American Optometric Association
The American Optometric Association, founded in 1898, represents 37,000 doctors of optometry, optometry students and para-optometric assistants and technicians in the United States. The AOA states that: The American Optometric Association represents 39,000 doctors of optometry, optometry students and paraoptometric assistants and technicians. Optometrists serve patients in nearly 6,500 communities across the country, in 3,500 of those communities are the only eye doctors. Doctors of optometry provide two-thirds of all primary eye care in the United States. Founded in 1898, the AOA is a federation of state and armed forces optometric associations. Through these affiliations, the AOA serves members consisting of optometrists, students of optometry, paraoptometric assistants and technicians. Together, the AOA and its affiliates work to provide the public with quality eye care; the AOA has offices in St. Louis and Alexandria, employing 100 people; the Association has four special interest sections: The Contact Lens and Cornea Section, the Vision Rehabilitation Section, the Sports Vision Section and the Paraoptometric Section.
The AOA and its affiliates work to provide the public with quality vision and eye care by: Setting professional standards and helping member optometrists conduct patient care efficiently and Lobbying government and other organizations on behalf of the optometric profession, Providing research and education leadership. "Advocate for the profession and serve optometrists in meeting the eye care needs of the public."The objectives of AOA are centered on improving the quality and availability of eye and vision care. The AOA fulfills its missions in accordance with the following goals: Health care and public policy related to eye care will uniformly recognize optometrists as primary health care providers and ensure the public has access to the full scope of optometric care. Optometrists and other professionals will look to the American Optometric Association for professional standards and education leadership which serve to enhance and ensure competent, quality patient care; the public and other professionals will turn to the American Optometric Association for reliable and current information related to optometry, eye care, health care policy.
The AOA had its own journal, called Optometry – Journal of the American Optometric Association, published by Elsevier until 2012. It publishes relevant articles under the News section of their website. In 2015, the World Council of Optometry relocated to the AOA headquarters in St Louis. European Academy of Optometry and Optics World Council of Optometry American Optometric Association official website AOA News website Optometry's Meeting website Journal of the American Optometric Association
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is the leading national public health institute of the United States. The CDC is a United States federal agency under the Department of Health and Human Services and is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, its main goal is to protect public health and safety through the control and prevention of disease and disability in the US and internationally. The CDC focuses national attention on applying disease control and prevention, it focuses its attention on infectious disease, food borne pathogens, environmental health, occupational safety and health, health promotion, injury prevention and educational activities designed to improve the health of United States citizens. In addition, the CDC researches and provides information on non-infectious diseases such as obesity and diabetes and is a founding member of the International Association of National Public Health Institutes; the Communicable Disease Center was founded July 1, 1946, as the successor to the World War II Malaria Control in War Areas program of the Office of National Defense Malaria Control Activities.
Preceding its founding, organizations with global influence in malaria control were the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations and the Rockefeller Foundation. The Rockefeller Foundation supported malaria control, sought to have the governments take over some of its efforts, collaborated with the agency; the new agency was a branch of the U. S. Public Health Service and Atlanta was chosen as the location because malaria was endemic in the Southern United States; the agency changed names before adopting the name Communicable Disease Center in 1946. Offices were located on the sixth floor of the Volunteer Building on Peachtree Street. With a budget at the time of about $1 million, 59 percent of its personnel were engaged in mosquito abatement and habitat control with the objective of control and eradication of malaria in the United States. Among its 369 employees, the main jobs at CDC were entomology and engineering. In CDC's initial years, more than six and a half million homes were sprayed with DDT.
In 1946, there were only seven medical officers on duty and an early organization chart was drawn, somewhat fancifully, in the shape of a mosquito. Under Joseph Walter Mountin, the CDC continued to advocate for public health issues and pushed to extend its responsibilities to many other communicable diseases. In 1947, the CDC made a token payment of $10 to Emory University for 15 acres of land on Clifton Road in DeKalb County, still the home of CDC headquarters today. CDC employees collected the money to make the purchase; the benefactor behind the “gift” was Robert W. Woodruff, chairman of the board of The Coca-Cola Company. Woodruff had a long-time interest in malaria control, a problem in areas where he went hunting; the same year, the PHS transferred its San Francisco based plague laboratory into the CDC as the Epidemiology Division, a new Veterinary Diseases Division was established. An Epidemic Intelligence Service was established in 1951 due to biological warfare concerns arising from the Korean War.
The mission of CDC expanded beyond its original focus on malaria to include sexually transmitted diseases when the Venereal Disease Division of the U. S. Public Health Service was transferred to the CDC in 1957. Shortly thereafter, Tuberculosis Control was transferred to the CDC from PHS, in 1963 the Immunization program was established, it became the National Communicable Disease Center effective July 1, 1967. The organization was renamed the Center for Disease Control on June 24, 1970, Centers for Disease Control effective October 14, 1980. An act of the United States Congress appended the words "and Prevention" to the name effective October 27, 1992. However, Congress directed; the CDC focus has broadened to include chronic diseases, injury control, workplace hazards, environmental health threats, terrorism preparedness. CDC combats emerging diseases and other health risks, including birth defects, West Nile virus, avian and pandemic flu, E. coli, bioterrorism, to name a few. The organization would prove to be an important factor in preventing the abuse of penicillin.
In May 1994 the CDC admitted having sent several biological warfare agents to the Iraqi government from 1984 through 1989, including Botulinum toxin, West Nile virus, Yersinia pestis and Dengue fever virus. On April 21, 2005, then–CDC Director Julie Gerberding formally announced the reorganization of CDC to "confront the challenges of 21st-century health threats"; the four Coordinating Centers—established under the G. W. Bush Administration and Gerberding—"diminished the influence of national centers under umbrella", were ordered cut under the Obama Administration in 2009. Today, the CDC's Biosafety Level 4 laboratories are among the few that exist in the world, serve as one of only two official repositories of smallpox in the world; the second smallpox store resides at the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR in the Russian Federation. The CDC revealed in 2014 that it had discovered several misplaced smallpox samples and that lab workers had been infected with anthrax.
The CDC is organized into "Centers and Offices", with each organizational unit implementing the agency's activi
American College of Surgeons
The American College of Surgeons is an educational association of surgeons founded in 1912. Headquartered in Chicago, the College provides membership for doctors worldwide specializing in surgery who pass a set of rigorous qualifications; the American College of Surgeons is a scientific and educational association of surgeons, founded in 1912 to improve the quality of care for the surgical patient by setting high standards for surgical education and practice. American College of Surgeons members are referred to as “Fellows.” Members abbreviate their membership status in the American College of Surgeons by using the letters FACS. Those letters after a surgeon’s name mean that the surgeon’s education and training, professional qualifications, surgical competence, ethical conduct have passed a rigorous evaluation, have been found to be consistent with the high standards established and demanded by the College. “Associate Fellow” is another category of American College of Surgeons membership. Associate Fellowship provides an opportunity for surgeons who are beginning surgical practice and who meet specific requirements to assume an active role in the College at an early stage in their careers.
In order to provide education and other benefits for allied professionals who deal with surgical patients, but who are not surgeons, the “Affiliate Member” category was created. There are 78,000 members, including more than 58,000 Fellows in the U. S. and Canada and more than 4,000 Fellows in other countries, which makes the American College of Surgeons the largest organization of surgeons in the world. There are presently more than 3,900 Associate Fellows. Patricia L. Turner, MD, FACS, became the director of the Division of Member Services in 2011. Twenty-two members make up a Board of Regents; the Board of Regents is selected by an elected Board of Governors representing different specialties and geographical locations. While the Board of Regents is an administrative body, the Board of Regents serve as the representative body of the ACS between Fellows and the Board of Regents. Within the ACS are numerous committees and advisory councils and serving as a liaison for different specialties and aspects of the surgical profession.
Examples include the Committee on Trauma, the Patient Education Committee, the Advisory Council on General Surgery. As of 2015 there are 103 chapters into which ACS Fellows are organized: 64 chapters in the United States, 2 in Canada, 37 in other countries around the world. Through its Inspiring Quality initiative, the American College of Surgeons drives awareness of its quality improvement programs such as the ACS National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and ACS NSQIP Pediatric; the initiative is intended to enable the College to have a dialogue and work together with health care leaders around the nation, to continue to have a tremendous impact on improving surgical care, to lead our health care system in the right direction. By administering myriad continuing medical education offerings, reflecting technology advancements and distance-learning options. By means of standard setting and rigorous review processes through its Commission on Cancer, National Accreditation Program for Breast Centers, National Accreditation Program for Rectal Cancer, Committee on Trauma, Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program, the American College of Surgeons accredits and verifies facilities to help ensure that surgical patients get high-quality care.
In an effort to provide surgeons with the best scientific evidence available through evidence-based data, ACS works to improve the quality of surgical care through the ACS National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, National Cancer Data Base, National Trauma Data Bank, Trauma Quality Improvement Program. ACS monitors and analyzes socioeconomic and regulatory issues affecting the practice of surgery through its Division of Advocacy and Health Policy based in Washington, DC, the ACS Professional Association; the College participates in health policy development on these issues, prepares responses to Congress and federal agencies, serves as a liaison between the ACS and Congress and federal agencies, as well as the offices of other surgical and medical associations regarding health policy matters of importance to surgeons and surgical patients. In 1919, the headquarters of the ACS were a former private residence at 40 East Erie Street near downtown Chicago, the Samuel M. Nickerson House. In 1923, on property adjacent to the Nickerson House, the ACS commissioned the creation of the John B. Murphy Memorial Auditorium from the architectural firm of Marshall and Fox.
By 2003, the organization grew larger than the space provided by these two buildings and moved to the present location at 633 N. Saint Clair; the Nickerson House was sold and served as a museum, while the Murphy Auditorium was renovated and in June 2006 reopened as a venue for public events. The ACS maintains ownership of the building; the American College of Surgeons established the Commission on Cancer in 1922 to develop standards for treating cancer. In 2016, the CoC began working to ensure a patient-centered standard of care across
American College of Emergency Physicians
The American College of Emergency Physicians is a professional organization of emergency medicine physicians in the United States. It is headquartered in Irving and operates an office in Washington, D. C; as of 2013, ACEP has more than 31,000 physician members. Active membership in ACEP is available to physicians who have: completed an ACGME-approved emergency medicine residency completed an AOA-approved emergency medicine residency. Been certified by any other emergency medicine certifying body recognized by ACEP been practicing as emergency physicians since before 2000 Fellows use the designation FACEP. In order to earn this designation, an ACEP member must demonstrate at least three years of active involvement in emergency medicine as the physician's chief professional activity, exclusive of training, as well as multiple additional accomplishments in the areas of organizational leadership, education and administration. ACEP is not a board certification granting organization. Board certification in emergency medicine is administered in the United States by organizations such as the American Board of Emergency Medicine and the American Osteopathic Board of Emergency Medicine.
ACEP was founded in 1968 by a group of physicians who shared a commitment to improving the quality of emergency care. The organization set out to educate and train physicians in emergency medicine to provide quality emergency care in the nation’s hospitals. In 1979, emergency medicine was recognized as a medical specialty, a milestone for ACEP and its members. Board certification granting organizations soon followed, in 1980 the first certification exam was given. In 2000, ACEP changed its governing documents to make active or full-voting membership available only to residency-trained and board-certified emergency physicians, a change that remains controversial; the organization today counts 31,000 of the country's 63,000 practicing emergency physicians, emergency medicine residents and medical students as members. ACEP members receive ACEP Now, a monthly publication covering clinical issues, emergency medicine practice ideas and in-depth articles on critical issues facing emergency medicine.
The publication was known as ACEP News. ACEP's official research publication, Annals of Emergency Medicine is by the Science Citation Index in the top 11 percent by citation frequency and top 11 percent by impact factor among more than 6,000 science and medical journals. Annals is the No. 1 journal among the 13 titles in the emergency medicine category of Thomson Scientific. American College of Osteopathic Emergency Physicians American Academy of Emergency Medicine Academic Emergency Medicine Society for Academic Emergency Medicine ACEP homepage
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists is a professional association of physicians specializing in obstetrics and gynecology in the United States. It is a 501 organization with a membership of 58,000 obstetrician-gynecologists and women's health care professionals, it was founded in 1951. A companion 501 organization, the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, was founded in 2008 and became operational in 2010; the two organizations coexist, member individuals automatically belong to both. Both are not-for-profit; the College as a 501 focuses on education, whereas the Congress as a 501 is allowed to advocate for members' interests in terms of the business of medicine through lobbying and other political work. Physician members are referred to as fellows and use the post-nominal letters FACOG to indicate their status. To become a fellow, a candidate must become certified by the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology, an independent organization, nominated to the College by another fellow.
Obstetrics & Gynecology is the official publication of ACOG. It is popularly known as "The Green Journal". In 1986, the organization challenged an anti-abortion law in Pennsylvania before the U. S. Supreme Court in Thornburgh v. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Official ACOG website Green Journal website
Paramedics in Canada
A paramedic is a healthcare professional, providing pre-hospital assessment and medical care to people with acute illnesses or injuries. In Canada, the title paramedic refers to those who work on land ambulances or air ambulances providing paramedic services. Paramedics are being utilized in emergency rooms by providing patient care in collaboration with physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, registered nurses, registered practical nurses and registered respiratory therapists. In Canada, paramedics are pursuing self-regulation. Paramedic education, or the study of paramedicine in Canada, is an intensive academic program of formal theory and clinical experience which varies from province to province. For example, the primary care paramedic program may be three months in class with 12 days on the ambulance for precepting, twelve months in Manitoba or a two year diploma or four year degree in primary care paramedicine in Ontario. Training as an advanced care paramedic requires that the student be first registered as a primary care paramedic.
Eligibility for ACP training varies from immediate entry following PCP registration to a mandatory period of experience working as a PCP for one to three years. The length of time required to complete ACP training varies between provinces, it is inversely related to the length of time required to have completed the prerequisite PCP training. Shorter programs build upon the education learned in a two-year PCP training program, while longer college programs cater to PCP who graduated from shorter PCP programs. Thus, while there is continual debate on the merits of longer or shorter PCP programs, in common, ACPs across Canada will have completed three years of intensive formal education, inclusive of didactic study and clinical placements. There are two Bachelor of Health Science in paramedicine degrees available in Canada and are becoming the standard of paramedic education as the profession progresses at the Primary Care Paramedic entry level; this would be comparable to when nursing moved from the college based program to the collaborative or university based program in Canada.
These programs are offered through partnerships between Canadian universities and colleges, blending vocational training with higher education. The accreditation of paramedic educational programs in Canada varies from province to province; the Canadian Medical Association's Committee on Conjoint Accreditation offers the most comprehensive and best known system of national accreditation. Their accreditation model is an independent body, draws from The "National Occupational Competency Profile" as the benchmark document that details the knowledge and abilities outcomes that must be possessed by practitioners of each respective level of paramedic practice. Paramedicine training in the province of Quebec has been standardized and now requires all new paramedics to hold a Diploma of College Studies in Emergency Prehospital Care, or Soins préhospitaliers d'urgence in French, from a recognized CEGEP program. Upon completion of this diploma and passation of the provincial examination, one is certified at the level of primary care paramedic.
Since 2015, a formal 2-year advanced care paramedic training program was developed at Université de Montréal for experienced PCPs from Urgences-santé. In Canada the scope of practice of paramedics is described by the National Occupational Competency Profile for Paramedics document developed by the Paramedic Association of Canada with financial support from the Government of Canada; the NOCP outlines four provider levels: Emergency Medical Responder, Primary Care Paramedic, Advanced Care Paramedic, Critical Care Paramedic Of considerable relevance to understanding the nature of Canadian paramedic practice, the reader must appreciate the considerable degree of inter-provincial variation. Although a national consensus identifies certain knowledge and abilities as being most synonymous with a given level of paramedic practice, each province retains ultimate authority in legislating the actual administration and delivery of emergency medical services within its own borders. For this reason, any discussion of paramedic practice in Canada is broad, general.
Specific regulatory frameworks and questions related to paramedic practice can only definitively be answered by consulting relevant provincial legislation, although provincial paramedic associations may offer a simpler overview of this topic when it is restricted to a province-by-province basis. Regulatory frameworks vary from province to province, include direct government regulation to professional self-regulating bodies, such as the Alberta College of Paramedics. Though the title of paramedic is a generic description of a category of practitioners, provincial variability in regulatory methods accounts for ongoing differences in actual titles that are ascribed to different levels of practitioners. For example, the province of British Columbia is the only province that uses the title "Infant Transport Team Paramedic", or'ITT Paramedic' for PCPs who have received additional critical care training for paediatric and high risk obstetric emergencies. All provinces, have moved to standard titles, or have at least recognized the NOCP document as a benchmark document to permit inter-provincial labour mobility of practitioners, re
Alcoholics Anonymous is an international mutual aid fellowship with the stated purpose of enabling “its members to stay sober and help other alcoholics achieve sobriety." It was founded in 1935 by Bob Smith in Akron, Ohio. With other early members and Smith developed AA's Twelve Step program of spiritual and character development. AA's initial Twelve Traditions were introduced in 1946 to help the fellowship be stable and unified while disengaged from "outside issues" and influences; the Traditions recommend that members remain anonymous in public media, altruistically help other alcoholics, that AA groups avoid official affiliations with other organizations. They advise against dogma and coercive hierarchies. Subsequent fellowships such as Narcotics Anonymous have adapted the Twelve Steps and the Twelve Traditions to their respective primary purposes; the first female member Florence Rankin joined AA in March 1937, the first non-Protestant member, a Roman Catholic, joined in 1939. The first Black AA group was established in 1945 in Washington DC by Jim S. an African-American physician from Virginia.
AA membership has since spread internationally "across diverse cultures holding different beliefs and values", including geopolitical areas resistant to grassroots movements. Close to two million people worldwide are estimated to be members of AA as of 2016. AA derives its name from its first book Alcoholics Anonymous: The Story of How More Than One Hundred Men Have Recovered From Alcoholism referred to as the Big Book. AA sprang from The Oxford Group, a non-denominational movement modeled after first-century Christianity; some members founded the Group to help in maintaining sobriety. "Grouper" Ebby Thacher was Wilson's former drinking buddy who approached Wilson saying that he had "got religion", was sober, that Wilson could do the same if he set aside objections to religion and instead formed a personal idea of God, "another power" or "higher power". Feeling a "kinship of common suffering" and, though drunk, Wilson attended his first Group gathering. Within days, Wilson admitted himself to the Charles B.
Towns Hospital after drinking four beers on the way—the last alcohol he drank. Under the care of William Duncan Silkworth, Wilson's detox included the deliriant belladonna. At the hospital a despairing Wilson experienced a bright flash of light, which he felt to be God revealing himself. Following his hospital discharge Wilson joined the Oxford Group and recruited other alcoholics to the Group. Wilson's early efforts to help others become sober were ineffective, prompting Silkworth to suggest that Wilson place less stress on religion and more on "the science" of treating alcoholism. Wilson's first success came during a business trip to Akron, where he was introduced to Robert Smith, a surgeon and Oxford Group member, unable to stay sober. After thirty days of working with Wilson, Smith drank his last drink on 10 June 1935, the date marked by AA for its anniversaries. While Wilson and Smith credited their sobriety to working with alcoholics under the auspices of the Oxford Group, a Group associate pastor sermonized against Wilson and his alcoholic Groupers for forming a "secret, ashamed sub-group" engaged in "divergent works".
By 1937, Wilson separated from the Oxford Group. AA Historian Ernest Kurtz described the split:...more and more, Bill discovered that new adherents could get sober by believing in each other and in the strength of this group. Men who had proven over and over again, by painful experience, that they could not get sober on their own had somehow become more powerful when two or three of them worked on their common problem. This, then—whatever it was that occurred among them—was what they could accept as a power greater than themselves, they did not need the Oxford Group. In 1955, Wilson acknowledged AA's debt, saying "The Oxford Groupers had shown us what to do, and just as we learned from them what not to do." Among the Oxford Group practices that AA retained were informal gatherings, a "changed-life" developed through "stages", working with others for no material gain, AA's analogs for these are meetings, "the steps", sponsorship. AA's tradition of anonymity was a reaction to the publicity-seeking practices of the Oxford Group, as well as AA's wish to not promote, Wilson said, "erratic public characters who through broken anonymity might get drunk and destroy confidence in us."
To share their method and other members wrote the initially-titled book, Alcoholics Anonymous: The Story of How More Than One Hundred Men Have Recovered from Alcoholism, from which AA drew its name. Informally known as "The Big Book", it suggests a twelve-step program in which members admit that they are powerless over alcohol and need help from a "higher power", they seek guidance and strength through prayer and meditation from God or a Higher Power of their own understanding. The second half of the book, "Personal Stories", is made of AA members' redemptive autobiographical sketches. In 1941, interviews on American radio and favorable articles in US magazines, including a piece by Jack Alexander in The Saturday Evening Post, led to increased book sales and membership. By 1946, as the growing fellowship quarreled over structure and authority, as well as finances and publicity, Wilson began to form and promote what became known as AA's "Twe