Mulhouse is a city and commune in eastern France, close to the Swiss and German borders. With a population of 112,063 in 2013 and 284,739 inhabitants in the metropolitan area in 2012, it is the largest city in the Haut-Rhin département, the second largest in the Alsace region after Strasbourg. Mulhouse is the principal commune of the 33 making up the communauté d'agglomération Mulhouse Alsace Agglomération. Mulhouse is famous for its museums the Cité de l’Automobile and the Musée Français du Chemin de Fer the largest automobile and railway museums in the world. An industrial town nicknamed "the French Manchester", Mulhouse is the main seat of the Upper Alsace University, where is found the secretariat of the European Physical Society. Mulhouse is the chief city of an arrondissement of the Haut-Rhin département, of which it is a sub-prefecture. Legends mention the origin of Mulhouse in 58 BC, but the first written records of the town date from the twelfth century, it was part of the southern Alsatian county of Sundgau in the Holy Roman Empire.
From 1354 to 1515, Mulhouse was part of the Décapole, an association of ten Free Imperial Cities in Alsace. The city joined the Swiss Confederation as an associate in 1515 and was therefore not annexed by France in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 like the rest of the Sundgau. An enclave in Alsace, it was a free and independent Calvinist republic, known as Stadtrepublik Mülhausen, associated with the Swiss Confederation until, after a vote by its citizens on 4 January 1798, it became a part of France in the Treaty of Mulhouse signed on 28 January 1798, during the Directory period of the French Revolution. Starting in the middle of the eighteenth century, the Koechlin family pioneered cotton cloth manufacturing. André Koechlin built machinery and started making railroad equipment in 1842; the firm in 1839 employed 1,800 people. It was one of the six large French locomotive constructors until the merger with Elsässische Maschinenbau-Gesellschaft Grafenstaden in 1872, when the company became Société Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques.
After the Prussian victory in the Franco-Prussian War, Mulhouse was annexed to the German Empire as part of the territory of Alsace-Lorraine. The city was occupied by French troops on 8 August 1914 at the start of World War I, but they were forced to withdraw two days in the Battle of Mulhouse; the citizens of Alsace who unwisely celebrated the appearance of the French army were left to face German reprisals, with several citizens sentenced to death. After World War I ended in 1918, French troops entered Alsace. Germany ceded the region to France under the Treaty of Versailles. After the Battle of France in 1940, it was occupied by German forces until its return to French control at the end of World War II in May 1945; the town's development was stimulated first by the expansion of the textile industry and tanning, subsequently by chemical and Engineering industries from the mid 18th century. Mulhouse was for a long time called the French Manchester; the town has enduring links with Louisiana, from which it imported cotton, with the Levant.
The town's history explains why its centre is small. Two rivers run through both tributaries of the Rhine. Mulhouse is 100 kilometres away from Strasbourg and Zürich, it lies close enough to Basel and Freiburg, Germany to share the EuroAirPort international airport with these two cities. Mulhouse's climate is temperate oceanic, but its location further away from the ocean gives the city colder winters with some snow, hot and humid summers, in comparison with the rest of France. Medieval Mulhouse consists of a lower and an upper town; the lower town was the inner city district of merchants and craftsmen. It developed around the Place de la Réunion. Nowadays this area is pedestrianised; the upper town developed from the eighteenth century on. Several monastic orders were established there, notably the Franciscans, Poor Clares and Knights of Malta; the Nouveau Quartier is the best example of urban planning in Mulhouse, was developed from 1826 on, after the town walls had been torn down. It is focused around the Place de la République.
Its network of streets and its triangular shape are a good demonstration of the town's desire for a planned layout. The planning was undertaken by the architects G. Félix Fries; this inner city district was occupied by rich families and the owners of local industries, who tended to be liberal and republican in their opinions. The Rebberg district consists of grand houses inspired by the colonnaded residences of Louisiana cotton planters; this was the town's vineyard. The houses here were built as terraces in the English style, a result of the town's close relationship with Manchester, where the sons of industrialists were sent to study. Hôtel de Ville; the town hall was built in 1553 in the Rhenish Renaissance style. Montaigne described it as a "palais magnifique et tout doré" in 1580, it is known for its trompe l'œil paintings, its pictures of allegories representing the vices and virtues. Workers' qu
Kearney Regional Airport
Kearney Regional Airport is in Buffalo County, five miles northeast of Kearney, which owns it. SkyWest Airlines provides scheduled passenger service to Denver marketed as United Express and supported by the Essential Air Service. Federal Aviation Administration records say the airport had 11,956 passenger boardings in calendar year 2008, 10,113 in 2009 and 9,530 in 2010; the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015 categorized it as a primary commercial service airport based on enplanements over 10,000 in 2008, but is non-primary commercial service based on enplanements in 2010. In 1940 Kearney had a population of 9,643. In the early 1940s, three Nebraska cities, Grand Island and Hastings joined to form the Central Nebraska Defense Council when it was learned that the United States Army Air Forces was considering the site for a military airfield; the group attempted to convince Washington. Kearney and Grand Island competed as locations for defense airports which would serve as storage for aircraft made at Offutt Field and the Glenn L. Martin Bomber Plant near Omaha.
As early as 1941 the City of Kearney voted on a $60,000 bond to finance a new airport. Kearney Regional Airport began as Keens Municipal Airport; the cost was more than $360,000, with the balance funded by the Works Progress Administration. Construction began at the site on Highway 30 on October 21, 1941, was dedicated as Keens Airport on August 23, 1942, with asphalt runways and one hangar. A handful of buildings from the military era remain at Kearney Airport, notably Hangar #385; the first airline flights were Mid-West Cessna 190s in 1950-52 Frontier DC-3s appeared in 1959. Frontier's Convairs lasted until 1979. Kearney Regional Airport covers 2,500 acres at an elevation of 2,131 feet, it has two runways: 18/36 is 7,094 by 100 feet concrete. In the year ending September 30, 2011 the airport had 30,040 aircraft operations, average 82 per day: 93% general aviation, 5% airline, 2% air taxi. 29 aircraft were based at the airport: 83% single-engine, 14% multi-engine, 3% helicopter. List of airports in Nebraska www.
FlyKearney.com Kearney AAF Historical Website Aerial image as of April 1999 from USGS The National Map FAA Airport Diagram, effective March 28, 2019 FAA Terminal Procedures for EAR, effective March 28, 2019 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for EAR AirNav airport information for KEAR ASN accident history for EAR FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS latest weather observations SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures
Yemen known as the Republic of Yemen, is a country at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. Yemen is the second-largest Arab sovereign state in the peninsula, occupying 527,970 square kilometres; the coastline stretches for about 2,000 kilometres. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Guardafui Channel to the south, the Arabian Sea and Oman to the east. Yemen's territory includes more than 200 islands. Yemen's constitutionally stated capital is the city of Sana'a, but the city has been under Houthi rebel control since February 2015. Yemen was the home of the Sabaeans, a trading state that flourished for over a thousand years and included parts of modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea. In 275 CE, the region came under the rule of the Jewish-influenced Himyarite Kingdom. Christianity arrived in the fourth century. Islam spread in the seventh century and Yemenite troops were crucial in the expansion of the early Islamic conquests.
Administration of Yemen has long been notoriously difficult. Several dynasties emerged from the ninth to 16th centuries, the Rasulid dynasty being the strongest and most prosperous; the country was divided between the British empires in the early twentieth century. The Zaydi Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen was established after World War I in North Yemen before the creation of the Yemen Arab Republic in 1962. South Yemen remained a British protectorate known as the Aden Protectorate until 1967 when it became an independent state and a Marxist-Leninist state; the two Yemeni states united to form the modern republic of Yemen in 1990. Yemen is the poorest country in the Middle East. Under the rule of President Ali Abdullah Saleh, Yemen was described by critics as a kleptocracy. According to the 2009 International Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, Yemen ranked 164 out of 182 countries surveyed. In the absence of strong state institutions, elite politics in Yemen constituted a de facto form of collaborative governance, where competing tribal, regional and political interests agreed to hold themselves in check through tacit acceptance of the balance it produced.
The informal political settlement was held together by a power-sharing deal among three men: President Saleh, who controlled the state. The Saudi payments have been intended to facilitate the tribes' autonomy from the Yemeni government and to give the Saudi government a mechanism with which to weigh in on Yemen's political decision-making, it is a member of the United Nations, Arab League, Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation, G-77, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab Satellite Communications Organization, Arab Monetary Fund and the World Federation of Trade Unions. Since 2011, Yemen has been in a state of political crisis starting with street protests against poverty, unemployment and president Saleh's plan to amend Yemen's constitution and eliminate the presidential term limit, in effect making him president for life. President Saleh stepped down and the powers of the presidency were transferred to Vice President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, formally elected president on 21 February 2012 in a one-man election.
The total absence of central government during this transitional process engendered the escalation of the several clashes on-going in the country, like the armed conflict between the Houthi rebels of Ansar Allah militia and the al-Islah forces, as well as the al-Qaeda insurgency. In September 2014, the Houthis took over Sana'a with the help of the ousted president Saleh declaring themselves in control of the country after a coup d'état; this resulted in a new civil war and a Saudi Arabian-led military intervention aimed at restoring Hadi's government. At least 56,000 civilians and combatants have been killed in armed violence in Yemen since January 2016; the conflict has resulted in a famine, affecting 17 million people. The lack of safe drinking water, caused by depleted aquifers and the destruction of the country's water infrastructure, has caused the world's worst outbreak of cholera, with the number of suspected cases exceeding 994,751. Over 2,226 people have died since the outbreak began to spread at the end of April 2017.
In 2016 the United Nations reported that Yemen is the country with the most people in need of humanitarian aid in the world with 21.2 million. The term Yamnat was mentioned in Old South Arabian inscriptions on the title of one of the kings of the second Himyarite kingdom known as Shammar Yahrʽish II; the term was referring to the southwestern coastline of the Arabian peninsula and the southern coastline between Aden and Hadramout. The historical Yemen includes much greater territory than that of the current republic of Yemen, it stretches from the northern'Asir Region in southwestern Saudi Arabia to Dhofar Governorate in southern Oman. One etymology derives Yemen from ymnt, meaning "South", plays on the notion of the land to the right. Other sources claim that Yemen is related to yamn or yumn, meaning "felicity" or "blessed", as much of the country is fertile; the Romans called it Arabia Felix, as opposed to Arabia Deserta. Latin and Greek writers used the name "India" to re
Kwajalein Atoll is part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The southernmost and largest island in the atoll is named Kwajalein Island, which its majority English-speaking residents called by the shortened name, Kwaj; the total land area of the atoll amounts to just over 6 square miles. It lies in the Ralik 2,100 nautical miles southwest of Honolulu, Hawaii. Kwajalein is one of the world's largest coral atolls. Comprising 97 islands and islets, it has a land area of 16.4 km² and surrounds one of the largest lagoons in the world, with an area of 2174 km². The average height above sea level for all the islands is about 1.8 metres. The atoll was formed from volcanoes on the seabed from 165 to 76 mya; when the lava buildup became large enough, the land rose from beneath the sea. It can not be determined; the coral started growing about 56 mya. Islands have alternate names: the first is the Marshallese name, the second was assigned somewhat arbitrarily by the US Navy prior to their attack on the atoll during World War II.
The original name was considered too difficult for English speakers to properly differentiate among the islands. The latter has been retained by English speakers; the exception to this is Kwajalein itself, close to the native name. The atoll is 2,100 miles from Honolulu, 2,000 miles from Australia, 2,100 miles from Japan. Kwajalein Island is about 500 miles north of the equator. Kwajalein Island is largest of the islands in the atoll; the area is about 1.2 square miles. It is averages about 800 yards wide. To enlarge the island, the Americans placed fill at both the northwestern part of the island above the pier, the northern part extending towards Ebeye, the southwestern parts of the island; the northern extension was used for the remainder for industrial purposes. Kwajalein Island's population is about 1,000 made of Americans with a small number of Marshall Islanders and other nationalities, all of whom require express permission from the U. S. Army to live there; some 13,500 Marshallese citizens live on most of them on Ebeye Island.
The water temperature averages 81 °F degrees. Underwater visibility is 100 feet on the ocean side of the atoll. SAR Pass is closest to Kwajalein on the West Reef; this pass was created in the mid-1950s. It is narrow and shallow compared to the natural passes in the lagoon and is only used by small boats. South Pass is on the West Reef, north of SAR Pass, it is wide. Gea Pass is a deep water pass between Ninni islands. Bigej Pass is the first pass on the East reef north of Ebeye. Other islands in the atoll:Ebeye is about 4.5 miles north of easten end of Kwajalein Island. It is not part of the Reagan Test Site, it is the administrative center of the Republic of the Marshall Islands at Kwajalein Atoll and the Kwajalein Atoll Local Government. It has the largest population in the atoll, with 13,000 residents living on 80 acres of land. Inhabitants are Marshall Islanders but include a small population of migrants and volunteers from other island groups and nations. Ebeye is one of the most densely populated places in the world.
Many of its residents live in poverty. A coral reef links them to the rest of the outside world. A causeway at the northern end of the island provides a roadway that connects to several other islands, forming a chain of inhabited islands about 10 kilometres long. Ebadon is located at the westernmost tip of the atoll, it was the second-largest island in the atoll before the formation of Roi-Namur. Like Ebeye, it falls under the jurisdiction of the Republic of the Marshall Islands and is not part of the Reagan Test Site; the village of Ebadon was much more populated before the war and it was where some of the irooj of Kwajalein Atoll grew up. Like many other key islets in the atoll, it has significant cultural and spiritual significance in Marshallese cosmology. Roi-Namur is the northernmost island in the atoll, located some distance north of Kwajalein, it has several radar installations and a small residential community of unaccompanied US personnel who deal with missions support and radar tracking.
Japanese bunkers and buildings from World War II preserved. Roi and Namur were separate islets that were joined by a causeway built predominately by Korean conscripted laborers working under the Japanese military. There is a significant indigenous Marshall Islander workforce that commutes to Roi-Namur from the nearby island of Enniburr, much like workers commute from Ebeye to Kwajalein; these workers are badged and have limited access to the island like their counterparts on Kwajalein, although access is granted for islanders who need to use the air terminal to fly to Kwajalein. Roi-Namur used to be four islands: Roi, Namur and Kottepina; the pass between the islands was filled with sand, dredged from the lagoon by both Korean laborers working for the Japanese and Americans between 1940 and 1945. After the war the resulting conjoined islands were renamed Roi-Namur. Bigej, just north of the Ebeye chain, is covered with
The Marshall Islands the Republic of the Marshall Islands, is an island country and a United States associated state near the equator in the Pacific Ocean west of the International Date Line. Geographically, the country is part of the larger island group of Micronesia; the country's population of 53,158 people is spread out over 29 coral atolls, comprising 1,156 individual islands and islets. The islands share maritime boundaries with the Federated States of Micronesia to the west, Wake Island to the north, Kiribati to the southeast, Nauru to the south. About 27,797 of the islanders live on Majuro. Data from the United Nations indicates an estimated population in 2016 of 53,066. In 2016, 73.3% of the population were defined as being "urban". The UN indicates a population density of 295 per km2 and its projected 2020 population is 53,263. Micronesian colonists reached the Marshall Islands using canoes circa 2nd millennium BC, with interisland navigation made possible using traditional stick charts.
They settled here. Islands in the archipelago were first explored by Europeans in the 1520s, starting with Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese at the service of Spain, Juan Sebastián Elcano and Miguel de Saavedra. Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar reported sighting an atoll in August 1526. Other expeditions by Spanish and English ships followed; the islands derive their name from British explorer John Marshall, who visited in 1788. The islands were known by the inhabitants as "jolet jen Anij". Spain claimed the islands in 1592, the European powers recognized its sovereignty over the islands in 1874, they had been part of the Spanish East Indies formally since 1528. Spain sold some of the islands to the German Empire in 1885, they became part of German New Guinea that year, run by the trading companies doing business in the islands the Jaluit Company. In World War I the Empire of Japan occupied the Marshall Islands, which in 1920, the League of Nations combined with other former German territories to form the South Pacific Mandate.
During World War II, the United States took control of the islands in the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign in 1944. Nuclear testing began in 1946 and concluded in 1958; the US government formed the Congress of Micronesia in 1965, a plan for increased self-governance of Pacific islands. The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in 1979 provided independence to the Marshall Islands, whose constitution and president were formally recognized by the US. Full sovereignty or Self-government was achieved in a Compact of Free Association with the United States. Marshall Islands has been a member of the Pacific Community since 1983 and a United Nations member state since 1991. Politically, the Marshall Islands is a presidential republic in free association with the United States, with the US providing defense and access to U. S.-based agencies such as the Federal Communications Commission and the United States Postal Service. With few natural resources, the islands' wealth is based on a service economy, as well as some fishing and agriculture.
The country uses the United States dollar as its currency. In 2018, it announced plans for a new cryptocurrency to be used as legal tender; the majority of the citizens of the Republic of Marshall Islands, formed in 1982, are of Marshallese descent, though there are small numbers of immigrants from the United States, China and other Pacific islands. The two official languages are Marshallese, one of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, English; the entire population of the islands practices some religion, with three-quarters of the country either following the United Church of Christ – Congregational in the Marshall Islands or the Assemblies of God. Evidence suggests that around 3,000 years ago successive waves of human migrants from Southeast Asia spread across the Western Pacific populating its many small islands; the Marshall Islands were settled by Micronesians in the 2nd millennium BC. Little is known of the islands' early history. Early settlers traveled between the islands by canoe using traditional stick charts.
The Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar landed there in 1526, the archipelago came to be known as "Los Pintados", "Las Hermanas" and "Los Jardines" within the Spanish Empire, first falling within the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, to be administered directly by Madrid upon the independence of Latin America and the dissolution of New Spain starting in 1821. They were only formally possessed by Spain for much of their colonial history, were considered part of the "Carolines", or alternatively the "Nuevas Filipinas"; the islands were left to their own affairs except for short-lived religious missions during the 16th and 17th centuries. They were ignored by European powers except for cartographic demarcation treaties between the Iberian Empires in 1529, 1750 and 1777; the archipelago corresponding to the present-day country was independently named by Krusenstern, after British explorer John Marshall, who visited them together with Thomas Gilbert in 1788, en route from Botany Bay to Canton (two s
Najran, is a city in southwestern Saudi Arabia near the border with Yemen. It is the capital of Najran Province. Designated a new town, Najran is one of the fastest-growing cities in the kingdom; the population originates from the ancient tribe of Yām, Mákram and Hamdan. Najranis are Muslims, with Ismaili forming the plurality of the religious adherents. Hanbali, Shafi'i, Maliki Sunnis form the second largest religious group in the city, while the Zaydi Shia form the smallest religious group; the Arabic term Najrān has at least two meanings: both the wooden frame on which a door opens and also'thirsty'. Local tradition has it that the land derived its name from the first man to settle in the area, Najran ibn Zaydan ibn Saba ibn Yahjub ibn Yarub ibn Qahtan. Najran was the Yemeni centre of cloth making and the kiswah or the cloth of the Ka'aba was made there. There used to be a Jewish community at Najran. According to Yemenite Jewish tradition, the Jews of Najran traced their origin to the Ten Tribes.
Najran was an important stopping place on the Incense Route. The history of Najrān can be traced back to 4,000 years ago, it was once occupied by the Romans. Najrān's most prosperous trading time was during the 1st and 2nd centuries BC. In ancient times it was known as Al-Ukhdūd. To other ancient place names in Arabia, Najrān may have been the name of the whole oasis including all towns and villages; the old name of the ruins now known as "al-Ukhdūd", which may have been the central town, was Ragmat. Najrān was a focal point of the Incense Route. All routes that left ancient Yemen to the north or west had to meet at Najrān, where the routes branched into two general directions, the ones leading north through the Ḥijāz towards Egypt and the Levant and those leading to the northeast towards Gerrha near the Persian Gulf. Najrān was conquered around 685 BC by the Sabean Mukarrib Karib'il Watar I King of Yemen; the Sabean king Yithi'amar Bayin destroyed RagHmat around 510 BC. Najrān seems to have been under Minaean or Sabean rule at different times during the next centuries and after that it was part of Yemen till 1937.
The Roman prefect of Egypt Aelius Gallus led an costly and unsuccessful expedition to conquer Arabia Felix and won a battle near Najrān in 25 BC. He used it as a base from which to attack the Sabaean capital at Ma ` rib. According to Strabo, who called it'Negrana', Najrān was at this time the northernmost city of the realm of Saba'; when the Ḥimyarites conquered the Sabeans in AD 280 they also took control of Najrān. Some time during the 3rd century the people of Najrān sided with the Abyssinians who sent a governor named Sqlmqlm" in inscriptions; the Ḥimyar King Ilsharah Yahdib crushed this rebellion. The north Arabian Lakhmid king Imru’ al-Qays ibn'Amqu attacked Najrān in AD 328. Under the influence of Axum, the Christians in Najrān thrived and started an alliance with Aksum again at the beginning of the 6th century. Christianity must have been introduced into Najrān, as in the rest of South Arabia, in the 5th century AD or a century earlier. According to the Arab Muslim historian Ibn Isḥāq, Najran was the first place where Christianity took root in South Arabia.
According to the contemporary sources, after seizing the throne of the Ḥimyarites, in ca. 518 or 523 Dhū Nuwās, a Jewish king, attacked the Aksumite garrison at Zafar, capturing them and burning their churches. He moved against Najrān, a Christian and Aksumite stronghold. After accepting the city's capitulation, he massacred those inhabitants who would not renounce Christianity. Estimates of the death toll from this event range up to 20,000 in some sources; the persecution is described and condemned in the Qur'an. Under the reign of the Caliph ‘Umar, the Christian community of Najrān was deported to Mesopotamia, on the grounds that no non-Muslims were to live in the Arabian Peninsula; the town of Najrān was an important centre of arms manufacture during the lifetime of Muhammad. However, it was more famous for leather rather than iron. Najrān had a Jewish community dating back to pre-Islamic times affiliated with the Bnei Chorath who were Yemenite Jews that had conquered the city and ruled until the Christian invasion of Yemen.
With the Saudi conquest of Najrān in 1934, persecution increased, some 200 Jews of Najrān fled south to Aden between September and October 1949. The Saudi King ʻAbd al-ʻAziz demanded their return, but the Yemeni king Aḥmad bin Yaḥyá refused, because these refugees were Yemenite Jews. After settling in the Ḥashid Camp they were airlifted to Israel as part of the larger Operation Magic Carpet. Najrān joined the newly announced Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1934 as a result of the efforts and struggles of Sheikh Jābir Abū Sāq, the leader of one large clan of the Yam tribe. Starting in 1924, the forces of the former Yemeni king launched several unsuccessful raids to annex Najrān to the Yemeni Kingdom; the king of Yemen performed some new maneuvers to strengthen his tie with some of the Najrān tribal leaders to counter the strong relations of the people of Najrān with Bin Saʻūd. In 1932 the forces of Imam Yaḥyá of Yemen attacked Najrān with m
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States. The state is the 10th largest by area, the least populous, the second most sparsely populated state in the country. Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, on the west by Idaho and Montana; the state population was estimated at 577,737 in 2018, less than 31 of the most populous U. S. cities including Denver in neighboring Colorado. Cheyenne is the state capital and the most populous city, with an estimated population of 63,624 in 2017; the western two-thirds of the state is covered by the mountain ranges and rangelands of the Rocky Mountains, while the eastern third of the state is high elevation prairie called the High Plains. Half of the land in Wyoming is owned by the U. S. government, leading Wyoming to rank sixth by area and fifth by proportion of a state's land owned by the federal government. Federal lands include two national parks—Grand Teton and Yellowstone—two national recreation areas, two national monuments, several national forests, historic sites, fish hatcheries, wildlife refuges.
Original inhabitants of the region include the Crow, Arapaho and Shoshone. Southwestern Wyoming was in the Spanish Empire and Mexican territory until it was ceded to the United States in 1848 at the end of the Mexican–American War; the region acquired the name Wyoming when a bill was introduced to the U. S. Congress in 1865 to provide a "temporary government for the territory of Wyoming"; the name was used earlier for the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania, is derived from the Munsee word xwé:wamənk, meaning "at the big river flat". The main drivers of Wyoming's economy are mineral extraction—mostly coal, natural gas, trona—and tourism. Agricultural commodities include livestock, sugar beets and wool; the climate is semi-arid and continental and windier than the rest of the U. S. with greater temperature extremes. Wyoming has been a politically conservative state since the 1950s, with the Republican Party candidate winning every presidential election except 1964. Wyoming's climate is semi-arid and continental, is drier and windier in comparison to most of the United States with greater temperature extremes.
Much of this is due to the topography of the state. Summers in Wyoming are warm with July high temperatures averaging between 85 and 95 °F in most of the state. With increasing elevation, this average drops with locations above 9,000 feet averaging around 70 °F. Summer nights throughout the state are characterized by a rapid cooldown with the hottest locations averaging in the 50–60 °F range at night. In most of the state, most of the precipitation tends to fall in early summer. Winters are cold, but are variable with periods of sometimes extreme cold interspersed between mild periods, with Chinook winds providing unusually warm temperatures in some locations. Wyoming is a dry state with much of the land receiving less than 10 inches of rainfall per year. Precipitation depends on elevation with lower areas in the Big Horn Basin averaging 5–8 inches; the lower areas in the North and on the eastern plains average around 10–12 inches, making the climate there semi-arid. Some mountain areas do receive a good amount of precipitation, 20 inches or more, much of it as snow, sometimes 200 inches or more annually.
The state's highest recorded temperature is 114 °F at Basin on July 12, 1900 and the lowest recorded temperature is −66 °F at Riverside on February 9, 1933. The number of thunderstorm days vary across the state with the southeastern plains of the state having the most days of thunderstorm activity. Thunderstorm activity in the state is highest during early summer; the southeastern corner of the state is the most vulnerable part of the state to tornado activity. Moving away from that point and westwards, the incidence of tornadoes drops with the west part of the state showing little vulnerability. Tornadoes, where they occur, tend to be small and brief, unlike some of those that occur farther east; as specified in the designating legislation for the Territory of Wyoming, Wyoming's borders are lines of latitude 41°N and 45°N, longitude 104°3'W and 111°3'W, making the shape of the state a latitude-longitude quadrangle. Wyoming is one of only three states to have borders along only straight latitudinal and longitudinal lines, rather than being defined by natural landmarks.
Due to surveying inaccuracies during the 19th century, Wyoming's legal border deviates from the true latitude and longitude lines by up to half of a mile in some spots in the mountainous region along the 45th parallel. Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, on the west by Idaho, it is the tenth largest state in the United States in total area, containing 97,814 square miles and is made up of 23 counties. From the north border to the south border it is 276 miles; the Great Plains meet the Rocky Mountains in Wyoming. The state is a great plateau broken by many mountain ranges. Surface elevations range from the summit of Gannett Peak in the Wind River Mountain Range, at 13,804 feet, to the Belle Fourche River val