music should sound like." URB gave it two stars and said that the band "has become utterly irrelevant." Blender gave it one-and-a-half stars out of five and stated: "The problem is not the lumbering, mid-tempo beats or the terrible lyrics, although neither help.
It’s the sense that you’ve heard every synthesized squelch and ambient breakdown before." Scott Kirkland – Producer, drum programming, vocals Ken Jordan – Producer, keyboards Robin Goodridge - drums Rahzel – vocals John Garcia – vocals Milla Jovovich – vocals Lisa Kekaula – vocals Hanifah Walidah – vocals Wes Borland – guitar Jon Brion – guitar DJ Swamp – turntables The track "Born Too Slow" was used in the video game Need for Speed: Underground. The track "The American Way" made a feature in the 2010 film Skyline; the track "Weapons of Mass Distortion" was used in movie trailers for The Bourne Ultimatum and Far Cry, and, in an edited version called "Weapons of Mad Distorton", for the Blade: Trinity soundtrack. The track "Acetone" is featured in the video game Wipeout HD Fury; the track "Realizer" is used in the Furious: Tokyo Drift. The track "True Grit" was used in the 2011 documentary Revenge of the Electric Car when showcasing entrepreneur Elon Musk. Legion of Boom at Metacritic
This is a list of terms encountered in the description of ukiyo-e style Japanese woodblock prints and paintings. For a list of print sizes see below. Aizuri-e. Prints produced by stenciling, without woodblocks, are called kappazuri. Karazuri; the Japanese terms for vertical and horizontal formats for images are tate-e and yoko-e, respectively. Following are common Tokugawa-period print sizes. Sizes varied depending on the period, those given are approximate they are based on the pre-printing paper sizes, paper was trimmed after printing. Schools of ukiyo-e artists Ukiyo-e Woodblock printing in Japan Lane, Richard.. Images from the Floating World, The Japanese Print. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192114471 OCLC 5246796 Newland, Amy Reigle.. Hotei Encyclopedia of Japanese Woodblock Prints. Amsterdam: Hotei. ISBN 9789074822657 OCLC 61666175 Faulkner, Rupert. Masterpieces of Japanese Prints: Ukiyo-e from the Victoria and Albert Museum. Kodansha International. ISBN 978-4-7700-2387-2. Calza, Gian Carlo.
Hokusai. Phaidon. ISBN 0714844578. A glossary of ukiyo-e terms Another glossary of ukiyo-e terms
The Women & Children Last World Tour was a concert tour by horror punk supergroup the Murderdolls in support of their re-formation and second studio album, of the same name, released in August 2010. The band had ended their five-year hiatus in early 2010 when it was announced that Joey Jordison and Wednesday 13 would be reforming the Murderdolls with a new line-up to record the long-awaited follow-up to Beyond the Valley of the Murderdolls; the band had planned on touring the United States earlier in the year, but these plans were terminated when Jordison became a full-time member of Rob Zombie. The band performed their first show in six years on June 15 in Pomona, California followed by another performance in Los Angeles two days later, it was the first appearance of new members Roman Surman, Jack Tankersley and Racci Shay. Jordison resumed touring with Zombie in the following weeks as Zombie and his touring band were set to co-headling the Mayhem Festival with Korn. Wednesday 13 spent the duration of the Mayhem Festival promoting the band's new album.
After the culmination of the Mayhem Festival, Jordison once again returned to the band to perform an intimate show on the release date of their new album in his hometown of Des Moines, Iowa. The band proceeded to begin their tour of Europe which began in early September; the leg consisted of appearances at the Two Days A Week festival in Austria, an appearance on the main stage at the UK edition of the Ozzfest, a number of dates supporting Guns N’ Roses and a small number of headlining shows. Wednesday 13 had expressed interest in touring with Guns N’ Roses again in the near future; the band returned to the United States in September to support Rob Zombie and Alice Cooper on the Halloween Hootenanny Tour. Jordison performed with the Murderdolls during the tour; the tour consisted of 20 dates spanning across the country which became a personal record for the band after only had performing 14 dates in the United States for their previous tour. The band performed a headlining appearance at the Roxy Theatre in Hollywood, California as well as two appearances on Fuel TV's "The Daily Habit" in November.
The band was expected to embark on a headlining tour of the country throughout December but was cancelled due to unforeseeable circumstances. The band embarked on a second leg of Europe in January 2011, they received support from the Black Veil Brides for every date in the United Kingdom. While performing in Bordeaux in France on January 27, Jordison slammed his guitar to the ground and walked off stage several times; the band continued to perform without him. Jordison publicly apologised on the band's website and states that this incident occurred because of his tinnitus; the band co-headlined the Soundwave Festival in Australia in the month which ended in early March. Jordison yet again performed double duty with Rob Zombie for the duration of the tour. While performing in Perth on March 7, a similar incident to the one in Bordeuax occurred. Jordison picked up his guitar, slammed it on the ground and walked off stage before returning minutes to be mocked by lead singer Wednesday 13; the band expected to wrap up their tour in Japan as Jordison is scheduled to return to Slipknot after the culmination of the tour, but only performed one date as the country was struck by a vigorous earthquake followed by a tsunami which resulted in the cancellation of their performances in Tokyo and Osaka.
The band wrapped up the tour with three small club in the United States in April. Jordison has since resumed his work with Slipknot, while Wednesday 13 and the remaining band members have resumed their own projects. 1^ = Supporting Guns N’ Roses 2^ = Supporting Ozzy Osbourne alongside Korn, Steel Panther and others for the United Kingdom edition of Ozzfest 3^ = Supporting Rob Zombie and Alice Cooper on the Halloween Hootenanny Tour 4^ = Supporting Rob Zombie with Monster Magnet and Dommin 1 Dates cancelled due to a sudden family emergency 2 Date cancelled due to exhaustion and poor ticket sales 3 Dates cancelled due to a violent earthquake followed by a tsunami Black Veil Brides Dommin Japanese Voyeurs Marionette Monster Magnet Taking Dawn The Defiled Official website Tour Dates Murderdolls @ Roadrunnerrecords.com
Milić Stanković, known by his artistic name Milić of Mačva, was a Serbian painter and artist named Balkan's Dalí for his figurative surrealist paintings. Stanković was born in 1934 in Kingdom of Yugoslavia; when he was in the second year of high school in the town of Šabac, a professor of drawing, Đorđe Kostić came to Šabac from Belgrade, demolished after the Nazi bombardment. Kostić founded the art section in the basement of the high school; the professor had a special ability of perceiving children gifted in painting, including Milić. As a high school student, Milić participated at painting exhibitions in the town; because of poverty, his parents decided. Milić was accepted, but at the last moment, managed to convince his parents that architecture would be better for him and more promising for the future. Young Milić had talent and good will, now it became important for him to remain in Belgrade. At the School of Architecture, he was taught by an extraordinary draughtsman - Pivo Karamatijević.
The first year, he lived in New Belgrade. In the fall of 1953 Milić began socializing with the family of Đorđe Kadijević. Milić and Đorđe were fantasizing about painting; the next year, Milić passed the entrance exam to the Academy of Fine Arts, in contrast to Kadijević, who did not pass it. Milić received support from his mother Desanka for admission to the Academy, he was encouraged by his high school classmate Vlada Lalicki, from Šabac; as a specially gifted student, he received a scholarship. At the Academy of Fine Arts, he studied in the class of professor Kosta Hakman, after Hakman's death, with professor Ljubica Sokić. Milić graduated from the Academy in 1959 On Milić's first solo exhibition, Herbert Beck, a famous collector from Geneva bought seven of his paintings for 770,000 dinars, a significant amount at the time. Milić was a prolific painter; as of February 2000, he had painted around 7,500 paintings, more than 13,000 graphics and hundreds of icons and frescoes. By his works he defended the Serbian tradition from distortion.
He died on December 8, 2000 in Belgrade, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia