Dennis G. Fentie, MLA is a Canadian politician, he was the seventh Premier of Yukon and leader of the Yukon Party, serving from 2002 to 2011, as well as the MLA for Watson Lake. Fentie was born in Alberta. In 1962, Fentie moved to Watson Lake. Prior to entering politics, Fentie was involved in a variety of economic activities in and around Watson Lake; these activities include logging, mining and fuel distribution. Fentie has served as director of both the Association of Yukon Forests and the Watson Lake Chamber of Commerce, the owner and former manager of Francis River Construction. Fentie was first elected MLA for Watson Lake in the 1996 election as a member of Yukon New Democratic Party, succeeding retiring incumbent John Devries, he was re-elected in the 2000 election. In May 2002, Fentie left the NDP. One month Fentie was selected as the next Yukon Party leader. In the 2002 election, Fentie led the Yukon Party to a majority government, defeating incumbent Premier Pat Duncan and the Liberals.
The party won 12 of 18 seats available in the Yukon Legislative Assembly. Fentie's majority government was reduced to minority government status in August 2006, when three Yukon Party MLAs resigned or chose to sit as independents. Copperbelt MLA Haakon Arntzen resigned after facing sexual assault charges and Klondike MLA Peter Jenkins was ousted after refusing to repay a government loan. McIntyre-Takhini MLA John Edzerza, the only First Nations person in Fentie's cabinet, resigned in August 2006 to sit as an Independent. Edzerza would run in the next election as a member of the NDP. With a minority government, Fentie called the 2006 election for October 10. Fentie was re-elected for a fourth time in the riding of Watson Lake and the Yukon Party was voted to a second straight majority government; the Yukon Party under Fentie's leadership won 10 of 18 seats in the legislative assembly. On April 27, 2011, Fentie announced he was stepping down as premier and would not seek re-election as MLA in the 2011 election.
After the 2002 election, it was revealed he had been convicted and spent time in prison for heroin trafficking in 1974 when he was 24 years old. During the 2002 election campaign, he made it public that he had spent time in jail for a narcotics charge but did not make the fact it was heroin public since he had received a pardon. Government of Yukon Territory - Premier's Website
Antony David John "Tony" Penikett is a mediator and negotiator and former politician in Yukon, who served as Premier of Yukon from 1985 to 1992. Born in Sussex, England, on November 14, 1945 and educated at St Albans School in Hertfordshire, in Alberta and Ontario, Penikett began his Yukon working life as an asbestos mine labourer at Clinton Creek, where he became active in his union as a shop steward and chair of the grievance committee. An activist with the New Democratic Party, Penikett was campaign manager in the 1972 election for Wally Firth, the first indigenous northern MP elected to the House of Commons, he was not elected. Penikett became a member of the New Democratic Party's federal council in 1973 and served as executive assistant to Ed Broadbent from 1975 to 1977, he returned to Yukon, where he was elected to Whitehorse City Council in 1977. He was president of the federal NDP from 1981 to 1985, he was first elected to the Yukon Legislative Assembly in 1978, representing the constituency of Whitehorse West as a member of the Yukon New Democratic Party.
He was the party's only MLA elected that year. In 1981, Penikett succeeded Fred Berger as leader of the party. Under his leadership, independent MLA Maurice Byblow crossed the floor to join the party, Roger Kimmerly won a by-election for the party in October. With the party having surpassed the Yukon Liberal Party in seats, Penikett became Leader of the Opposition; the party won six seats in the 1982 election. In the 1985 territorial election, the party won eight seats, forming a minority government with Penikett serving as government leader. Four of the party's eight MLAs were of First Nations descent, with a by-election win by Danny Joe in 1987 bringing First Nations representation in the government to five out of nine. Joe's by-election win lifted the party to majority government status. Penikett fought the federal government for a better deal for the territory in Canadian confederation and for control over its natural resources, he and Dennis Patterson, premier of the Northwest Territories fought for a greater role at First Minister's conferences.
Penikett's government negotiated and signed an umbrella agreement for First Nations land claims, negotiated the first four agreements with individual First Nations, developed an economic development strategy for the Yukon in consultation with citizens. Penikett brought forward the Yukon Human Rights Act, which banned discrimination on the basis of age, gender or sexual orientation, it was only the second such act passed anywhere in Canada. The NDP formed a majority government after the 1989 election; that year, Penikett took on the title of Premier, the first government leader in the territory to be given that title, in a bid to increase the territory's clout in relations with the federal and provincial governments. Penikett's government opposed the Meech Lake Accord, believing it would make it impossible for the Yukon to become a province. According to Penikett, the accord violated the rights of Yukon residents by granting to each existing province an absolute veto over the creation of a new province, as well as by giving provinces, but not territories, consultation rights on the appointment of new Senators and new Supreme Court justices, would condemn northerners to "forever be second-class citizens".
Penikett's government fought the accord in court, although its case was dismissed by the Yukon Court of Appeal. During the subsequent Charlottetown Accord negotiations, Penikett raised many of the same concerns that he had during Meech, although he supported the final deal. After seven years in power, the NDP was defeated in the 1992 election by the conservative Yukon Party. Penikett's successor, John Ostashek, dropped Penikett's use of the title "Premier", reverting to the older form "Government Leader", although the "Premier" title was reinstituted in 1996 by Piers McDonald and has remained in use since. On April 25, 1994 Penikett announced his resignation as leader of the Yukon NDP, was succeeded by Piers McDonald at a party convention in May 1995. There was an attempt in 1994 to draft Penikett as a candidate in the federal New Democratic Party's 1995 leadership contest, but he declined to run, he remained in the legislature as the MLA for Whitehorse West until September 27, 1995, when he resigned to accept a position as a policy advisor in the office of Saskatchewan Premier Roy Romanow.
After two years as an advisor in the cabinet planning unit with the Government of Saskatchewan, in 1998 he was appointed by the government of British Columbia to lead contract negotiations with the province's public sector unions. Between 1998 and 2000, Penikett and his colleague John Calvert negotiated 32 public sector accords with public sector employer organizations and unions representing 250,000 provincial public employers; this is to date the largest number of social contracts negotiated in Canada. From 2001 to 2005, Penikett was a senior fellow on native treaty issues and a visiting professor for the Undergraduate Semester in Dialogue at Simon Fraser University, he has worked at the Walter and Duncan Gordon Foundation, for West Coast Environmental Law. Penikett was appointed as the University of Washington's Canada Fulbright Chair in Arctic Studies for 2013-14. For the duration of this award, he will be located at the Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies, conducting a “Comparative Study of Canadian and U.
S. Approaches to Issues of Ar
Dawson City the Town of the City of Dawson, is a town in the Canadian territory of Yukon. It is inseparably linked to the Klondike Gold Rush, its population was 1,375 as of the 2016 census. Making it the second largest town of Yukon. In prehistoric times the area was used for agriculture by the Hän-speaking people of the Tr’ondëk Hwëch’in and their forebears; the heart of their homeland was Tr'ochëk, a fishing camp at the confluence of the Klondike River and Yukon River, now a National Historic Site of Canada, just across the Klondike River from modern Dawson City. This site was an important summer gathering spot and a base for moose-hunting on the Klondike Valley; the current settlement was founded by Joseph Ladue and named in January 1897 after noted Canadian geologist George M. Dawson, who had explored and mapped the region in 1887, it served as Yukon's capital from the territory's founding in 1898 until 1952, when the seat was moved to Whitehorse. Dawson City was the centre of the Klondike Gold Rush.
It began in 1896 and changed the First Nations camp into a thriving city of 40,000 by 1898. By 1899, the gold rush had ended and the town's population plummeted as all but 8,000 people left; when Dawson was incorporated as a city in 1902, the population was under 5,000. St. Paul's Anglican Church built; the population dropped after World War II when the Alaska Highway bypassed it 300 miles to the south. The economic damage to Dawson City was such that Whitehorse, the highway's hub, replaced it as territorial capital in 1953. Dawson City's population languished around the 600–900 mark through the 1960s and 1970s, but has risen and held stable since then; the high price of gold has made modern placer mining operations profitable, the growth of the tourism industry has encouraged development of facilities. In the early 1950s, Dawson was linked by road to Alaska, in fall 1955, with Whitehorse along a road that now forms part of the Klondike Highway. In 1978, another kind of buried treasure was discovered when a construction excavation inadvertently uncovered a forgotten collection of more than 500 discarded films on flammable nitrate film stock from the early 20th century that were buried in the permafrost.
These silent-era film reels, dating from "between 1903 and 1929, were uncovered in the rubble beneath old hockey rink". Owing to its dangerous chemical volatility, the historical find was moved by military transport to Library and Archives Canada and the U. S. Library of Congress for both transfer to safety film and storage. A documentary about the find, Dawson City: Frozen Time was released in 2016; the City of Dawson and the nearby ghost town of Forty Mile are featured prominently in the novels and short stories of American author Jack London, including The Call of the Wild. London lived in the Dawson area from October 1897 to June 1898. Other writers who lived in and wrote of Dawson City include Pierre Berton and the poet Robert Service; the childhood home of the former is now used as a retreat for professional writers administered by the Writers' Trust of Canada. Dawson City lies on the Tintina Fault; this fault continues eastward for several hundred kilometres. Erosional remnants of lava flows form outcrops north and west of Dawson City.
Like most of Yukon, Dawson City has a subarctic climate. The average temperature in July is 15.7 °C and in January is −26.0 °C. The highest temperature recorded is 35.0 °C on 9 July 1899 and 18 June 1950. The lowest temperature recorded is −58.3 °C on 3 February 1947. It experiences a wide range of temperatures surpassing 30 °C in most summers and dropping below −40 °C in winter; the community is at an elevation of 320 m and the average rainfall in July is 49.0 mm and the average snowfall in January is 27.6 cm. Dawson has averages 70 frost free days per year; the town is built on a layer of frozen earth, which may pose a threat to the town's infrastructure in the future if the permafrost melts. Dawson was incorporated as a city in 1902 when it met the criteria for "city" status under the municipal act of that time, it retained the incorporation as the population plummeted. When a new municipal act was adopted in the 1980s, Dawson met the criteria of "town", was incorporated as such although with a special provision to allow it to continue to use the word "City" for historical reasons and to distinguish it from Dawson Creek, a small city in northeastern British Columbia.
Dawson Creek is named in honour of George M. Dawson; this led the territorial government to post the following signs at the boundaries of the town: "Welcome to the Town of the City of Dawson". In 2004, the Yukon government removed the mayor and the town council, as a result of the town going bankrupt; the territorial government accepted a large portion of the responsibility for this situation in March 2006, writing off $3.43 million of the debt and leaving the town with $1.5 million still to pay off. Elections were set for June 15, 2006. John Steins, a local artist and one of the leaders of the movement to restore democracy to Dawson, was acclaimed as mayor, while 13 residents ran for the four council seats. Steins was succeeded in office by former mayor Peter Jenkins, who in turn was succeeded by the current mayor, Wayne Potoroka. Other past mayors of Dawson City have included Art Webster, Colin Mayes, Yolanda Burkhard, Mike Comadain and Vi Campbell. In the Legislative Assembly of Yukon, Dawson City is in the electoral district of Klondike represented by Sandy Silver of the Yukon Liberal Party.
The government of Tr’ond
2016 Yukon general election
The 38th general election in Yukon, took place on November 7, 2016 to return members to the 34th Yukon Legislative Assembly. The election was fought over issues relating to the economy, the environment, First Nations reconciliation and the merits of a territorial carbon tax; the incumbent Yukon Party government, led by Darrell Pasloski, was defeated by the third party Liberal Party of Sandy Silver, ending 14 years of Yukon Party rule. Premier Darrell Pasloski lost his own seat. August 17, 2012: Darius Elias resigns as interim Liberal leader and sits as an independent. July 8, 2013: Darius Elias crosses the floor to the Yukon Party. March 1, 2014: Sandy Silver agrees to lead the Liberal Party. May 10, 2016: David Laxton stepped down as Speaker and as a member of the Yukon Party caucus to sit as an Independent MLA due to personal reasons, it would come out that the resignation was due to an allegation of sexual harassment leveled at Laxton. One month the Yukon Party would bar Laxton from running for the party in the upcoming election.
June 8, 2016: Education Minister and veteran territorial and municipal politician Doug Graham announces he will not seek re-election in his riding of Porter Creek North. June 15, 2016: Currie Dixon, minister for Community Services, announces he will not seek a second term as MLA for Copperbelt North. In 2011, Dixon became the Yukon's youngest-ever cabinet minister at the age of 26. Aug. 11, 2016: After saying he would not run in the upcoming territorial election, Education Minister Doug Graham announced he would seek the Yukon Party nomination in Whitehorse Centre. Graham has been the Yukon Party MLA for Porter Creek North since 2011. October 7, 2016: Premier Darrell Pasloski calls the election for November 7, 2016, starting the official 31-day campaign period. HI During the campaign, the issues of economic diversification, environmental management, First Nations reconciliation were central themes, as was each party's stance on fracking; the announcement that the federal government would impose a national carbon tax affected the political direction of the campaign, with the Yukon Party vowing to fight any effort to impose a carbon tax on the Yukon.
The incumbent Yukon Party, led by Darrell Pasloski since 2011, had governed the Yukon since 2002 when it defeated the Yukon Liberal Party. While the Yukon Party had been re-elected in 2011 during a commodity boom, by 2016 the Yukon economy was in a recession. Leading into the 2016 campaign, the Yukon Party was drawing criticism over its poor relationship with First Nations, its stance on the environment, access to healthcare, a perceived mismanagement of the Yukon economy; the Yukon Party ran on a campaign of True North. Central to this campaign was prioritizing the creation of jobs, growing the economy, keeping taxes low, it adamantly opposed the federal carbon tax. The Yukon Party entered the 2016 campaign with ten of its twelve MLAs seeking re-election, albeit it with two running in different ridings; the Yukon New Democratic Party, led by Liz Hanson, had been the Official Opposition since 2011. The party had been critical of the Yukon Party's relationship with First Nations, its stewardship of the economy, its management of government services such as healthcare.
The Yukon New Democratic Party ran on a campaign of Building a Better Yukon. The party emphasized the need for a change in government, championed causes such as improving the healthcare system, transparent government, First Nations reconciliation, economic diversification, it supported investing a federal carbon tax in green energy and low income supports. All six Yukon New Democratic Party MLAs sought re-election; the Yukon Liberal Party, led by Sandy Silver, held only one seat after Darius Elias joined the Yukon Party. The Liberal platform, Be Heard, promoted economic diversification, responsible environmental management, improving First Nations relations; the Liberals promised to return funds raised from a federal carbon tax back to Yukoners. Despite having only one seat, the party gained visibility in late 2015 following the election the Liberal Party of Canada to a majority government; the Yukon Liberal Party had led in the two opinion polls prior to the election period, despite holding just one seat in the legislature – Sandy Silver's district of Klondike.
The Liberals gained attention due to a series of high-profile contested nominations that helped build the profile of their candidates and party in the lead up to the campaign. The Yukon Green Party, led by Frank De Jong, running in its second election, championed the issue of climate change and electoral reform, it opposed the public funding of Catholic schools. The Green Party had no incumbent MLAs leading into the election, but managed to run five candidates during the campaign. Controversy arose when the Chief Electoral Officer launched two inquiries during the campaign, citing concerns about proxy voting, special ballots, purposeful misinformation by all three candidates in the Mountainview riding, as well as the use of proxy votes by Liberal candidate Tamara Goeppel in the Whitehorse Centre riding; the Chief Electoral Officer ruled that there was no wrongdoing in Mountainview, but her inquiry into Whitehorse Centre led the RCMP to press charges in February 2017. The election marked a continued trend in the turnout at advance polls, which had doubled in each of the previous two elections.
In the 2016 election, advanced turnout doubled again, with 6,437 voters casting advance or special ballots. This represented more; the Yukon Liberal Party was elected to a majority government on November 2016, with 11/19 seats. The 2016 election resulted in one of the single-largest gain of
Social democracy is a political and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and a capitalist economy. The protocols and norms used to accomplish this involve a commitment to representative and participatory democracy, measures for income redistribution and regulation of the economy in the general interest and welfare state provisions. Social democracy thus aims to create the conditions for capitalism to lead to greater democratic and solidaristic outcomes. Due to longstanding governance by social democratic parties and their influence on socioeconomic policy development in the Nordic countries, in policy circles social democracy has become associated with the Nordic model in the latter part of the 20th century. Social democracy originated as a political ideology that advocated an evolutionary and peaceful transition from capitalism to socialism using established political processes in contrast to the revolutionary approach to transition associated with orthodox Marxism.
In the early post-war era in Western Europe, social democratic parties rejected the Stalinist political and economic model current in the Soviet Union, committing themselves either to an alternative path to socialism or to a compromise between capitalism and socialism. In this period, social democrats embraced a mixed economy based on the predominance of private property, with only a minority of essential utilities and public services under public ownership; as a result, social democracy became associated with Keynesian economics, state interventionism and the welfare state while abandoning the prior goal of replacing the capitalist system with a qualitatively different socialist economic system. With the rise of popularity for neoliberalism and the New Right by the 1980s, most social democratic parties have incorporated Third Way ideology, which aims to fuse liberal economics with social democratic welfare policies. Modern social democracy is characterized by a commitment to policies aimed at curbing inequality, oppression of underprivileged groups and poverty, including support for universally accessible public services like care for the elderly, child care, health care and workers' compensation.
The social democratic movement has strong connections with the labour movement and trade unions which are supportive of collective bargaining rights for workers as well as measures to extend decision-making beyond politics into the economic sphere in the form of co-determination for employees and other economic stakeholders. During late 19th and early 20th centuries, social democracy was a movement that aimed to replace private ownership with social ownership of the means of production, taking influences from both Marxism and the supporters of Ferdinand Lassalle. By 1868–1869, Marxism had become the official theoretical basis of the first social democratic party established in Europe, the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany. In the early 20th century, the German social democratic politician Eduard Bernstein rejected the ideas in classical and orthodox Marxism that proposed a specific historical progression and revolution as a means to achieve social equality, advanced the position that socialism should be grounded in ethical and moral arguments for social justice and egalitarianism, was to be achieved through gradual legislative reform.
Influenced by Bernstein, following the split between reformists and revolutionary socialists in the Second International social democratic parties rejected revolutionary politics in favor of parliamentary reform while remaining committed to socialization. In this period, social democracy became associated with reformist socialism. Under the influence of politicians like Carlo Rosselli in Italy, social democrats began disassociating themselves from Marxism altogether and embraced liberal socialism, appealing to morality instead of any consistent systematic, scientific or materialist worldview. Social democracy made appeals to communitarian and sometimes nationalist sentiments while rejecting the economic and technological determinism characteristic of both Marxism and economic liberalism. By the post-World War II period, most social democrats in Europe had abandoned their ideological connection to Marxism and shifted their emphasis toward social policy reform in place of transition from capitalism to socialism.
The origins of social democracy have been traced to the 1860s, with the rise of the first major working-class party in Europe, the General German Workers' Association founded by Ferdinand Lassalle. 1864 saw the founding of the International Workingmen's Association known as the First International. It brought together socialists of various stances and occasioned a conflict between Karl Marx and the anarchists led by Mikhail Bakunin over the role of the state in socialism, with Bakunin rejecting any role for the state. Another issue in the First International was the role of reformism. Although Lassalle was not a Marxist, he was influenced by the theories of Marx and Friedrich Engels and he accepted the existence and importance of class struggle. However, unlike Marx's and Engels's The Communist Manifesto, Lassalle promoted class struggle in a more moderate form. While Marx viewed the state negatively as an instrument of class rule that should only exist temporarily upon the rise to power of the proletariat and dismantled, Lassalle accepted the state.
Lassalle viewed the state as a means through which workers could enhance their interests and transform the society to create an economy based on worker-run cooperatives. Lassalle's strategy was electoral and reformist, with Lassalleans contending that the working c
Co-operative Commonwealth Federation
The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation was a social-democratic and democratic socialist political party in Canada. The CCF was founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, agrarian, co-operative, labour groups, the League for Social Reconstruction. In 1944, the CCF formed the first social-democratic government in North America when it was elected to form the provincial government in Saskatchewan. In 1961, the CCF was succeeded by the New Democratic Party; the full, but little used, name of the party was Co-operative Commonwealth Federation. The CCF aimed to alleviate the suffering that workers and farmers, the ill and the old endure under capitalism, seen most starkly during the Great Depression, through the creation of a Co-operative Commonwealth, which would entail economic co-operation, public ownership of the economy, political reform; the object of the political party as reported at its founding meeting in Calgary in 1932 was "the federation of organizations whose purpose is the establishment in Canada of a co-operative commonwealth, in which the basic principle of regulating production and exchange will be the supplying of human needs instead of the making of profit."The goal of the CCF was defined as a "community freed from the domination of irresponsible financial and economic power in which all social means of production and distribution, including land, are owned and controlled either by voluntarily organized groups of producers and consumers or – in the case of major public services and utilities and such productive and distributive enterprises as can be conducted most efficiently when owned in common – by public corporations responsible to the people's elected representatives".
Many of the party's first Members of Parliament were members of the Ginger Group, composed of United Farmers of Alberta, left-wing Progressive, Labour MPs. These MPs included United Farmers of Alberta MPs William Irvine and Ted Garland, Agnes Macphail, Humphrey Mitchell, Abraham Albert Heaps, Angus MacInnis, Labour Party MP J. S. Woodsworth. Involved in founding the new party were members of the League for Social Reconstruction, such as F. R. Scott and Frank Underhill, it can be said that the CCF was founded on May 26, 1932, when the Ginger Group MPs and LSR members met in William Irvine's office, the unofficial caucus meeting room for the Ginger Group, went about forming the basis of the new party. J. S. Woodsworth was unanimously appointed the temporary leader until they could hold a founding convention; the temporary name for the new party was the Commonwealth Party. At its founding convention in 1932 in Calgary, the party settled on the name "Co-operative Commonwealth Federation" and selected J. S. Woodsworth as party leader.
Woodsworth had been an Independent Labour Party MP since 1921 and a member of the Ginger Group of MPs. The party's 1933 convention, held in Regina, adopted the Regina Manifesto as the party's program; the manifesto outlined a number of goals, including public ownership of key industries, universal public pensions, universal health care, children's allowances, unemployment insurance, workers' compensation. Its conclusion read, "No CCF Government will rest content until it has eradicated capitalism and put into operation the full programme of socialized planning which will lead to the establishment in Canada of the Co-operative Commonwealth." The party affiliated to the Socialist International. In line with Alberta's important role in founding the CCF, it is said that the first CCF candidate elected was Chester Ronning in the Alberta provincial constituency of Camrose, in October 1932; the UFA, under whose banner he contested the election, formalized its already-strong connection to the CCF in its next provincial convention, in January 1933.
In its first federal election, seven CCF MPs were elected to the House of Commons in 1935. Eight were elected in the following election in 1940, including their first member east of Manitoba, Clarence Gillis, in Nova Scotia's Cape Breton South district; the party was divided with the outbreak of World War II: Woodsworth was a passionate pacifist, this upset many supporters of the Canadian war effort. Woodsworth had a physically debilitating stroke in May 1940 and could no longer perform his duties as leader. In October, Woodsworth wrote a letter to the 1940 CCF convention, in essence asking to retire from the leadership. Instead, the delegates created the new position of Honorary President, abolished the President's position and re-elected M. J. Coldwell as the National Chairman. Coldwell was appointed acting House Leader on 6 November. Woodsworth died on 21 March 1942, Coldwell became the new leader at the July convention in Toronto and threw the party's support behind the war effort; as a memorial to Woodsworth, Coldwell suggested that the CCF create a research foundation, Woodsworth House was established in Toronto for that purpose.
The party won a critical York South by-election on 8 February 1942, in the process prevented the Conservative leader, former Prime Minister Arthur Meighen, from entering the House of Commons. In the 1945 election, 28 CCF MPs were elected, the party won 15.6% of the vote. However, the party was to have its greatest success in provincial politics in the 1940s. In 1943, the Ontario CCF became the official opposition in that province, in 1944 the Saskatchewan CCF formed the first democratic socialist government in North America, with Tommy Douglas as premier. Douglas introduced universal Medicare to Saskatchewan, a policy, soon adopted by other provinces and implemented nationally by
Yukon is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories. It has the smallest population of any province or territory in Canada, with 35,874 people, although it has the largest city in any of the three territories. Whitehorse is Yukon's only city. Yukon was split from the Northwest Territories in 1898 and was named the Yukon Territory; the federal government's Yukon Act, which received royal assent on March 27, 2002, established Yukon as the territory's official name, though Yukon Territory is still popular in usage and Canada Post continues to use the territory's internationally approved postal abbreviation of YT. Though bilingual, the Yukon government recognizes First Nations languages. At 5,959 m, Yukon's Mount Logan, in Kluane National Park and Reserve, is the highest mountain in Canada and the second-highest on the North American continent. Most of Yukon has a subarctic climate, characterized by brief warm summers; the Arctic Ocean coast has a tundra climate. Notable rivers include the Yukon River, as well as the Pelly, Peel and Tatshenshini rivers.
The territory is named after the longest river in Yukon. The name itself is from a contraction of the words in the Gwich'in phrase chųų gąįį han, which means white water river and refers to "the pale colour" of glacial runoff in the Yukon River. Long before the arrival of Europeans and southern Yukon was populated by First Nations people, the area escaped glaciation. Sites of archeological significance in Yukon hold some of the earliest evidence of the presence of human habitation in North America; the sites safeguard the earliest First Nations of the Yukon. The volcanic eruption of Mount Churchill in 800 AD in what is now the U. S. state of Alaska blanketed southern Yukon with a layer of ash which can still be seen along the Klondike Highway, which forms part of the oral tradition of First Nations peoples in Yukon and further south in Canada. Coastal and inland First Nations had extensive trading networks. European incursions into the area began early in the 19th century with the fur trade, followed by missionaries.
By the 1870s and 1880s gold miners began to arrive. This drove a population increase that justified the establishment of a police force, just in time for the start of the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897; the increased population coming with the gold rush led to the separation of the Yukon district from the Northwest Territories and the formation of the separate Yukon Territory in 1898. The territory is the approximate shape of a right triangle, bordering the U. S. state of Alaska to the west and northwest for 1,210 km along longitude 141° W, the Northwest Territories to the east and British Columbia to the south. Its northern coast is on the Beaufort Sea, its ragged eastern boundary follows the divide between the Yukon Basin and the Mackenzie River drainage basin to the east in the Mackenzie mountains. Most of the territory is in the watershed of the Yukon River; the southern Yukon is dotted with a large number of large and narrow glacier-fed alpine lakes, most of which flow into the Yukon River system.
The larger lakes include Teslin Lake, Atlin Lake, Tagish Lake, Marsh Lake, Lake Laberge, Kusawa Lake and Kluane Lake. Bennett Lake on the Klondike Gold Rush trail is a lake flowing into Nares Lake, with the greater part of its area within Yukon. Canada's highest point, Mount Logan, is in the territory's southwest. Mount Logan and a large part of Yukon's southwest are in Kluane National Park and Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Other national parks include Ivvavik National Vuntut National Park in the north. Other watersheds include the Mackenzie River, the Peel Watershed and the Alsek–Tatshenshini, a number of rivers flowing directly into the Beaufort Sea; the two main Yukon rivers flowing into the Mackenzie in the Northwest Territories are the Liard River in the southeast and the Peel River and its tributaries in the northeast. Notable widespread tree species within Yukon are white spruce. Many trees are stunted because of severe climate; the capital, Whitehorse, is the largest city, with about three-quarters of the population.
British Columbia Northwest Territories Alaska, United States While the average winter temperature in Yukon is mild by Canadian arctic standards, no other place in North America gets as cold as Yukon during extreme cold snaps. The temperature has dropped down to −60 °C three times, 1947, 1954, 1968; the most extreme cold snap occurred in February 1947 when the abandoned town of Snag dropped down to −63.0 °C. Unlike most of Canada where the most extreme heat waves occur in July and September, Yukon's extreme heat tends to occur in June and May. Yukon has recorded 36 °C three times; the first time was in June 1969 when Mayo recorded a temperature of 36.1 °C. 14 years this record was beaten when Forty Mile recorded 36 °C in May 1983. The old record was broken 21 years in June 2004 when the Mayo Road weather station, located just northwest of Whitehorse, recorded a temperature of 36.5 °C. The 2016 census reported a Yukon population of 35,874, an increase of 5.8% from 2011. With a land area of 474,712.64 km2, it had a population de