Photogrammetry is the art and science of making measurements from photographs for recovering the exact positions of surface points. Photogrammetry is as old as modern photography, dating to the mid-19th century and in the simplest example, the distance between two points that lie on a plane parallel to the photographic image plane, can be determined by measuring their distance on the image, if the scale of the image is known. Photogrammetric analysis may be applied to one photograph, or may use high-speed photography and remote sensing to detect and record complex 2-D and 3-D motion fields by feeding measurements and imagery analysis into computational models in an attempt to successively estimate, with increasing accuracy, the actual, 3-D relative motions. From its beginning with the stereoplotters used to plot contour lines on topographic maps, it now has a wide range of uses such as sonar and lidar. Photogrammetry has been defined by the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing as the art and technology of obtaining reliable information about physical objects and the environment through processes of recording and interpreting photographic images and patterns of recorded radiant electromagnetic energy and other phenomena.
Photogrammetry uses methods from many disciplines, including optics and projective geometry. Digital image capturing and photogrammetric processing includes several well defined stages, which allow the generation of 2D or 3D digital models of the object as an end product; the data model on the right shows what type of information can go into and come out of photogrammetric methods. The 3-D co-ordinates define the locations of object points in the 3-D space; the image co-ordinates define the locations of the object points' images on the film or an electronic imaging device. The exterior orientation of a camera defines its location in its view direction; the inner orientation defines the geometric parameters of the imaging process. This is the focal length of the lens, but can include the description of lens distortions. Further additional observations play an important role: With scale bars a known distance of two points in space, or known fix points, the connection to the basic measuring units is created.
Each of the four main variables can be an output of a photogrammetric method. Algorithms for photogrammetry attempt to minimize the sum of the squares of errors over the coordinates and relative displacements of the reference points; this minimization is known as bundle adjustment and is performed using the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. A special case, called stereophotogrammetry, involves estimating the three-dimensional coordinates of points on an object employing measurements made in two or more photographic images taken from different positions. Common points are identified on each image. A line of sight can be constructed from the camera location to the point on the object, it is the intersection of these rays. More sophisticated algorithms can exploit other information about the scene, known a priori, for example symmetries, in some cases allowing reconstructions of 3-D coordinates from only one camera position. Stereophotogrammetry is emerging as a robust non-contacting measurement technique to determine dynamic characteristics and mode shapes of non-rotating and rotating structures.
Photogrammetric data with a dense range data in which scanners complement each other. Photogrammetry is more accurate in the x and y direction while range data are more accurate in the z direction; this range data can be supplied by techniques like LiDAR, laser scanners, white-light digitizers and any other technique that scans an area and returns x, y, z coordinates for multiple discrete points. Photos can define the edges of buildings when the point cloud footprint can not, it is beneficial to incorporate the advantages of both systems and integrate them to create a better product. A 3-D visualization can be created by georeferencing the aerial photos and LiDAR data in the same reference frame, orthorectifying the aerial photos, draping the orthorectified images on top of the LiDAR grid, it is possible to create digital terrain models and thus 3-D visualisations using pairs of aerial photographs or satellite. Techniques such as adaptive least squares stereo matching are used to produce a dense array of correspondences which are transformed through a camera model to produce a dense array of x, y, z data which can be used to produce digital terrain model and orthoimage products.
Systems which use these techniques, e.g. the ITG system, were developed in the 1980s and 1990s but have since been supplanted by LiDAR and radar-based approaches, although these techniques may still be useful in deriving elevation models from old aerial photographs or satellite images. Photogrammetry is used in fields such as topographic mapping, engineering, quality control, police investigation, cultural heritage, geology. Archaeologists use it to produce plans of large or complex sites, meteorologists use it to determine the wind speed of tornados when objective weather data cannot be obtained, it is used to combine live action with computer-generated imagery in movies post-production. Photogrammetry was used extensively to create photorealistic environmental assets for video games including The Vanishing of Ethan Carter as w
The Beechcraft 1900 is a 19-passenger, pressurized twin-engine turboprop fixed-wing aircraft, manufactured by Beechcraft. It was designed, is used, as a regional airliner, it is used as a freight aircraft and corporate transport, by several governmental and military organisations. With customers favoring larger regional jets, Raytheon ended production in October 2002; the aircraft was designed to carry passengers in all weather conditions from airports with short runways. It is capable of flying in excess of 600 miles. In terms of the number of aircraft built and its continued use by many passenger airlines and other users, it is one of the most popular 19-passenger airliners in history; the 1900 is Beechcraft's third regional airliner. The Beechcraft Model 18 was a 6- to 11-passenger utility aircraft produced from 1937 to 1970, used by the military, charter operations, corporations for executive transport, freight carriers; the 15-passenger Beechcraft Model 99 Airliner was designed to replace the Beech 18, was produced between 1966 and 1975, from 1982 to 1986.
It was commercially successful and remains in common use with freight airlines such as Ameriflight. The Beechcraft 1900's design lineage began in 1949 with the Beechcraft Model 50 Twin Bonanza, a 5-passenger, reciprocating engine utility aircraft designed for the U. S. Army. A larger passenger cabin was added to the Twin Bonanza's airframe, called the Model 65 Queen Air; this aircraft was, in turn, further modified by adding turboprop engines and cabin pressurization, named the Model 90 King Air. A stretched version of the King Air was developed and designated the Model 200 Super King Air. Beechcraft developed the Beechcraft 1900 directly from the Beechcraft Super King Air, in order to provide a pressurized commuterliner to compete with the Swearingen Metro and the British Aerospace Jetstream; the 1900 first flew on September 3, 1982, with Federal Aviation Administration certification awarded on November 22, 1983 under Special Federal Aviation Regulation 41C airworthiness standards. Like the 1900, the 1900C was certified under SFAR 41C, but the 1900D version was certified to FAR Part 23 "Commuter Category" standards.
The 1900 entered service in February 1984, with the first ExecLiner corporate version delivered in 1985. A total of 695 Beechcraft 1900 aircraft were built, making the airliner the best-selling 19-passenger airliner in history. With market trends favoring larger 50- to 90-seat regional jets, Raytheon ended production of the Beechcraft 1900 in October 2002. Many airlines continue to fly the 1900. Since the 1900 is derived from the King Air, all 1900s share certain characteristics with that aircraft. Cockpit controls and operations are similar to those of the King Air. While Federal Aviation Regulations require two pilots for passenger airline operations, the 1900 is designed and certificated for single-pilot operation in corporate or cargo settings, as is the King Air; the 1900 is powered by Whitney Canada PT6A turboprop engines. The 1900 and 1900C use each flat rated at 1,100 shaft horsepower; the 1900D uses two PT6A-67D engines, each rated at 1,279 shaft horsepower. The propellers are manufactured with four blades on each propeller.
The blades are made from composite materials. The 1900D cruises at about 285 knots true airspeed. Ordinary trip lengths range from 100 to 600 miles, but with full fuel tanks, the aircraft is capable of flying well in excess of 1,000 nautical miles; the Beechcraft 1900 can operate safely on short airstrips and it can take off and land on grass and rough runways. The airplane is certified to fly up to an altitude of 25,000 feet above mean sea level with its pressurized cabin, it is designed to operate in most weather conditions, including icing conditions, it is equipped with weather radar to help pilots avoid severe weather. The aircraft can be fitted with a lavatory, using space otherwise available for passenger seating and cargo storage; the original design is known as the Beechcraft 1900. It features two airstair passenger boarding doors: one near the tail of the aircraft much like the smaller King Airs, a second at the front just behind the cockpit, it has a small cargo door near the tail for access to the baggage compartment, behind the passenger compartment.
Only three airframes were built, with "UA" serial numbers of UA-1, UA-2, UA-3. UA-1 and UA-2 are stored at a Beechcraft facility in Kansas. UA-3, registered FAB-043, served in Bolivia until it crashed in November 2011, it became clear that having two airstair doors on an aircraft holding only 19 passengers was excessive. In creating the 1900C, Beechcraft kept the front airstair, but eliminated the aft airstair door, installing an enlarged cargo door in its place. Other than the redesigned door layout, the early 1900Cs were similar to the original 1900s; these were assigned serial numbers starting with the letters UB. A total of 74 UB version were built. Aircraft in the UA and UB series employ a bladder-type fuel tank system in the wings. 1900Cs use a wet wing fuel system: entire sections of the wing are sealed off for use as fuel tanks. This design change allowed more fuel to be stored increasing the 1900C's range; the wet wing 1900Cs were assigned serial numbers beginning with "UC." These aircraft are referred to as 1900C-1s.
The wet wings proved popular, the UC is the most common version of the low-ceiling 1900, with 174 UC airframes built. Raytheon manufactured six 1900C aircraft for use by the U. S. militar
A military aircraft is any fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft, operated by a legal or insurrectionary armed service of any type. Military aircraft can be either combat or non-combat: Combat aircraft are designed to destroy enemy equipment using their own aircraft ordnance. Combat aircraft are developed and procured only by military forces. Non-combat aircraft are not designed for combat as their primary function, but may carry weapons for self-defense; these operate in support roles, may be developed by either military forces or civilian organizations. In 1783, when the first practical aircraft were established, they were adopted for military duties; the first military balloon unit was the French Aerostatic Corps, who in 1794 flew an observation balloon during the Battle of Fleurus, the first major battle to feature aerial observation. Balloons continued to be used throughout the 19th Century, including in the Napoleonic Wars and the Franco-Prussian war, for observation and propaganda distribution.
During the First World War, German Zeppelin airships carried out multiple air raids on British cities, as well as being used for observation. In the 1920s, the US Navy acquired several non-rigid airships, the first one to see service being the K-1 in 1931. Use by the USA as well as other countries continued into the Second World War, the US Navy retiring its last balloons in 1962. Soon after the first flight of the Wright Flyer, several militaries became interested in powered aircraft. In 1909 the US Army purchased the Wright Military Flyer, a two-seat observation aircraft, for the Aeronautical Division, U. S. Signal Corps, it served until 1911, by which time powered aircraft had become an important feature in several armies around the world. Combat aircraft, or "Warplanes", are divided broadly into multi-role, bombers and electronic warfare support. Variations exist between them, including fighter-bombers, such as the MiG-23 ground-attack aircraft and the Soviet Ilyushin Il-2 Shturmovik. Included among combat aircraft are long-range maritime patrol aircraft, such as the Hawker Siddeley Nimrod and the S-3 Viking that are equipped to attack with anti-ship missiles and anti-submarine weapons.
The primary role of fighters is destroying enemy aircraft in air-to-air combat, as part of both offensive and defensive counter air operations. Many fighters possess a degree of ground attack capability, allowing them to perform surface attack and close air support missions. In addition to their counter air duties they are tasked to perform escort mission for bombers or other aircraft. Fighters are capable of carrying a variety of weapons, including machine guns, rockets, guided missiles, bombs. Many modern fighters can attack enemy fighters from a great distance, before the enemy sees or detects them. Examples of fighters include the F-22 Raptor, F-15 Eagle, Su-27. Bombers are larger and less maneuverable than fighter aircraft, they are capable of carrying large payloads of torpedoes or cruise missiles. Bombers are used exclusively for ground attacks and not fast or agile enough to take on enemy fighters head-to-head. A few have a single engine and require one pilot to operate and others have two or more engines and require crews of two or more.
A limited number of bombers, such as the B-2 Spirit, have stealth capabilities that keep them from being detected by enemy radar. An example of a conventional modern bomber would be the B-52 Stratofortress. An example of a World War II bomber would be a B-17 Flying Fortress. Bombers include light bombers, medium bombers, heavy bombers, dive bombers, torpedo bombers. Attack aircraft can be used to provide support for friendly ground troops; some are able to carry conventional or nuclear weapons far behind enemy lines to strike priority ground targets. Attack helicopters provide close air support for ground troops. An example historical ground-attack aircraft is the Soviet Ilyushin Il-2 Shturmovik. Several types of transport airplanes have been armed with sideways firing weapons as gunships for ground attack; these include the AC-130 aircraft. An electronic warfare aircraft is a military aircraft equipped for electronic warfare - i.e. degrading the effectiveness of enemy radar and radio systems. They are modified versions of other pre-existing aircraft.
A recent example would be the Boeing EA-18G Growler, a modified version of the Boeing F/A-18F Super Hornet. A maritime patrol aircraft fixed-wing military aircraft designed to operate for long durations over water in maritime patrol roles—in particular anti-submarine, anti-ship and search and rescue; some patrol aircraft were designed for this purpose, like the Kawasaki P-1. Many others are modified designs of pre-existing aircraft, such as the Boeing P-8 Poseidon, based on the Boeing 737-800 airliner. Many combat aircraft today have a multirole ability. Only applying to fixed-wing aircraft, this term signifies that the plane in question can be a fighter or a bomber, depending on what the mission calls for. An example of a multirole design is the F-15E Strike Eagle, F/A-18 Hornet, F-35 Lightning II. A World War II example would be the P-38 Lightning. Non-combat roles of military aircraft include search and rescue, observation/surveillance, Airborne Early Warning and Control, transport and aerial refueling.
Many civil aircraft, both fixed wing and rotary wing, have been produced in separate models for military use, such as the civilian Douglas DC-3 airliner, which became the military C-47 Skytrain, British "Dakota" transport planes, decades the USAF's AC-47 aerial gunships. The fabric-covered two-seat Piper J3 Cub had a military
The Pilatus PC-21 is a turboprop-powered advanced trainer with a stepped tandem cockpit. It is manufactured by Pilatus Aircraft of Switzerland. In November 1997, Pilatus flew a modified PC-7 Mk. II in order to test improvements for a prospective next generation turboprop trainer; as a result of these tests, Pilatus elected to fund the development of a new training system in November 1998. The PC-21 would be developed and certified as a new training system, aimed at meeting future military customers' specifications in terms of capability and life-cycle costs for the next three decades. A key aim for the PC-21 was to allow jet aircraft pilots to perform the majority of their training using the type before converting to jet-powered types, allowing operators to make substantial savings. In order to achieve this aim, the new trainer was required to have an expanded performance envelope in terms of aerodynamics, cockpit equipment and ease of maintenance. In May 2002, Pilatus announced that it aimed for the PC-21 to capture 50% of the global trainer aircraft market between 2005 and 2030.
From the start of the aircraft's development, Pilatus aimed for the type to have a predictable cost profile over its full lifespan. To meet this goal, the firm chose to incorporate modern materials, an innovative design concept, full-scale fatigue analysis. Additionally, accompanying the aircraft itself are integrated training systems to meet the pilot's needs; as a result of greater training effectiveness, pilots can graduate with fewer total training hours, reaching the frontline faster and at lower cost. In addition to pilots, various prospective aircrew, such as navigators, weapons officers, electronic warfare operators, can be trained using the type's embedded simulation/emulation system. On 30 April 2002, the rollout of the first PC-21 prototype was performed at Pilatus' factory in Stans, Switzerland. In May 2003, Pilatus management formally green-lit the program to proceed to full development. On 7 June 2004, a second PC-21 prototype, the construction of, delayed to incorporate improvements learnt from assembling the first, made its maiden flight.
In December 2004, Switzerland's Federal Office for Civil Aviation granted type certification for the PC-21. Individual Swiss military certification for equipment such as ejection seats has been applied as necessary. On 13 January 2005, the second of the two development aircraft crashed in Buochs, Switzerland while conducting an aerobatic training flight. In response to the accident, the other PC-21 was grounded for several weeks until Swiss authorities had established that there was no sign of technical malfunction. In August 2006, it was announced that crash investigators had concluded that pilot error had been to blame for the accident. In late August 2005, the first pre-series production PC-21 performed its maiden flight; the Pilatus PC-21 is an advanced single-engine trainer aircraft. The type can be applied for various training capacities, including basic flying training, advanced flight training, full mission management training, embedded simulation/emulation. In order to perform these functions, the aircraft possesses a powerful and cost-effective integrated training system.
According to Pilatus, upon product launch, the PC-21 possessed "superior aerodynamic performance when compared with any other turboprop trainer on the market". The aircraft features a tandem-seating arrangement in a bird strike-resistant glass canopy with allround vision; the cabin, pressurized, is equipped with an On-Board Oxygen Generation System, air conditioning, Martin-Baker CH16C Zero-Zero ejection seats. The flight controls, which are balanced and harmonized, are optimized for ease of operation and overall effectiveness. An anti-g system is present in order to minimize the effects of high g-forces experienced during tactical training and aerobatic maneuvers. Pilots are able to spend a greater amount of time concentrating on the aircraft's external situation and upon mission data inputs due to an ergonomic design approach, ease-of-use controls, clear visual/system data displays. In addition, a full autopilot and civil flight management system are present; the PC-21 is powered by a single Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-68B turboprop engine of 1,600 shaft horse power, which drives a five-bladed graphite scimitar propeller manufactured by Hartzell.
It is fitted with a high-speed profile wing, rated for maneuvers up to 8g, complete with hydraulically-assisted ailerons and spoilers which enable the execution of fighter-like rates of roll and other maneuvers. In order to make the aircraft easy to fly at low speeds, crucial to the advanced trainer role, the PC-21 is furnished with a digital power management system and the rudder control system is equipped with an automatic yaw compensator/suppression system to compensate for airspeed and engine pow
Cessna Citation Excel
The Cessna Citation Excel is an American 2,100 nmi, midsize business jet built by Cessna, part of the Citation Family. Announced in October 1994, it first flew on February 29, 1996, certification was granted in April 1998 and over 900 have been delivered; the 20,200 lb MTOW jet is powered by two 3,650–4,080 lbf PW500 turbofans, has the Citation V cruciform tail and unswept supercritical wing of 370 sq ft, the Citation X stand-up cabin shortened. The XLS 2004 update had upgraded engines and a glass cockpit and the 2008 XLS+ had upgraded engines and a revised nose. With the success of Cessna's high-end Citation VII, the manufacturer saw a market for an aircraft with the Citation X's features but aimed at a more traditional market, where it would chiefly compete with twin-turboprop aircraft; the project was announced at the annual NBAA convention in October, 1994, the prototype aircraft took off on its first flight on February 29, 1996. Federal Aviation Administration certification was granted in April 1998, by which time Cessna had over 200 orders for the aircraft.
By the time the 100th Excel was delivered in August 2000, an aircraft was coming off the Wichita production line every three days. A total of 308 were built before production switched to the Citation XLS; the Citation XLS was the first "makeover" that the Excel received, with deliveries beginning in 2004. Besides a glass cockpit based on the Honeywell Primus 1000 EFIS avionics suite, the XLS featured the upgraded PW545B engines with increased performance, it was produced in 330 units. By 2018, ten year old XLS models were trading near $4 million; the Citation XLS+, or "Plus" configuration was another upgraded version of the aircraft which began delivery in 2008, with the inclusion of FADEC engine controls, improved PW545C engines, a revised nose design similar to that found on the Citation Sovereign and Citation X. The Citation XLS+ features Collins Pro Line 21 Avionics and a four screen LCD EFIS display as opposed to the three tube Honeywell display in the XL and the three screen LCD Primus 1000 in the XLS.
Rather than being a direct variant of another Citation airframe, the Excel was a combination of technologies and designs. To produce the Excel, Cessna took the X's wide, stand-up cabin fuselage, shortened it to about 21 feet and mated it with an unswept wing utilizing a supercritical airfoil and the tail from the Citation V; the Excel has the roomiest cabin in its class of light corporate jets and can seat up to 10 passengers, while being flown by a crew of two. To power the aircraft, Cessna chose the Whitney Canada PW500 turbofan; the original version had two cockpit configurations involving where the landing gear was on the panel. With the gear on the left hand side, the MFD was moved to the right and both radios were moved to the right of the MFD next to each other. With the gear handle on the right side, the MFD remained centered with the radios on either side; the Excel uses Honeywell avionics and an optional Auxiliary power unit powered by Honeywell. The aircraft is operated by private individuals, fractionals, charter operators and aircraft management companies.
The Swiss Air Force is an operator. NetJets is a major operator in the United States offering fractional ownership and charter flights. By March 2016, it was involved in five aviation accidents and incidents including two hull losses and seven fatalities. On 13 August 2014, a Citation 560XLS+ transporting Brazilian presidential candidate Eduardo Campos and his entourage in the lead up to elections due in October crashed in the city of Santos, São Paulo, killing all 7 on board; this was the first fatal crash of a Citation Excel since entering service in 1996. Data from Cessna Citation XLS+ web site General characteristics Crew: 2 Capacity: 9 passengers max Length: 52 ft 6 in Wingspan: 56 ft 4 in Height: 17 ft 2 in Empty weight: 12,800 lb Useful load: 7,400 lb Max. Takeoff weight: 20,200 lb Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney Canada PW545C turbofans, 4,119 lb eachPerformance Cruise speed: 441 ktas Range: 3,441 km Service ceiling: 45,000 ft Rate of climb: 3,500 ft/min Related development Cessna Citation series Cessna Citation X Cessna Citation SovereignAircraft of comparable role and era Hawker 800XP Bombardier Challenger Dassault Falcon Embraer Phenom 300 Cessna Citation family home page Cessna's Excel performance and specifications page archived at archive.org
Dassault Falcon 900
The Dassault Falcon 900 abbreviated as F900, is a three-engined French-built corporate jet aircraft made by Dassault Aviation. The Falcon 900 is a development of the Falcon 50, itself a development of the earlier Falcon 20; the Falcon 900 design incorporates a S-duct to feed the central engine. Improved models include the Falcon 900-B, featuring improved engines and increased range, the Falcon 900EX featuring further improvements in engines and range and an all-glass flight deck; the Falcon 900C is a lower-cost companion to the Falcon 900EX and replaces the Falcon 900B. Versions are the Falcon 900EX EASy and the Falcon 900DX. At EBACE 2008, Dassault announced another development of the 900 series: the Falcon 900LX, incorporating high mach blended winglets designed by Aviation Partners Inc; the same winglets are certified for the entire Falcon 900 series as a retrofit kit. The Falcon 900 is used by the Escadron de transport, d'entrainement et de calibration, in charge of transportation for officials of the French state.
Falcon 900 Announced in 1984. Original production. Powered by three 20 kN Garrett TFE731-5AR-1C turbofan engines, it was certified in 1986 by French and U. S. aviation authorities. Falcon 900 MSA Maritime patrol version for Japan Coast Guard; this variant is equipped with a hatch for dropping rescue stores. Falcon 900B Revised production version from 1991. Powered by 21.13 kN TFE731-5BR-1C engines. Replacement for 900B with improved avionics. Introduced in 2000. Falcon 900EX Long range version, with 22.24 kN This variant features TFE731-60 engines and can store more fuel to give an increased range of 8,340 km. Improved avionics, it entered service 1996. 900EX with Enhanced Avionics System incorporating ground-breaking T-shape configuration of Honeywell Primus Epic avionics and path-based flight display. Falcon 900DX Shorter-range production type. TFE731-60 engines. Falcon 900LX Current production variant of EX fitted with Blended Winglets designed by Aviation Partners Inc.. Improved range of 4,750 nmi. VC-900A Italian military designation for the 900EX.
VC-900B Italian military designation for the 900EASY. A wide range of private owners and small airlines operate Falcon 900s. Saudi ArabiaSaudia Private Aviation Qatar Qatar Amiri Flight BelgiumBelgian Air Component BoliviaBolivian Air Force 900EX FAB-001 is presidential aircraft FranceFrench Air Force GermanyBundesnachrichtendienst ItalyItalian Air Force operates 5 Falcon 900EX since 2005 JapanJapan Coast Guard MalaysiaRoyal Malaysian Air Force NamibiaNamibian Air Force NigeriaNigerian Air Force RussiaPresident of Russia South AfricaSouth African Air Force SpainSpanish Air Force SyriaSyrian Air Force United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab Emirates Air Force SwitzerlandSwiss Air Force: 900EX EASy II VenezuelaVenezuelan Air Force AlgeriaAlgerian Air Force AustraliaRoyal Australian Air Force - five in service from 1989-2003. No. 34 Squadron RAAF GabonGabon Air Force GreeceGovernment of Greece MalawiGovernment of Malawi - A Falcon 900EX purchased in 2009 as a presidential jet, was sold in 2013. Military of Malawi MonacoGovernment of Monaco, replaced by a Falcon 7X On September 14, 1999, a Falcon 900B operating for the Greek Government by Olympic Airways, registered SX-ECH, was descending to land at Bucharest, when the autopilot disengaged and several pilot-induced oscillations occurred.
The impact of unfastened passengers with the cabin and aircraft furniture resulted in fatal injuries to 7 passengers, serious injuries to 2 and minor to another 2. Among the victims was Giannos Kranidiotis alternate foreign minister for Greece. Data from Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems DirectoryGeneral characteristics Crew: Two Capacity: 19 passengers Length: 20.21 m Wingspan: 19.33 m Height: 7.55 m Wing area: 49 m² Empty weight: 10,255 kg Max. Takeoff weight: 20,640kg Powerplant: 3 × Honeywell TFE731-5BR-1C turbofan, 21.13 kN eachPerformance Maximum speed: Mach 0.84-0.87 Cruise speed: 950 km/h at 36,000ft Stall speed: 158 km/h Range: 7,400 km Service ceiling: 15,500 m Wing loading: 435kg/m² Related development Dassault Falcon 50 Dassault Falcon 2000 Dassault Falcon 7XAircraft of comparable role and era Bombardier Challenger 605 Embraer Legacy 600 / 650 Gulfstream G450 Related lists List of civil aircraft Dassault Falcon 900 page Airliners.net aircraft data sheet
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c